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Blood diamond

Panning for diamonds in Sierra Leone.
Unsustainable diamond mining in Sierra Leone

Blood diamonds (also called conflict diamonds, converted diamonds, hot diamonds, or war diamonds) is a term used for a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency, an invading army's war efforts, or a warlord's activity. The term is used to highlight the negative consequences of the diamond trade in certain areas, or to label an individual diamond as having come from such an area. Diamonds mined during the recent civil wars in Angola, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, and other nations have been given the label.[1][2][3] The term conflict resource refers to analogous situations involving other natural resources.

Contents

  • History of blood diamond 1
    • Angola 1.1
    • Ivory Coast 1.2
    • Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.3
    • Liberia 1.4
    • Republic of the Congo 1.5
    • Zimbabwe 1.6
  • Conflict diamond campaign 2
    • Kimberley Process Certification Scheme 2.1
    • Shortcomings and criticism 2.2
    • Transparency 2.3
  • American policy 3
  • Canadian policy 4
  • In popular culture 5
  • References 6
    • Notes 6.1
    • Literature 6.2
  • External links 7

History of blood diamond

Angola

Angola, a [5]

The UN recognized the role that diamonds played in funding the UNITA rebels and in 1998 passed [5][6] Resolution 1173 was the first resolution by the UN which specifically mentioned diamonds in the context of funding a war.[7]

Reports estimated that as much as 20% of the total production in the 1980s was being sold for illegal purposes and 19% was specifically conflict in nature.[7] By 1999, the illegal diamond trade was estimated by the World Diamond Council to have been reduced to 3.06% of the world's diamond production.[8][9] The World Diamond Council reported that by 2004 this percentage had fallen to approximately 1%, where it has remained.[7][9][10]

Despite the UN Resolution, UNITA was able to continue to sell or trade some diamonds in order to finance its war effort. The UN set out to find how this remaining illicit trade was being conducted and appointed Canadian ambassador

  • The Truth About Blood Diamonds — The international focus on "conflict minerals" is a self-serving charade.; The Wall Street Journal
  • Diamonds in Conflict - Global Policy Forum
  • PAWSS Conflict Topics - Conflict Diamonds
  • DiamondFacts.org - World Diamond Council
  • AllAsOne.org - Blood diamond trade awareness
  • Stop Blood Diamonds - Blood diamonds awareness initiative
  • Stopping Blood Diamonds - The success of the Kimberley Process
  • Africa's War with Blood Diamonds
  • Canadian Mined Diamonds
  • Diamond Dealers in Deep Trouble as Bank Documents Shine Light on Secret Ways - Documentation about financial flows between HSBC Private Bank and blood diamond dealers, see also Swiss Leaks
  • Editora Oferece "Diamantes de Sangue" em Formato Digital a Todos. Maka Angola, Editora da Tinta da China (Portuguese)

External links

  • [1] PDF (673 KiB)

Literature

  1. ^ Conflict Diamonds. United Nations Department of Public Information, March 21, 2001, archived online 23 October 2013.
  2. ^ "Conflict resources: from 'curse' to blessing" by Ernest Harsch. Africa Renewal: January 2007.
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b c d e f http://www.diamondfacts.org/conflict/background.html
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b c http://blooddiamond.pacweb.org/kimberlyprocess/
  8. ^
  9. ^ a b http://www.diamondfacts.org/conflict/index.html
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ http://www.sierra-leone.org/heartmatter.html
  13. ^ http://www.globalwitness.org/media_library_detail.php/861/en/campaigners_call_for_urgent_action_on_zimbabwe_blo
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ a b
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ Resolution 1295 (2000) PDF
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ a b
  30. ^
  31. ^ http://www.worlddiamondcouncil.com/chairmansreportforlondon.shtml%7
  32. ^ UN Resolution 56/263 - The role of diamonds in fueling conflict: breaking the link between the illicit transaction of rough diamonds and armed conflict as a contribution to prevention and settlement of conflicts PDF UN 96th plenary meeting, 13 March 2002, accessed online November 6, 2006
  33. ^
  34. ^ a b
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^ Clinton, William FR Doc. 01–2140 - Executive Order 13194 of January 18, 2001 - Prohibiting the Importation of Rough Diamonds From Sierra Leone PDF The White House, January 18, 2001, accessed online December 24, 2006
  38. ^ Bush, George W. FR Doc. 01–13381 - Executive Order 13213—Additional Measures With Respect To Prohibiting the Importation of Rough Diamonds From Sierra Leone PDF The White House, May 22, 2001, accessed online December 24, 2006
  39. ^ a b Public Law 108–19 - An Act To implement effective measures to stop trade in conflict diamonds, and for other purposes. Apr. 25, 2003 PDF (42.1 KiB) 108th Congress of the United States, April 25, 2003, accessed online December 24, 2006
  40. ^ Bush, George W FR Doc. 03–19676 - Executive Order 13312 of July 29, 2003 - Implementing the Clean Diamond Trade Act PDF (26.3 KiB) The White House, July 29, 2003, accessed online December 24, 2006
  41. ^
  42. ^ http://www.state.gov/e/eb/diamonds/
  43. ^

Notes

References

  • Conflict diamonds are a central plot point throughout the James Bond film Die Another Day (2002).
  • The origins of the Kimberley Process were dramatized in Ed Zwick's motion picture Blood Diamond (2006), starring Leonardo Dicaprio and Djimon Hounsou. The film helped to publicize the controversy surrounding conflict diamonds and led to worldwide awareness of the Western African involvement in the diamond trade.
  • The CSI:Miami episode "Man Down" (2007) involves the trafficking of African blood diamonds.
  • Danish filmmaker Mads Brügger's documentary Ambassadøren (2011, in English: "The Ambassador") addresses the trade in diplomatic passports in order to make money with blood diamonds.
  • Players compete in Diamond Trust of London to extract diamonds out of Angola before the implementation of the Kimberley Process.
  • The remix version of Grammy-winning song Diamonds from Sierra Leone performed by American artist Kanye West, has verses that detail the blood diamond trade in Sierra Leone, and comments about the Western public unawareness of the origins of the diamonds linked to the conflict.
  • Blood diamonds play a large part in Far Cry 2, and help play along with the game's theme of civil war, chaos, and corruption of those in power.
  • Blood Diamonds is a thriller fiction book title by Jon Land, copyright 2002; ISBN 0-765-30226-8

In popular culture

The Government of the Northwest Territories of Canada (GNWT) also has a unique certification program. They offer a Government certificate on all diamonds that are mined, cut, and polished in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Canadian diamonds are tracked from mine, through the refining process to the retail jeweler with a unique diamond identification number (DIN) laser inscribed on the diamond's girdle. To obtain this certificate one must cut and polish the diamond in the NWT.

The Kimberley Process was initiated in May 2000 by South Africa. Canada was a major supporter of passing this. Canada has passed several laws that help stop the trade of conflict diamonds. The laws deal with the export and import of rough diamonds, and also how they are transferred. In December 2002 the Export and Import of Rough Diamonds Act was passed by the Canadian government. This act acts as a system that helps control the importing, exporting and transporting of rough diamonds through Canada. The Export and Import of Rough Diamonds also states that the Kimberley Process is the minimum requirement of certifying rough diamonds and a certificate is also required for all shipments of diamonds. This certificate is called the Canadian Certificate, it gives permission for an officer to seize any shipment of diamonds that does not meet the requirements of the Export and Import of Rough Diamonds Act.[43]

During the 1990s diamond-rich areas were discovered in Northern Canada. Canada is one of the key players in the diamond industry. Partnership Africa Canada was created in 1986 to help with the crisis in Africa. This organization is also part of the Diamond Development Initiative. The Diamond Development Initiative helps improve and regulate the legal diamond industry.

Canadian policy

The United States Department of State also maintains an office for a Special Adviser for Conflict Diamonds. As of October 14, 2015, the position is held by Ashley Orbach.[42]

United States enacted the Clean Diamond Trade Act (CDTA) on April 25, 2003,[39] implemented on July 29, 2003 by Executive Order 13312.[40][41] The CDTA installed the legislation to implement the KPCS in law in the United States. The implementation of this legislation was key to the success of the KPCS, as the United States is the largest consumer of diamonds. The CDTA states: 'As the consumer of a majority of the world’s supply of diamonds, the United States has an obligation to help sever the link between diamonds and conflict and press for implementation of an effective solution.[39]

On January 18, 2001, President Executive Order 13213 which banned rough diamond importation from Liberia into the United States. Liberia had been recognized by the United Nations as acting as a pipeline for conflict diamonds from Sierra Leone.[38]

American policy

The company Materialytics has stated that it can trace the origin of virtually any diamond.[36]

The Kimberley system attempted to increase governments' transparency by forcing them to keep records of the diamonds they are exporting and importing and how much they are worth. In theory, this would show governments their finances so that they can be held accountable for how much they are spending for the benefit of the country's population. However non-compliance by countries such as Venezuela has led to the failure of accountability.[34]

Transparency

The Kimberley Process has ultimately failed to stem the flow of blood diamonds, leading key proponents such as Global Witness to abandon the scheme.[34] In addition, there is no guarantee that diamonds with a Kimberley Process Certification are in fact conflict-free. This is due to the nature of the corrupt government officials in the leading diamond producing countries. It is common for these officials to be bribed with $50 to $100 a day in exchange for paperwork declaring that blood diamonds are Kimberley Process Certified.[35]

Shortcomings and criticism

The Kimberley Process attempted to curtail the flow of conflict diamonds, help stabilize fragile countries and support their development. As the Kimberley Process has made life harder for criminals, it has brought large volumes of diamonds onto the legal market that would not otherwise have made it there. This has increased the revenues of poor governments, and helped them to address their countries’ development challenges. For instance, around $125 million worth of diamonds were legally exported from Sierra Leone in 2006, compared to almost none at the end of the 1990s.[33]

The KPCS was given approval by the UN on March 13, 2002,[32] and in November, after two years of negotiation between governments, diamond producers, and Non-Government organizations, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme was created.

On January 17–18 of 2001, diamond industry figures convened and formed the new organization, the World Diamond Council. This new body set out to draft a new process, whereby all diamond rough could be certified as coming from a non-conflict source.[31]

On July 19, 2000, the bourses of the World Federation of Diamond Bourses.[29] The Kimberley Process was led by the diamond-producing African countries themselves. Also in tourist countries like Dubai and the United Kingdom, before gemstone could be allowed through their airport to other countries, the Kimberley Certification must be presented by the gem's owner or obtained from a renowned attorney.[30]

Kimberley Process Certification Scheme

Welcomes the proposal that a meeting of experts be convened for the purpose of devising a system of controls to facilitate the implementation of the measures contained in Resolution 1173 (1998), including arrangements that would allow for increased transparency and accountability in the control of diamonds from their point of origin to the bourses, emphasizes that it is important that, in devising such controls, every effort be made to avoid inflicting collateral damage on the legitimate diamond trade, and welcomes the intention of the Republic of South Africa to host a relevant conference this year.[27]

[23][24] With the passing of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1173 in 1998, the United Nations too identified the conflict diamond issue as a funding for war. The Fowler Report in 2000 detailed in depth how UNITA was financing its war activities, and in May 2000, led directly to the passing of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1295 and the diamond producing countries of southern Africa meeting in Kimberley, South Africa to plan a method by which the trade in conflict diamonds could be halted, and buyers of diamonds could be assured that their diamonds have not contributed to violence.[25][26] In this resolution the Security Council wrote:

Conflict diamond campaign

In July 2010, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme agreed that diamonds from the country's disputed Marange Diamond Fields could be sold on the international market,[21] after a report from the Scheme's monitor a month earlier described diamonds mined from the fields as conflict-free.[22]

Zimbabwe Diamonds are not considered conflict diamonds by the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme.

Zimbabwe

The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) was expelled from the Kimberley Process in 2004[20] because, despite having no official diamond mining industry, the country was exporting large quantities of diamonds, the origin of which it could not detail. It was also accused of falsifying certificates of origin. The Republic of the Congo was readmitted in 2007.[20]

Republic of the Congo

In December 2014 however, Liberian diamonds were reported to be partly produced using child labor according to the U.S. Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor.

Having regained peace, Liberia is attempting to construct a legitimate diamond mining industry. The UN has lifted sanctions and Liberia is now a member of the Kimberley Process.[19]

Around the time of the 1998 United States embassy bombings, al-Qaeda allegedly bought gems from Liberia as some of its other financial assets were frozen.[18]

From 1989 to 2003, [5] of which he was found guilty in April 2012. On May 30, 2012, he began a 50-year sentence in a high security prison in the United Kingdom.[17]

Liberia

The [5] Once one of De Beers' most celebrated and priceless diamonds, the D-colour 200 carats (40 g) Millennium Star was discovered in the DRC and sold to De Beers, in open competition with other diamond buyers, between 1991 and 1992.[15]

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Despite UN sanctions the illicit diamond trade still exists in Ivory Coast. Rough diamonds are exported out of the country to neighboring states and international trading centers through the northern, Forces Nouvelles controlled section of the country, a group which is reported to be using these funds of chele to re-arm.[13][14]

[5]

Ivory Coast

. Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, as well as the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1295 and led directly to [11]

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