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Bora–Witoto languages

northwestern Amazon
Linguistic classification: Proposed language family
Glottolog: None
bora1262  (Boran)[1]
huit1251  (Huitotoan)[2]

Bora–Witóto (also Bora–Huitoto, Bora–Uitoto, or, ambiguously, Witotoan) is a proposal to unite the Bora and Witotoan language families of northeastern Peru (Loreto Region), southwestern Colombia (Amazonas Department), and western Brazil (Amazonas State). Kaufman (1990) found the proposal plausible; by 1994 he had accepted it and added the Andoque language.

Family division

  • Boran (AKA Bora–Muiname, Bóran, Miranyan, Miranya, Bórano)
    • Bora (AKA Bora–Miranya, Boro, Meamuyna)
    • Muinane (AKA Bora Muinane, Muinane Bora, Muinani, Muename)
  • Witotoan (AKA Huitoto–Ocaina, Huitotoan, Huitotoano, Witóto, Huitoto, Uitoto, Huitótoano)
    • Ocaina (AKA Okaina)
    • Witoto Proper
      • Nïpode (AKA Nüpode, Nipode Huitoto, Nipode Witoto, Witoto Muinane, Muinane Huitoto, Muiname)
      • Mïnïca–Murai
        • Mïnïca (AKA Witoto Meneca, Meneca, Meneka, Noaiko-Muína, Southern Witoto, Minica Huitoto, Minica)
        • Murui (AKA Witoto Murui, Murai, Búe, Murai Huitoto, Bue, Huitoto, Central Witoto proper, Komïne)
    • Nonuya (AKA Nyonuhu, Nonuña, Achote, Achiote) Loreto, Peru

The classification above is based on Campbell (1997) who follows Richard Aschmann's 1993 classification and reconstruction of proto-Witotoan.

Kaufman (1994) lists Bóran and Witótoan (Huitoto–Ocaina) as separate families (they are grouped together with Andoque as Bora–Witótoan; by 2007 he moved Andoque to Witotoan). He does not show internal branching. Nipode and Mïnïca are listed as dialects of a single Meneka language (whereas Aschmann and Campbell treat these as separate languages at different branch nodes). Kaufman also includes within his Witótoan (Huitoto–Ocaina) the following extinct languages :

  • Andoquero (AKA Andokero, Miranya-Karapana-Tapuyo, Miraña, Carapana) Amazonas, Colombia (†)
  • Coeruna (AKA Koeruna) Amazonas, Brazil (†)
  • Koihoma (AKA Coto, Koto, Orejón, Coixoma) Loreto, Peru (†)

Andoquero, Coeruna, and Koihoma are all extinct. Nonuya is nearly extinct, but attempts are being made at revival.

Synonymy note:

  • The name Muiname has been used to refer to the Muinane language (Bora Muinane) of the Boran sub-group and also to the Nipode language (Witoto Muinane) of the Huitoto–Ocaina sub-group.
  • The names Koto, Coto, and Orejón have been used to refer to the Koihoma language (Coixoma) and also to the unrelated
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