World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Borneo campaign (1945)

Article Id: WHEBN0002071559
Reproduction Date:

Title: Borneo campaign (1945)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: History of Brunei, 2/2nd Pioneer Battalion (Australia), Battle of North Borneo, Australian Army during World War II, Brunei Civil War
Collection: 1945 in British Malaya, Battles and Operations of World War II Involving Australia, Battles and Operations of World War II Involving Japan, Battles and Operations of World War II Involving the Netherlands, Battles and Operations of World War II Involving the United Kingdom, Borneo Campaign, British North Borneo, Campaigns of World War II, Conflicts in 1945, History of Brunei, Japanese Occupation of the Dutch East Indies, Military History of Malaya During World War II, South West Pacific Theatre of World War II
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Borneo campaign (1945)

Borneo Campaign (1945)
Part of World War II

A map showing the progress of the Borneo Campaign
Date 1 May – 1 August 1945
Location Borneo
Result Allied victory; Japanese pushed further from Australia
Belligerents
Australia
 United States
 Netherlands
 United Kingdom
 Empire of Japan
Commanders and leaders
Douglas MacArthur[1]
Leslie Morshead Thomas Kinkaid
Michiaki Kamada
Baba Masao
Strength
35,000 15,000
Casualties and losses
About 8,000 10,000

The Borneo Campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area during World War II. In a series of amphibious assaults between 1 May and 21 July, the Australian I Corps, under Lieutenant General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. Allied naval and air forces, centred on the U.S. 7th Fleet under Admiral Thomas Kinkaid, the Australian First Tactical Air Force and the U.S. Thirteenth Air Force also played important roles in the campaign. They were resisted by Imperial Japanese Navy and Army forces in southern and eastern Borneo, under Vice-Admiral Michiaki Kamada, and in the north west by the Thirty-Seventh Army, led by Lieutenant-General Baba Masao.

The plans for the Allied attacks were known collectively as Operation Oboe. The invasion of Borneo was the second stage of Operation Montclair, which was aimed at destroying Japanese forces in, and re-occupying the Netherlands East Indies, the southern Philippines, Sarawak and British Borneo. Borneo in particular was considered at the time a strategic location for its natural resources, oil.

The Borneo campaign was criticized in Australia at the time and in subsequent years, as pointless or a "waste" of the lives of soldiers. Modern historians such as Max Hastings have said that attacking these forces, already cut off from Japan, was a waste of resources.

"Any rational strategic judgment would have left them to their own devices screened by token allied forces until their nation's defeat enforced their surrender."[2]

It has been argued that the campaign did, however, achieve a number of objectives, such as increasing the isolation of significant Japanese forces occupying the main part of the Dutch East Indies, capturing major oil supplies, and freeing Allied prisoners of war, who were being held in increasingly worse conditions (see, for example, the Sandakan Death Marches and Batu Lintang camp articles).

The initial Allied plan comprised six stages: Operation Oboe 1 was to be an attack on Tarakan; Oboe 2 against Balikpapan; Oboe 3 against Banjermasin; Oboe 4 against Surabaya or Batavia (Jakarta); Oboe 5 against the eastern Netherlands East Indies; and Oboe 6 against British Borneo (Sabah). In the end only the operations against Tarakan, Balikpapan and British Borneo—at Labuan and Brunei Bay—took place.[3] The campaign opened with Oboe 1, with a landing on the small island of Tarakan, off the north east coast on 1 May 1945. This was followed on 10 June 1945 by Oboe 6: simultaneous assaults on the island of Labuan and the coast of Brunei, in the north west of Borneo. A week later, the Australians followed up with attacks on Japanese positions around Weston on the north-eastern part of Brunei Bay. The attention of the Allies then switched back to the central east coast, with Oboe 2, the last major amphibious assault of World War II, at Balikpapan on 1 July 1945. These operations ultimately constituted the last campaigns of Australian forces in the war against Japan.

Contents

  • Battles 1
  • See also 2
  • Notes 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Battles

See also

Notes

  1. ^ James 1975, p. 749.
  2. ^ Hastings, M., (2007) Nemesis: The Battle for Japan, 1944-45 (Harper Press; London) p368
  3. ^ Dennis, 1995 p. 440

References

  • Dennis (et al.), Peter (1995). The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History. Melbourne: Oxford University Presd. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.