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CBL (gene)

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CBL (gene)

Cbl proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

PDB rendering based on 1b47.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols  ; C-CBL; CBL2; FRA11B; NSLL; RNF55
External IDs GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Cbl (named after Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma) is a mammalian gene encoding the protein CBL which is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in cell signalling and protein ubiquitination. Mutations to this gene have been implicated in a number of human cancers, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia.[1]

Discovery

In 1989 a virally encoded portion of the chromosomal mouse Cbl gene was the first member of the Cbl family to be discovered[2] and was named v-Cbl to distinguish it from normal mouse c-Cbl. The virus used in the experiment was a retrovirus known as Cas-Br-M, and was found to have excised approximately a third of the original c-Cbl gene from mice it was injected into. Sequencing revealed that the portion carried by the retrovirus encoded a tyrosine kinase binding domain, and that this was the oncogenic form as retroviruses carrying full-length c-Cbl did not induce tumour formation. The resultant transformed retrovirus was found to consistently induce a type of pre-B lymphoma, known as Casitas B-lineage lymphoma, in infected mice.

Structure

Full length c-Cbl has been found to consist of several regions encoding for functionally distinct protein domains:

This domain structure and the tyrosine and serine-rich content of the protein product is typical of an "adaptor molecule" used in cell signalling pathways.[3]

Homologues

Three mammalian homologues have been characterized, which all differ in their ability to function as adaptor proteins due to the differing lengths of their C-terminal UBA domains:

  1. c-Cbl: ubiquitously expressed, 906 and 913 amino acids in length in humans and mice respectively
  2. Cbl-b: ubiquitously expressed, 982 amino acids long in length.
  3. Cbl-c: lacks the UBA domain and is therefore only 474 amino acids in length. It is primarily expressed in epithelial cells however its function is poorly understood.

Interestingly, both c-Cbl and Cbl-b have orthologues in D. melanogaster (D-Cbl) and C. elegans (Sli-1), hinting at a long evolutionary path for these proteins.[3]

Functions

Ubiquitin ligase

Ubiquitination is the process of chemically attaching ubiquitin monomers to a protein, thereby targeting it for degradation. As this is a multi-step process, several different enzymes are involved, the final one being a member of the E3 family of ligases. Cbl functions as an E3 ligase, and therefore is able to catalyse the formation of a covalent bond between ubiquitin and Cbl's protein substrate - typically a receptor tyrosine kinase. The RING-finger domain mediates this transfer, however like other E3 ligases of the RING type no intermediate covalent bond is formed between ubiquitin and the RING-finger domain. The stepwise attachment of ubiquitin to the substrate receptor tyrosine kinase can lead to its removal from the plasma membrane and subsequent trafficking to the lysosome for degradation.

Interactions

Cbl gene has been shown to interact with:

References

  1. ^ Naramura, M.; Nadeau, S.; Mohapatra, B.; Ahmad, G.; Mukhopadhyay, C.; Sattler, M.; Raja, S. M.; Natarajan, A.; Band, V.; Band, H. (2011). "Mutant Cbl proteins as oncogenic drivers in myeloproliferative disorders". Oncotarget 2 (3): 245–250.  
  2. ^ Langdon WY, Hartley JW, Klinken SP, Ruscetti SK, Morse HC (1989). "v-cbl, an oncogene from a dual-recombinant murine retrovirus that induces early B-lineage lymphomas". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 (4): 1168–72.  
  3. ^ a b Schmidt MH, Dikic I (2005). "The Cbl interactome and its functions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 6 (12): 907–18.  
  4. ^ a b Miyoshi-Akiyama, T; Aleman L M; Smith J M; Adler C E; Mayer B J (July 2001). "Regulation of Cbl phosphorylation by the Abl tyrosine kinase and the Nck SH2/SH3 adaptor". Oncogene (England) 20 (30): 4058–69.  
  5. ^ a b Soubeyran P, Barac A, Szymkiewicz I, Dikic I (February 2003). "Cbl-ArgBP2 complex mediates ubiquitination and degradation of c-Abl". Biochem. J. 370 (Pt 1): 29–34.  
  6. ^ Flanders JA, Feng Q, Bagrodia S, Laux MT, Singavarapu A, Cerione RA (August 2003). "The Cbl proteins are binding partners for the Cool/Pix family of p21-activated kinase-binding proteins". FEBS Lett. 550 (1-3): 119–23.  
  7. ^ a b c d e Ng, Cherlyn; Jackson Rebecca A; Buschdorf Jan P; Sun Qingxiang; Guy Graeme R; Sivaraman J (March 2008). "Structural basis for a novel intrapeptidyl H-bond and reverse binding of c-Cbl-TKB domain substrates". EMBO J. (England) 27 (5): 804–16.  
  8. ^ a b Petrelli A, Gilestro GF, Lanzardo S, Comoglio PM, Migone N, Giordano S (March 2002). "The endophilin-CIN85-Cbl complex mediates ligand-dependent downregulation of c-Met". Nature 416 (6877): 187–90.  
  9. ^ a b c d Haglund, Kaisa; Ivankovic-Dikic Inga, Shimokawa Noriaki, Kruh Gary D, Dikic Ivan (May 2004). "Recruitment of Pyk2 and Cbl to lipid rafts mediates signals important for actin reorganization in growing neurites". J. Cell. Sci. (England) 117 (Pt 12): 2557–68.  
  10. ^ Kirsch KH, Georgescu MM, Shishido T, Langdon WY, Birge RB, Hanafusa H (February 2001). "The adapter type protein CMS/CD2AP binds to the proto-oncogenic protein c-Cbl through a tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated Src homology 3 domain interaction". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (7): 4957–63.  
  11. ^ Cormont, Mireille; Metón Isidoro, Mari Muriel, Monzo Pascale, Keslair Frédérique, Gaskin Chantell, McGraw Timothy E, Le Marchand-Brustel Yannick (February 2003). "CD2AP/CMS regulates endosome morphology and traffic to the degradative pathway through its interaction with Rab4 and c-Cbl". Traffic (Denmark) 4 (2): 97–112.  
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Further reading

External links

  • Quips article describing CBL function at PDBe
  • OMIM enteries on NOONAN SYNDROME-LIKE DISORDER WITH OR WITHOUT JUVENILE MYELOMONOCYTIC LEUKEMIA and CBL
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