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Case variants of IPA letters

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Title: Case variants of IPA letters  
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Subject: International Phonetic Alphabet, Dental stop, Voiceless dental non-sibilant affricate, Velar ejective affricate, Retroflex ejective affricate
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Case variants of IPA letters

Capital variants of the IPA letters used in English, as designed by Michael Everson.[1]

With the adoption of letters from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in various national alphabets, letter case forms have been developed. This usually means capital (upper-case) forms were developed, but in the case of the glottal stop ʔ, both upper-case Ɂ and lower-case ɂ are used.

The adoption of IPA letters has been particularly notable in Sub-Saharan Africa, in languages such as Hausa, Fula, Akan, Gbe languages, Manding languages, and Lingala. The most common are open o Ɔ ɔ, open e Ɛ ɛ, and eng Ŋ ŋ, but several others are found. Kabiyé of northern Togo, for example, has Ɔ ɔ, Ɛ ɛ, Ɖ ɖ, Ŋ ŋ, Ɣ ɣ, Ʃ ʃ, Ʊ ʊ (or Ʋ ʋ), as in this newspaper headline:


Some of the IPA letters that were adopted into language orthographies have since become obsolete in the IPA itself. And although one might think that the click letters ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ were adopted from the IPA without case, the reverse happened: They were actually adopted into the IPA from Nama, replacing the dedicated IPA letters ʇ ʗ ʖ; Nama never did have case for these letters.

IPA Uppercase Lowercase
ɓ Ɓ (Ƃ)
β Ꞵꞵ though IPA uses Greek beta still[2]
ɔ Ɔ
ƈ Ƈ
ð Ð
ɖ Ɖ, Ɗ
ɗ Ɗ
(ᶑ )
ə Ə, Ǝ
ɛ Ɛ
ɜ [3]
ɡ [4]
ɠ Ɠ
ɣ Ɣ
ħ Ħ
ɨ Ɨ
ɪ (serif I)[5]
ɩ Ɩ
ƙ Ƙ
ɬ (Ɬ)[6]
ɯ Ɯ
ŋ Ŋ
ɲ Ɲ
ƞ Ƞ
ɵ Ɵ
ƥ Ƥ
ɋ Ɋ
ʃ Ʃ
ʈ Ʈ, Ŧ[7]
ƭ Ƭ
ʉ Ʉ
ʊ Ʊ
ɷ [8]
ʋ Ʋ
ʌ Ʌ
(ⱳ )
χ (tall χ)[7]
ʒ Ʒ, reversed Ʃ[5]
θ (like Θ)[7][5]
ɸ (like Φ)
ʔ Ɂ ɂ 

Others letters are the graphic equivalent of IPA capitals, but are not identified with the IPA. Examples are ɟ Ɉ (actually, the capital of ɉ), (the capital of λ in Americanist usage; similarly ƛ ),[7] ɹ ꓤ, ʇ ꓕ.


  1. ^ Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland: an edition printed in the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cathair na Mart: Evertype, 2014.
  2. ^ Michael Everson, 2012-07-26, Proposal for the addition of ten Latin characters to the UCS
  3. ^ Michael Everson, 2012-02-08, Proposal for the addition of five Latin characters to the UCS
  4. ^ Michael Everson, 2012-02-08, Proposal for the addition of five Latin characters to the UCS
  5. ^ a b c [1]
  6. ^ Joshua M Jensen, Karl Pentzlin, 2012-02-08, Proposal to encode a Latin Capital Letter L with Belt
  7. ^ a b c d [2]
  8. ^ [3]
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