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Cebuano language

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Title: Cebuano language  
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Cebuano language

Cebuano
Bisaya, Sinugboanon, Binisaya nga Sugboanon
Native to Philippines
Region entire Central Visayas, northeastern parts of Negros Occidental province, southern parts of Masbate, parts of Eastern Visayas, most parts of Mindanao
Ethnicity Cebuano people
Native speakers
21 million  (2007)[1]
2nd-most-spoken language in the Philippines[2]
Dialects
Standard Cebuano (Cebu City dialect)
Leyteño (Kana)
Mindanao Cebuano (Bisaya)
Latin (Cebuano alphabet)
Cebuano Braille
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in the Philippines
Regulated by Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters
Language codes
ISO 639-2 ceb
ISO 639-3 ceb
Glottolog cebu1242[3]
}
Cebuano-speaking area in the Philippines

Cebuano, referred to by most of its speakers as Bisaya or Binisaya (Visayan in English), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 20 million people, mostly in the Central Visayas, most of whom belong to the Bisaya ethnic group. It is the most widely spoken of the languages within the so-named Bisayan subgroup and is closely related to other Filipino languages.

It has the largest native language-speaking population of the Philippines despite not being taught formally in schools and universities.[4]

It is the lingua franca of the Central Visayas and parts of Mindanao. The name Cebuano is derived from the island of Cebu where the prestige register is spoken. Cebuano is the prime language in Western Leyte noticeably Ormoc and other municipalities surrounding the city. Cebuano is given the ISO 639-2 three letter code ceb, but has no ISO 639-1 two-letter code. There are four main dialectal groups within Cebuano. They are: Boholano and Southern Kana, Northern Kana, Mindanao Cebuano, and Davaoeño.

Contents

  • Distribution 1
  • Phonology 2
    • Vowels 2.1
    • Consonants 2.2
    • Stress 2.3
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Distribution

Cebuano/Binisaya is spoken in Cebu, Bohol, Negros Oriental, western parts of Leyte, some parts of Samar, Negros Occidental, Biliran islands, southern region of Masbate Island and Mindanao. Some dialects of Cebuano/Binisaya have different names for the language. Ethnic groups from Cebuano speakers from Cebu is called "Cebuano", Cebuano speaker from Bohol is refer to "Bol-anon", while Cebuano speakers in Leyte identify their dialect as Kana (Leyteño). Speakers in Mindanao and Luzon refer to the language simply as Binisaya or Bisaya (the word "Bisaya" is a short form of the word "Binisaya" if we are referring to the language spoken). The term "Bisaya" has been disagreed by its speakers for limiting the term to Cebuano only and not to the other Visayan languages, such as Waray-waray and Hiligaynon.

Phonology

Cebuano has 21 phonemes. There are 16 consonants: p, t, k, ʔ (the glottal stop), b, d, g, m, n, ng, s, h, w, l, r and y. There are five vowels: i, e, a, o and u.

Vowels

Below is the vowel system of Cebuano:
Table of vowel phonemes of Standard Cebuano
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ɛ o
Open a

During the precolonial and Spanish period, Cebuano had three vowel phonemes: /a/, /i/ and /u/. This was later expanded to five vowels with the introduction of Spanish entries. The vowels o and u are still mostly allophones, however, with u always being used when it is the beginning of a syllable and o always used when it ends a syllable. But there are some exceptions, like kamatuoran (truth) and hangtúd (until). "E" originally appeared only in a few words, such as "babaye" (girl/woman), "dayeg" (praise, compliment), "parayeg" (loving), and "pangadye" (prayer), and only in last syllables, as "E" was mostly an allophone of "I" in final syllables. Under the influence of Spanish, more words with e have been added with the introduction of loanwords.

Consonants

Below is a chart of Cebuano consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word.

Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m ŋ
Stop p b k g ʔ
Fricative h
Approximant
(Lateral)
j w
Flap ɾ̪

Stress

Stress accent is phonemic, so that dápit means "act of inviting", while dapít means "near" or "nearby place". Consonants [d] and [ɾ] were once allophones, but cannot interchange, like kabungturan (uplands) [from bungtód, mountain] is correct but not *kabungtudan and tagadihá (from there) [from dihá, there] is correct but not *tagarihá.

See also

References

  1. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  2. ^ Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Cebuano". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, & Klaus J. Mattheier (2006). Sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society. Volume 3. Walter de Gruyter. p. 2018.  

External links

  • Cebuano Dictionary
  • Cebuano English Searchable Dictionary
  • John U. Wolff, A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan: Volume I, Volume II, searchable interface, Downloadable text at Project Gutenberg
  • Ang Dila Natong Bisaya
  • Rules of SpellingLagda Sa Espeling (Cebuano)
  • Language Links.org - Philippine Languages to the world - Cebuano Lessons
  • Language Links.org - Philippine Languages to the World
  • Online E-book of Spanish-Cebuano Dictionary, published in 1898 by Fr. Felix Guillén
  • Cebuano dictionary
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