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Christchurch East

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Christchurch East

Christchurch East electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election

Christchurch East, originally called Christchurch City East, is a current New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first created for the 1871 election and was abolished for two period, from 1875–1905 and again from 1946–1996. It was last created for the introduction of the MMP voting system for the 1996 election. The current MP is Poto Williams, a member of the New Zealand Labour Party who was first elected in the 2013 Christchurch East by-election.

Population centres

Christchurch East electorate boundaries for the 2008 and 2011 elections

The electorate is based on the eastern part of the City of Christchurch. When the electorate was first formed through the Representation Act 1870, the western boundary of the electorate was Colombo Street. Unlike today, the eastern boundary was away from the coast; rather, the Avon electorate covered the coastal regions.[1]

The electorate is bounded in the east by the Pacific Ocean and in the north by the Waimakariri River. Since the 2008 election, the western and southern boundary followed Main North Road, Marshland Road, North Parade, Dudley Creek, the Avon River, Keyes Road and Pages Road, before cutting though the Bromley wastewater treatment plant to Cuthberts Road. The boundary then followed Cuthberts Road, Breezes Road and Bridge Street to the Avon River, before following the Avon through the Avon Heathcote Estuary and out to the Pacific Ocean.[2]

The following suburbs, in alphabetical order, are at least partially located in the electorate: Aranui, Avondale, Bexley, Bottle Lake, Bridgend, Brooklands, Burwood, Chaneys, Dallington, Kainga, Marshland, New Brighton, North New Brighton, Ouruhia, Parklands, Queenspark, Shirley, South New Brighton, Southshore, Spencerville, Stewarts Gully, Styx, Waimairi Beach, and Wainoni.[2]

Population loss after the quakes necessitated expansion of the electorate in the 2013/14 redistribution, with the electorate gaining Mairehau and Shirley from Christchurch Central, Bromley from Port Hills and the remainder of Marshland from Waimakariri.[3]

History

Christchurch City East was first created for the 1871 election[4] by the Representation Act 1870, which was passed to increase the number of general electorates to 74 from the 61 that were used at the 1866 election. The Representation Act 1870 also disestablished some multi-member electorates, and the three-member City of Christchurch electorate was split up, with one part of it forming the new Christchurch City East electorate.[1]

The first election was contested by Jerningham Wakefield, who had previously represented Christchurch Country in the 1st Parliament (1853–1855), and Andrew Duncan, who was Mayor of Christchurch in 1870. Wakefield won the election and represented the electorate until the end of the electoral term in 1875,[5][6] when Christchurch City East was abolished, replaced by the three-member electorate City of Christchurch.[4]

Christchurch East was re-created for the 1905 election.[4] The election was contested by Thomas Davey (who had been a representative of the City of Christchurch electorate for the Liberal Party since 1902), William Whitehouse Collins (who had previously been in Parliament for the Liberal Party), Henry Toogood[7] (a young engineer who only recently left Canterbury College and who would become one of the founding members of the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand), and Frederick Cooke[8] (a prominent member of the Socialist Party). Davey was successful.[9]

The 1908 election was contested by Davey (the incumbent), Charles Boxshall (who represented the opposition, which at that point had not formed into a political party), James McCombs (who was an Independent Liberal, i.e. he was not part of a formal party), and Frederick Cooke (who had also contested the previous election standing for the Socialist Party). Davey was re-elected, with McCombs coming second.[10][11] The Second Ballot Act 1908 provided for second or runoff ballots between the top two candidates where the top candidate did not get an absolute majority.[12] As Davey had obtained 55.56% of the votes, a second ballot was not required in Christchurch East.[10]

The 1911 election was contested by Davey (the incumbent), Henry Thacker (a prominent medical doctor standing as an Independent Liberal), Hiram Hunter (who stood for the original Labour Party), and Frederick Cooke (who had also contested the two previous election standing for the Socialist Party). The first ballot was won by Thacker, with Davey beating Hunter by only four votes for second place. A second ballot was required, as Thacker had achieved 32.68% of the votes in the first ballot, far short of an absolute majority. The second ballot was won by Davey with a majority of over 17% of the votes.[13]

Davey planned to contest the Reform Party), and Hiram Hunter (who this time contested for the Social Democratic Party, which was the successor to the original Labour Party).[17][18] Thacker was successful and succeeded Davey.[19]

The 1919 election was contested by Thacker (the incumbent, and since May of that year Mayor of Christchurch[20]) and Hiram Hunter (who this time contested for the Labour Party, which had been founded in 1916).[21] Thacker served for two terms until 1922[22] and was Mayor of Christchurch until 1923.[23]

Thacker was defeated in the 1922 election by Tim Armstrong of the Labour Party.[24] The third candidate was W R Devereux, a land agent who stood for the Reform Party.[25][26]

Armstrong successfully contested the 1931, but Armstrong remained successful.[29] Allen was active in local affairs and was the headmaster of the Sumner District High School (1908–1933).[30][31]

Armstrong was challenged in 1935 by S W Richardson, who was the official candidate for the United/Reform Coalition in 1935.[32] In 1938, Armstrong was challenged by K I Armour of the National Party.[33] Armstrong died in office on 8 November 1942 from heart disease.[34]

Armstrong's death triggered the 1943 by-election, which was held on 6 February.[35][36] The by-election was contested by five candidates, including representatives from the Labour Party, the Labour breakaway party Democratic Labour Party and the National Party.[37] The election was won by the Labour candidate, Mabel Howard, and started her long parliamentary career, which included her becoming the first female cabinet minister in 1947.[38] Howard was confirmed later in 1943 in the general election, where her majority increased substantially (by over 17 percentage points).[39]

Christchurch East was abolished in 1946[40] and re-created in 1996 for the MMP-era. Larry Sutherland, who had previously represented Avon, won the 1996 election. Sutherland retired at the 1999 election and Lianne Dalziel was first elected. Dalziel had previously represented Christchurch Central (1990–1996) and spent the next three years as a list MP. She is the current holder of the electorate.[41]

The Christchurch newspaper The Press reported on 20 April 2013 that Lianne Dalziel will challenge Bob Parker for the Christchurch mayoralty.[42] Dalziel maintained that she was not yet committed to standing,[43] and only formally confirmed on 19 June that she will contest the mayoralty. She confirmed that she will resign from Parliament, thus triggering a by-election in the Christchurch East electorate.[44] Dalziel resigned before the official results were announced.[45]

The by-election was since held on 30 November 2013 in the electorate. This was won by Labour's Poto Williams in a convincing victory despite the view that significant population changes since the 2011 Christchurch earthquake made the allegiance to Labour less certain.[46][47] Williams held Christchurch East in the 2014 election against National's sitting list MP Joanne Hayes.[48]

Since Tim Armstrong's 1922 election win, the electorate (for as long as it existed) has been held by Labour.[40]

Members of Parliament

Christchurch East has been represented by eight electorate MPs:

Key

 Independent    Liberal    Labour    National  
Election Winner
1871 election Jerningham Wakefield
(Electorate abolished 1875–1905, see City of Christchurch)
1905 election Thomas Davey
1908 election
1911 election
1914 election Henry Thacker
1919 election
1922 election Tim Armstrong
1925 election
1928 election
1931 election
1935 election
1938 election
1943 by-election Mabel Howard
1943 election
(Electorate abolished 1946–1996)
1996 election Larry Sutherland
1999 election Lianne Dalziel
2002 election
2005 election
2008 election
2011 election
2013 by-election Poto Williams
2014 election

List MPs

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Christchurch East electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Election Winner
2008 election Aaron Gilmore
2011 election
2011 election Mojo Mathers
2014 election
2014 election Joanne Hayes

Election results

2014 election

General election 2014: Christchurch East[49]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Poto Williams 15,221 48.09 -13.21 10,450 32.16 +0.51
National Joanne Hayes 11,148 35.22 +9.16 12,928 39.79 -6.31
Green Mojo Mathers 3,206 10.13 +3.18 4,113 12.66 +0.98
Conservative Leighton Baker 1271 4.02 +0.42 1058 3.26 +1.11
Legalise Cannabis Robert Wilkinson 457 1.44 +1.01 186 0.57 +0.07
Māori Tania Mataki 190 0.60 +0.60 129 0.40 +0.11
United Future Sam Park 159 0.50 +0.50 74 0.23 -0.33
NZ First   3,069 9.45 +3.19
Internet Mana   286 0.88 +0.66
ACT   107 0.33 -0.02
Ban 1080   38 0.12 +0.12
Democrats   20 0.06 -0.02
Civilian   19 0.06 +0.06
Independent Coalition   11 0.03 +0.03
Focus   1 0.00 +0.00
Informal votes 409 141
Total Valid votes 31,652 32,489
Labour hold Majority 4,073 12.87 -6.17

2013 by-election

The following table shows the final results of the by-election:[50]
Christchurch East by-election, 2013

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the by-election.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list prior to the by-election.
Yellow background denotes the winner of the by-election, who was a list MP prior to the by-election.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Poto Williams 8,414 61.30 +5.75
National Matthew Doocey 3,577 26.06 -10.44
Green David Moorhouse 954 6.95 +2.14
Conservative Leighton Baker 494 3.60 +1.74
Independent Sam Park 78 0.57
Legalise Cannabis Paula Lambert 59 0.43 -0.48
ACT Gareth Veale 58 0.42
Independent Adam Holland 31 0.23
Independent Ian Gaskin 20 0.15
Democrats Jenner Lichtwark 20 0.15
Informal votes 21 0.15
Turnout 13,726
Labour hold Majority 4,837 35.24 +16.20

2011 election

General election 2011: Christchurch East[51]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Lianne Dalziel 15,559 55.54 +2.61 9,100 31.65 -13.62
National Aaron Gilmore 10,225 36.50 +0.55 13,252 46.10 +10.40
Green Mojo Mathers 1,347 4.81 -0.62 3,359 11.68 +4.45
Conservative Leighton Baker 522 1.86 +1.86 617 2.15 +2.15
Legalise Cannabis Michael Britnell 254 0.91 -0.32 145 0.50 +0.16
United Future Johnny Miller 108 0.39 -0.22 160 0.56 -0.39
NZ First   1,801 6.26 +2.34
ACT   101 0.35 -1.58
Māori   84 0.29 -0.22
Mana   63 0.22 +0.22
Alliance   28 0.10 -0.08
Democrats   22 0.08 +0.01
Libertarianz   17 0.06 +0.02
Informal votes 509 228
Total Valid votes 28,015 28,977
Labour hold Majority 5,334 19.04 +2.06

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 39,708[52]

2008 election

General election 2008: Christchurch East[53]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Lianne Dalziel 17,969 52.92 15,585 45.27
National Aaron Gilmore 12,204 35.94 12,289 35.70
Green Mojo Mathers 1,843 5.43 2,489 7.23
Progressive Elspeth Sandys 575 1.69 696 2.02
Legalise Cannabis Paula Lambert 417 1.23 117 0.34
Kiwi Tony Le Cren 378 1.11 269 0.78
United Future Maretta Solomon 204 0.60 326 0.95
Alliance Paul Piesse 119 0.35 62 0.18
Independent Sevaschan Sam Park 114 0.34
Workers Party Paul Hopkinson 90 0.27 26 0.08
Democrats Nick McIlraith 40 0.12 24 0.07
NZ First   1,352 3.93
ACT   664 1.93
Bill and Ben   210 0.61
Māori   176 0.51
Family Party   68 0.20
Pacific   54 0.16
Libertarianz   14 0.04
RAM   5 0.01
RONZ   1 0.00
Informal votes 267 202
Total Valid votes 33,953 34,427
Labour hold Majority 5,765 16.98

2005 election

General election 2005: Christchurch East[54]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Lianne Dalziel 20,969 60.31 18,893 53.44
National David Round 8,996 25.88 9,851 27.86
Green Mary McCammon 1,698 4.88 1,948 5.51
United Future Dianne Wilson 1,205 3.47 1,176 3.33
Progressive Karen Silcock 926 2.66 926 2.62
ACT John Peters 401 1.15 277 0.78
Legalise Cannabis Kevin O'Connell 299 0.86 101 0.29
Alliance Lynda Boyd 167 0.48 98 0.28
Direct Democracy Kyle Chapman 63 0.18 13 0.04
Anti-Capitalist Alliance Paul Hopkinson 43 0.12
NZ First   1,694 4.77
Destiny   170 0.48
Māori   97 0.27
Christian Heritage   54 0.15
Democrats   18 0.05
Libertarianz   13 0.04
Family Rights   7 0.02
99 MP   6 0.02
RONZ   6 0.02
One NZ   5 0.01
Informal votes 424 186
Total Valid votes 34,787 35,353
Labour hold Majority 11,973 34.44

2002 election

General election 2002: Christchurch East[55]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Lianne Dalziel 19,784 63.92 +7.12 16,142 51.29 +4.46
National Stephen Johnston 4,920 15.90 4,368 13.88 -10.39
Green Mary McCammon 1,557 5.03 2,068 6.57 +1.70
United Future Paul Duxbury 1,532 4.95 2,394 7.61
ACT John Peters 841 2.72 1,212 3.85 +0.35
Progressive David Culverhouse 834 2.69 1,171 3.72
Christian Heritage Judith Phillips 577 1.86 -0.52 441 1.40 -1.00
Legalise Cannabis Michael Britnell 512 1.65 -0.50 222 0.71 -0.69
Alliance Colin Pounder 315 1.02 466 1.48 -9.90
ACAP Philip Ferguson 79 0.26
NZ First   2,532 8.05 +5.81
ORNZ   430 1.37
One NZ   15 0.05
Mana Māori   8 0.03 +0.00
NMP   3 0.01 +0.01
Informal votes 389 102
Total Valid votes 30,951 31,472
Labour hold Majority 14,864 48.02 +13.11

1999 election

General election 1999: Christchurch East[56][57]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Lianne Dalziel 18,157 56.80 15,084 46.83 +10.38
National John Knox 6,995 21.88 7,816 24.26 -2.21
Alliance Paul Piesse 2,127 6.65 3,665 11.38 -6.11
Green Jacqui Wood 1,296 4.05 1,568 4.87
Christian Heritage Judith Phillips 761 2.38 774 2.40
Legalise Cannabis Michael Britnell 688 2.15 449 1.39 -0.54
Future NZ Chantelle Stiles 669 2.09 456 1.42
ACT Alan Beecham 667 2.09 1,127 3.50 0.47
NZ First Margaret Silverlock 528 1.65 719 2.23 -6.52
Natural Law Warwick Jones 80 0.25 58 0.18 0.06
United NZ   143 0.44 +0.04
Libertarianz   131 0.41 +0.40
South Island   73 0.23
Animals First   71 0.22 +0.04
McGillicuddy Serious   36 0.11 -0.05
One NZ   18 0.06
Mana Māori   11 0.03 +0.02
Mauri Pacific   5 0.02
People's Choice   4 0.01
Republican   2 0.01
Freedom Movement 1 0.00
NMP   1 0.00
Informal votes 513 269
Total Valid votes 31,968 32,212
Labour hold Majority 11,162 34.92

1996 election

General election 1996: Christchurch East[58][59][60]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Larry Sutherland 11,174 35.17 11,675 36.44
National Sue McKenzie 8,216 25.86 8,480 26.47
Alliance Marie Venning 7,305 22.99 5,601 17.48
NZ First Lem Pearse 2,970 9.35 2,805 8.76
Legalise Cannabis Tim Shadbolt 1,368 4.31 618 1.93
ACT Jeffrey Buchanan 569 1.79 971 3.03
McGillicuddy Serious Phil Clayton 105 0.33 51 0.16
Natural Law Sean O'Connor 61 0.19 38 0.12
Christian Coalition   1,494 4.66
United NZ   128 0.40
Animals First   59 0.18
Progressive Greens   48 0.15
Green Society 17 0.05
Advance New Zealand 14 0.04
Superannuitants & Youth 13 0.04
Ethnic Minority Party 8 0.02
Asia Pacific United 4 0.01
Mana Māori   4 0.01
Conservatives 3 0.01
Libertarianz   3 0.01
Te Tawharau 1 0.00
Informal votes 360 93
Total Valid votes 31,768 32,035
Labour win new seat Majority 2,958 9.31

1943 election

General election, 1943: Christchurch East[39][61]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Mabel Howard 8,911 64.39 +17.11
National R G Brown 3,374 24.38 -0.21
Democratic Labour H G Schou[62] 1,277 9.23 -17.50
Real Democracy F Whiley 278 2.01
Majority 5,537 40.01 -11.48
Informal votes 213 1.52
Registered electors 14,835
Turnout 14,053 87.77 +22.76

1943 by-election

Christchurch East by-election, 1943[63][64]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Mabel Howard 4,559 47.27 -28.47
Democratic Labour Horace Herring 2,578 26.73
National Melville Lyons 2,371 24.59 +0.33
Independent Lincoln Efford 114 1.18
Independent Owen McKee 22 0.23
Majority 1,981 20.54 -30.95
Registered electors 14,835
Turnout 9,644 65.01 -26.42

1938 election

General election, 1938: Christchurch East[33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 10,561 75.74 +2.25
National K I Armour 3,382 24.26 +1.49
Majority 7,179 51.49 +0.76
Informal votes 73 0.52 -0.61
Registered electors 15,330
Turnout 14,016 91.43

1935 election

General election, 1935: Christchurch East[32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 8,299 73.49 +9.16
United/Reform Sydney Richardson[65][66] 2,571 22.77 -12.90
Independent B Ahlfeld 422 3.74
Majority 5,728 50.73 +22.07
Informal votes 129 1.13

1931 election

General election, 1931: Christchurch East[29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 7,196 64.33 +3.93
United George Frederick Allen 3,990 35.67 -3.93
Majority 3,206 28.66 +7.87

1928 election

General election, 1928: Christchurch East[28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 6,564 60.40 -2.64
United Denis Franklyn Dennehy[67] 4,304 39.60 +2.64
Majority 2,260 20.79 -5.28
Informal votes 488 4.30
Turnout 11,356 84.93
Registered electors 13,371

1925 election

General election, 1925: Christchurch East[27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 6,902 63.04 +15.83
Liberal Denis Franklyn Dennehy[67] 4,047 36.96 +1.57
Majority 2,855 26.08 +5.00

1922 election

General election, 1922: Christchurch East[26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Tim Armstrong 4,535 47.21 +7.75
Liberal Henry Thacker 3,400 35.39 -25.14
Reform W R Devereux 1,671 17.40
Majority 1,135 11.82 -9.26

1919 election

General election, 1919: Christchurch East[68]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Henry Thacker 5,572 60.54 +7.01
Labour Hiram Hunter 3,632 39.46 +10.65
Majority 1,940 21.08 -3.64
Informal votes 216 2.29 +1.39
Registered electors 11,666
Turnout 9,420 80.75 -7.47

1914 election

General election, 1914: Christchurch East[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Henry Thacker 4,093 53.53 +20.85
Social Democrat Hiram Hunter 2,203 28.81 -2.08
Reform George Duncan Macfarlane 1,350 17.66
Majority 1,890 24.72 +22.99
Informal votes 70 0.91 -0.43
Registered electors 8,747
Turnout 7,716 88.21 3.79

1911 election

General election, 1911: Christchurch East, first ballot[13][69]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Liberal Henry Thacker 2,492 32.68
Liberal Thomas Davey 2,360 30.95 -24.61
Labour (original) Hiram Hunter 2,356 30.89
Socialist Frederick Cooke 418 5.48 -2.57
Majority 132 1.73 -24.87
Informal votes 103 1.33
Registered electors 9,155
Turnout 7,729 84.42 -0.24
General election, 1911: Christchurch East, second ballot[13]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Thomas Davey 4,042 58.55 -24.61
Independent Liberal Henry Thacker 2,861 41.45
Majority 1,181 17.11 -24.87
Informal votes 33 0.48
Registered electors 9,155
Turnout 6,936 75.76

1908 election

General election, 1908: Christchurch East, first ballot[10]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Thomas Davey 3,479 55.56 +13.94
Independent Liberal James McCombs 1,813 28.95
Socialist Frederick Cooke 504 8.05 +6.61
Opposition Charles Boxshall 466 7.44
Majority 1,666 26.60 +17.65
Registered electors 7,427
Turnout 6,262 84.31 -0.35

1905 election

General election, 1905: Christchurch East[70]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Thomas Davey 2,625 41.61
New Liberal Henry Toogood 2,060 32.66
Liberal William Whitehouse Collins 1,532 24.29
Socialist Frederick Cooke 91 1.44
Majority 565 8.96
Informal votes 124 1.93
Registered electors 7,597
Turnout 6,432 84.66

1871 election

General election, 1871: Christchurch East[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Jerningham Wakefield 169 52.32
Independent Andrew Duncan 154 47.68
Majority 15 4.64

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Representation Act 1870 (33 and 34 Victoriae 1870 No 15)".  
  2. ^ a b "Electorate Boundaries".  
  3. ^ Report of the Representation Commission 2014 (PDF). Representation Commission. 4 April 2014. p. 10.  
  4. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 156.
  5. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 145.
  6. ^ a b "Return of Mr E. J. Wakefield for Christchurch East".  
  7. ^ "Toogood, Henry Featherston, (1879–1962)".  
  8. ^ McAloon, Jim. "Frederick Riley Cooke".  
  9. ^ "Parliamentary Candidates".  
  10. ^ a b c "The General Election, 1908".  
  11. ^ "Christchurch East".  
  12. ^ McLintock, A. H. (1966). "Second Ballot System (1908–13)". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c "The General Election, 1911".  
  14. ^ "Reform and Party Politics".  
  15. ^ "Christchurch East".  
  16. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 192.
  17. ^ "The Christchurch East seat".  
  18. ^ "Christchurch East".  
  19. ^ a b "The General Election, 1914".  
  20. ^ "Thacker's Triumph" (725). NZ Truth. 10 May 1919. p. 6. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  21. ^ "Canterbury Seats".  
  22. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 143.
  23. ^ "Chairmen and mayors".  
  24. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 93.
  25. ^ "General Election".  
  26. ^ a b "South Island Seats". Otautau Standard and Wallace County Chronicle. XVIII (909). 12 December 1922. p. 2. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  27. ^ a b "South Island". Otautau Standard and Wallace County Chronicle XXI (1055). 10 November 1925. p. 1. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  28. ^ a b The General Election, 1928. Government Printer. 1929. p. 2. Retrieved 4 December 2013. 
  29. ^ a b "Final Returns".  
  30. ^ "In Canterbury".  
  31. ^ "Welcome to Sumner School". Sumner School. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  32. ^ a b "Election Results".  
  33. ^ a b "The General Election, 1938". National Library. 1939. p. 2. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  34. ^ McAloon, Jim. "Armstrong, Hubert Thomas".  
  35. ^ "Split vote".  
  36. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 115.
  37. ^ "Five candidates".  
  38. ^ McAloon, Jim. "Howard, Mabel Bowden 1894–1972".  
  39. ^ a b "The General Election, 1943". National Library. 1944. p. 2. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  40. ^ a b Wilson 1985, p. 261.
  41. ^ "Hon Lianne Dalziel".  
  42. ^ "Dalziel invites Johnson to join mayoral race".  
  43. ^ "Johnson declines Dalziel ticket".  
  44. ^ Cairns, Lois (19 June 2013). "Heavyweights fight for city".  
  45. ^ Small, Vernon (27 July 2013). "Shearer is running of out time".  
  46. ^ Conway, Glenn (30 November 2013). "Chch by-election an easy Labour win".  
  47. ^  
  48. ^ Mathewson, Nicole; Stylianou, Georgina; Fulton, Tim (21 September 2014). "Election 2014: Canterbury decides".  
  49. ^ "Election Results –- Christchurch East". Electoral Commission. 4 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014. 
  50. ^ "Christchurch East By-Election Official Results". Electoral Commission. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  51. ^ "Official Count Results – Christchurch East". Electoral Commission. 10 December 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  52. ^ "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 
  53. ^ "Official Count Results – Christchurch East". Electoral Commission. 20 November 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  54. ^ "Official Count Results – Christchurch East". Electoral Commission. 1 October 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  55. ^ "Official Count Results – Christchurch East". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  56. ^ "CHRISTCHURCH EAST 07 Candidate Vote Details". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  57. ^ "Votes for Registered Parties by Electorate". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  58. ^ "Electorate Candidate and Party Votes Recorded at Each Polling Place – Christchurch East, 1996" (PDF). Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  59. ^ "Part III – Party Lists of Successful Registered Parties" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  60. ^ "Part III – Party Lists of unsuccessful Registered Parties" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  61. ^ "Results from all Electorates".  
  62. ^ "More Candidates".  
  63. ^ "Miss Howard's Lead".  
  64. ^ "By-Election Totals".  
  65. ^ "Christchurch East".  
  66. ^ "Obituary Hon. E. Richardson, C.M.G.".  
  67. ^ a b "Christchurch Nominations".  
  68. ^ The New Zealand Official Year-Book. Government Printer. 1920. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  69. ^ "Thacker and Davey in Second Ballot".  
  70. ^ "The General Election, 1905".  

References

External links

  • Electorate Profile Parliamentary Library
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