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Chrysobull

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Chrysobull


Not to be confused with Golden calf.

A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or "golden seal" in Latin), attached to a decree issued by Byzantine Emperors and later by monarchs in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The term was originally coined for the golden seal itself but came to be applied to the entire decree. Such decrees were known as golden bulls in western Europe and chrysobullos logos, or chrysobulls, in the Byzantine Empire (χρυσός, chrysos, being Greek for gold).

For nearly eight hundred years, they were issued unilaterally, without obligations on the part of the other party or parties. However, this eventually proved disadvantageous as the Byzantines sought to restrain the efforts of foreign powers to undermine the empire. During the 12th century, the Byzantines began to insert into golden bulls sworn statements of the obligations of their negotiating partners.

Notable golden bulls included:

  • The Golden Bull of Berne, supposedly also issued by Frederick II in 1218, but now considered a forgery.

See also

References

External links

  • Andrew II of Hungary's Golden Bull of 1222
  • Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356
  • article on the Golden Bull
  • Detailed Information about the Golden Bull
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