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The Circassians (Circassian: Адыгэхэр, Adygekher) are a North Caucasian ethnic group[1] native to Circassia, who were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864. The term "Circassian" includes the Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэ, Adyge) and Kabardian people.[2]

The Circassians mainly speak the Circassian language, a Northwest Caucasian language with numerous dialects. Many Circassians also speak Turkish, Arabic, and various other languages of the Middle East, having been exiled by Russia to lands of the Ottoman Empire, where the majority of them today live, and to neighboring Persia, to which they came primarily through mass deportations by the Safavids and Qajars or, to a lesser extent, as muhajirs in the 19th century.[3][4][5][6][7] The predominant religion amongst Circassians is Sunni Islam.

About 700,000 Circassians remain in historical Circassia (the republics of Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, and the southern half of Krasnodar Krai), and others live in the Russian Federation outside these republics. The 2010 Russian Census recorded 718,727 Circassians, of which 516,826 are Kabardians, 124,835 are Adyghe proper, 73,184 are Cherkess and 3,882 Shapsugs.[8]

The Turkey, 700,000 in the Russian Federation, 150,000 in the Levant and Mesopotamia, and 50,000 in Europe and the United States.


  • Names 1
  • History 2
    • Origins 2.1
    • Medieval period 2.2
    • Russian Invasion of Circassia 2.3
    • Post-exile period 2.4
  • Culture 3
    • Language 3.1
    • Religion 3.2
      • Adyghe Khabze 3.2.1
    • Traditional clothing 3.3
    • Traditional cuisine 3.4
    • Traditional crafts 3.5
  • Circassian tribes 4
  • Circassian diaspora 5
    • Western Asia 5.1
    • Egypt and Libya 5.2
    • Europe 5.3
    • North America 5.4
  • Sochi Olympics controversy 6
  • In popular culture 7
  • Gallery 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12


In their own language the Circassians refer to themselves as Adyghe (also transliterated as Adyga, Adyge, Adygei, Adyghe, Attéghéi). The name is believed to derive from atté "height" to signify a mountaineer or a highlander, and ghéi "sea", signifying "a people dwelling and inhabiting a mountainous country near the sea coast", or "between two seas".[9][10]

A common name for the Adyghe is Circassians (), a name which is occasionally applied to Adyghe and Abaza from the North Caucasus.[11] The name Circassian represents a Latinisation of Cherkess, the Turkic name for the Adyghe, and originated in the 15th century with medieval Genoese merchants and travellers to Circassia.[11][12] But the earliest known form of the name "Cherkess" dates from the time of the Mongols who invaded the North Caucasus in medieval times, and who called the Adyghe "Serkesut", a term which appears in Mongol texts from the 12th century.

The Turkic peoples[13] and Russians call the Adyghe Cherkess,.[14] Folk etymology usually explains the name Cherkess as "warrior cutter" or "soldier cutter", from the Turkic words cheri (soldier) and kesmek (to cut), so that Cherkess would mean "soldier-cutter".

Despite a common self-designation and a common Russian name,[15] Soviet authorities applied four designations to Circassians:



Circassia. The Circassians homeland in 1700.

The Adyghe people originate in the North Caucasus region, an area they are believed to have occupied as early as the Stone Age period, with traces of them dating back as far as 8000 BC. In about 4000 BC the Maykop culture flourished in the North Caucasus region and influenced all subsequent cultures in the North Caucasus region as well as other parts of the region that would become southern Russia. Archaeological findings, mainly of dolmens in North-West Caucasus region, indicate a megalithic culture in the region.[20]

The Adyghe kingdom originated about 400 BC.[20] After 460 AD, reports of "Utige" begin to feature in connection to a state established around Phanagoria, which grew into Old Great Bulgaria (632–668). After the collapse of this state under pressure from the Khazars, the Adyghe people did not seem to unite politically. This reduced their influence in the area and their ability to withstand periodic invasions from groups like the Mongols, Avars, Pechenegs, Huns, and Khazars.

Genetically, the Adyghe population has shared ancestry mainly with neighboring peoples of the Caucasus, with some influence from the other regions.[21]

Medieval period

Tuman bay II, the last Adyghe origin sultan of Mamluks

Crimean Tatars and Ottoman clerics, the Circassians adopted Islam.

Most of the Turkish slaves who were gathered by the Arab sultans to serve their kingdoms as a military force. Others, however, say that the Mamluks were mostly Cumans and Kipchaks.[24] During the 13th century, the Mamluks seized power in Cairo, and as a result the Mamluk kingdom became the most influential kingdom in the Muslim world. The majority of the leaders of the Mamluk kingdom were of Adyghe origin.[25] Even after Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Turks, the Adyghes continued to rule in Egypt until the 18th century.

With the rise of Muhammad Ali Pasha, almost all the senior Mamluks were killed and the remaining Mamluks fled to Sudan.

Today, several thousand Adyghes reside in Egypt and they are the descendants of these Mamluks. Until the rise of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt, the Adyghes were an elite group in the country. The single remaining exception is the Egyptian Abaza family that holds to this day an elite place in Egyptian society. It constitutes Egypt's largest family and largest Abazin minority. (See Abaza family.)

Large numbers of Circassians converted to Islam from Christianity in the 17th century.[26]

In Safavid and Qajar Persia, large numbers of Circassians were imported and deported to Persia, where many enjoyed prestige in the Harems, the elite armies (the so-called ghulams), while many others were settled and deployed as craftsmen, labourers, farmers and regular soldiers. Many members of the Safavid nobility and elite had Circassian ancestry and Circassian dignitaries, such as the kings Abbas II and Suleiman I. While traces of Circassian settlements in Iran have lasted into the 20th century, many of the once large Circassian minority got assimilated into the population.[27] However, there are still significant communities of Circassians living in particular cities in Iran,[28] like Tabriz and Tehran, and in the northern provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran.[29][30]

It has been estimated that some 200,000 slaves—mainly Circassians—were imported into the Ottoman Empire between 1800 and 1909.[31] The Circassian beauties were desirable as concubines.[32]

Russian Invasion of Circassia

Map of the expulsion of Circassians to the Ottoman Empire

Between the late 18th and early-to-mid-19th centuries, the Adyghe people lost their independence as they were slowly invaded by Dagestan, Armenia, and Azerbaijan to Imperial Russia,[34] the latter found itself now able to focus most of its army on subdueing the rebelling natives of the North Caucasus, starting with the peoples of Chechnya and Dagestan. In 1859, the Russians had finished defeating Imam Shamil in the eastern Caucasus, and turned their attention westward. Eventually, the long lasting Russian–Circassian War ended with the defeat of the Adyghe forces. Some Adyghe leaders signed loyalty oaths on 2 June 1864 (21 May, O.S.).

The Conquest of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire in the 19th century during the Russian-Circassian War, led to the destruction and killing of many Adyghe—towards the end of the conflict, the Russian General Yevdokimov was tasked with driving the remaining Circassian inhabitants out of the region, primarily into the Ottoman Empire. This policy was enforced by mobile columns of Russian riflemen and Cossack cavalry.[35][36][37] "In a series of sweeping military campaigns lasting from 1860 to 1864... the northwest Caucasus and the Black Sea coast were virtually emptied of Muslim villagers. Columns of the displaced were marched either to the Kuban [River] plains or toward the coast for transport to the Ottoman Empire... One after another, entire Circassian tribal groups were dispersed, resettled, or killed en masse"[37] This expulsion, along with the actions of the Russian military in acquiring Circassian land,[38] has given rise to a movement among descendants of the expelled ethnicities for international recognition that genocide was perpetrated.[39] In 1840, Karl Friedrich Neumann estimated the Circassian casualties to be around one and a half million.[40] Some sources state that hundreds of thousands of others died during the exodus.[41] Several historians use the phrase "Circassian massacres"[42] for the consequences of Russian actions in the region.[43]

On 20 May 2011, the genocide when it engaged in massacres against Circassians in the 19th century.[44]

Like other ethnic minorities under Russian rule, the Adyghe who remained in the Russian Empire borders were subjected to policies of mass resettlement.

The Ottoman Empire, which ruled most of the area south of Russia, considered the Adyghe warriors to be courageous and well-experienced. It encouraged them to settle in various near-border settlements of the Ottoman Empire in order to strengthen the empire's borders.

Post-exile period

Adyghe from the Adyghe village of Kfar Kama in Golan Heights

The Adyghes who were settled by the Ottomans in various near-border settlements across the empire, ended up living across many territories in the Middle East. At the time these belonged to the Ottoman Empire and are now located in the following countries:

  • Turkey, which has the largest Adyghe population in the world. The Adyghe settled in three main regions in Turkey: Samsun, along the shores of the Black Sea; the region near the city of Ankara, the region near the city of Kayseri, and in the western part of the country near the region of Istanbul. This latter region experienced a severe earthquake in 1999. Many Adyghe played key roles in the Ottoman army and also participated in the Turkish War of Independence.
  • Syria. Most of the Adyghe who immigrated to Syria settled in the Golan Heights. Prior to the Six Day War, the Adyghe people were the majority group in the Golan Heights region — their number at that time is estimated at 30,000. The most prominent settlement in the Golan was the town of Quneitra. The total number of Circassians in Syria is estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000.[45] In 2013, the Syrian Circassians said they were exploring returning to Circassia, as tensions between the Baath government and the opposition forces escalates. Circassians from different parts of Syria, such as Damascus, have moved back to the Golan Heights, believed to be safer. Some refugees have been reportedly killed by shelling. Circassians have been lobbying the Russian and Israeli governments to help evacuate refugees from Syria. Some visas were issued by Russia.[46]
  • Jordan. The Adyghe had a major role in the history of the Kingdom of Jordan.[47][48] They make up around 1% to 2% of the total population. Over the years, various Adyghe have served in distinguished roles in the kingdom of Jordan. An Adyghe has served as a prime minister (Sa'id al-Mufti), ministers (commonly at least one minister should represent the Circassians in each cabinet), high rank officers, etc., and due to their important role in the history of Jordan, Adyghe form the Hashemites honour guard at the royal palaces. They represented Jordan in the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo in 2010, joining other honour guards such as the Airborne Ceremonial Unit.[49][50]
  • Iraq. The Adyghe came to Iraq in two waves: directly from Circassia, and later from the Balkans. They settled in all parts of Iraq — from north to south — but most of all in Iraq's capital Baghdad. A reported 30,000 Adyghe families live in Baghdad. Many Adyghe also settled in Kerkuk, Diyala, Fallujah, and other places. Circassians played a major role in different periods throughout Iraq's history, and made great contributions to political and military institutions in the country, to the Iraqi Army in particular. Several Iraqi prime ministers have been of Circassian descent.
  • Golan Heights, Syria. The Adyghe initially settled in three places — in Kfar Kama, Rehaniya, and in the region of Hadera. Due to a malaria epidemic, the Adyghe settlement near Hadera was eventually abandoned.


Adyghe society prior to the Russian invasion was highly stratified. While a few tribes in the mountainous regions of Adygeya were fairly egalitarian, most were broken into strict castes. The highest was the caste of the "princes", followed by a caste of lesser nobility, and then commoners, serfs, and slaves. In the decades before Russian rule, two tribes overthrew their traditional rulers and set up democratic processes, but this social experiment was cut short by the end of Adyghe independence.


The Circassian languages development

Circassians mainly speak the Circassian language, a Northwest Caucasian language with numerous dialects, the primary ones being Adyghe (West Circassian) and Kabardian (East Circassian). Circassians also speak Russian, Turkish and Arabic in large numbers, having been exiled by Russia to lands of the Ottoman Empire, where the majority of them live today.

Lesser numbers of Circassians speak English, German, and Persian.

The native language is spoken among all the Circassian communities around the world, with about 125,000 speakers who live in the Russian Federation, some of whom live in the Republic of Adygea where the Adyghe language is defined as the official language. The world's largest Adyghe-speaking community is the Circassian community in Turkey — it has about 150,000 Adyghe speakers.

The Circassians who migrated to the United States are facing an assimiliation crisis. Each new generation of Circassians are not preserving their language. Historians predict the language will be extinct within the next 50 years in the U.S.


The mosque of Abu Darwish (Adyghe descendent), one of the oldest mosques in Amman and considered as a major landmark

The ethnic religion of Circassians (Adyghes) was Habze — a philosophical and religious system of personal values and the relationship of an individual to others, to the world around him, and to the Higher Mind. In essence, it represents monotheism with a much-defined system of worshipping One God — the Mighty Tha (Tha, Thashxue). During the time of the settlement of Greek cities / colonies on the coast of the Black Sea there was an intermingling of cultures. Circassian mythology has noticeable aspects from Roman mythology. In return, there is evidence that Roman mythology also borrowed from Circassian legends. In the 6th century, under Byzantine influence, many Adyghes became Christian, but under the growing influence of the Ottomans, many of them became Muslims. Throughout Circassian history the ethnic religion of Circassians has interacted with Christianity and Islam.

Georgians between the 10th century and the 13th century. During that period, Circassians began to accept Christianity as their national religion, but did not fully adopt Christianity as elements of their ancient indigenous religious beliefs still survived.

Islam reached the northeastern region of the Caucasus, principally Dagestan, as early as the 7th century, but was first introduced to the Circassians between the 16th century and in the middle of the 19th century under the influence of the Crimean Tatars, the Ottoman Turks and the Persians.

In the modern times, it has been reported that some Circassians practice their traditional religious faith Habzism, whose adherents constitute 12% of the population of Karachay-Cherkessia and 3% of the population of Kabardino-Balkaria.[52][53] There have also been reports of violence against those practising the older religion. Aslan Tsipinov, an advocate of Habzism in Kabardino-Balkaria, was murdered by radical Islamists in 2010, who had warned him months earlier to stop publicizing the rituals of the original Circassian faith.[54][55]

Today, the majority of Circassians are predominantly Sunni Muslim and adhere to the Hanafi school of thought, or law, the largest and oldest school of Islamic law in jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. There is also a few Catholics, the faith having been introduced to the area during the Middle Ages by Venetian and Genoese traders, who now account for just under 1% of Russia's Circassians.[56]

Adyghe Khabze

Habzist "hammer cross" symbol, representing the highest god Tha.[57]

Adyghe Khabze (Adyghe: Адыгэ Хабзэ) is the native Circassian religion, philosophy and worldview, it is the epitome of Circassian culture and tradition having deeply shaped the ethical values of the Adyghe. It is their code of honour and is based on mutual respect and above all requires responsibility, discipline and self-control. Adyghe Xabze functions as the Circassian unwritten law yet was highly regulated and adhered to in the past. The Code requires that all Circassians are taught courage, reliability and generosity. Greed, desire for possessions, wealth and ostentation are considered disgraceful ("Yemiku") by the Xabze code. In accordance with Xabze, hospitality was and is particularly pronounced among the Circassians. A guest is not only a guest of the host family, but equally a guest of the whole village and clan. Even enemies are regarded as guests if they enter the home and being hospitable to them as one would with any other guest is a sacred duty.

Circassians consider the host to be like a slave to the guest in that the host is expected to tend to the guest's every need and want. A guest must never be permitted to labour in any way, this is considered a major disgrace on the host.

Every Circassian arises when someone enters the room, providing a place for the person entering and allowing the newcomer to speak before everyone else during the conversation. In the presence of elders and women, respectful conversation and conduct are essential. Disputes are stopped in the presence of women and domestic disputes are never continued in the presence of guests. A woman can request disputing families to reconcile and they must comply with her request. A key figure in Circassian culture is the person known as the "T'hamade" (Adyghe: Тхьэмадэ - Тхьэматэ), who is often an elder but also the person who carries the responsibility for functions like weddings or circumcision parties. This person must always comply with all the rules of Xabze in all areas of his life.

Traditional clothing

Traditional Adyghe clothing

The Adyghe traditional clothing (Adyghe: Адыгэ Щыгъыныхэр ) refers to the historical clothing worn by the Adyghe people.

The traditional female clothing (Adyghe: Бзылъфыгъэ Шъуашэр ) was very diverse and highly decorated and mainly depends on the region, class of family, occasions, and tribes. The traditional female costume is composed of a dress (Adyghe: Джанэр ), coat (Adyghe: Сае ), shirt, pant (Adyghe: ДжэнэкӀакор ), vest (Adyghe: КӀэкӀ ), lamb leather bra (Adyghe: Шъохътан ), a variety of hats (Adyghe: ПэӀохэр ), shoes, and belts (Adyghe: Бгырыпхыхэр ). Holiday dresses are made of expensive fabrics such as silk and velvet. The traditional colors of women's clothing rarely includes blue, green or bright-colored tones, instead mostly white, red, black and brown shades are worn.

The traditional male costume (Adyghe: Адыгэ хъулъфыгъэ шъуашэр ) includes a coat with wide sleeves, shirt, pants, a dagger, sword, and a variety of hats and shoes. Traditionally, young men in the warriors times wore coat with short sleeves—in order to feel more comfortable in combat. Different colors of clothing for males were strictly used to distinguish between different social classes, for example white is usually worn by princes, red by nobles, gray, brown, and black by peasants (blue, green and the other colors were rarely worn). A compulsory item in the traditional male costume is a dagger and a sword. The traditional Adyghean sword is called Shashka. It is a special kind of sabre; a very sharp, single-edged, single-handed, and guardless sword. Although the sword is used by most of Russian and Ukrainian Cossacks, the typically Adyghean form of the sabre is longer than the Cossack type, and in fact the word Shashka came from the Adyghe word "Sashkhwa" (Adyghe: Сашьхъуэ) which means "long knife". On the breast of the costume are long ornamental tubes or sticks, once filled with a single charge of gunpowder (called gaziri cadridges) and used to reload muskets.

Traditional cuisine

Circassian house and traditional cuisine with Haliva (Хьэлжъо) and Mataz (Мэтазэ), two of the prominent traditional Adyghe snacks.

The Adyghe cuisine is rich with different dishes.[58][59] In the summer, the traditional dishes consumed by the Adyghe people are mainly dairy products and vegetable dishes. In the winter and spring the traditional dishes are mainly flour and meat dishes. An example of the latter is known as ficcin.

Circassian cheese is considered one of the more famous types of cheeses in the North Caucasus.

A popular traditional dish is chicken or turkey with sauce, seasoned with crushed garlic and red pepper. Mutton and beef are served boiled, usually with a seasoning of sour milk with crushed garlic and salt.

Variants of pasta are found. A type of ravioli may be encountered, which is filled with potato or beef.

On holidays the Adyghe people traditionally make Haliva (Adyghe: хьэлжъо) (fried triangular pastries with mainly Circassian cheese or potato), from toasted millet or wheat flour in syrup, baked cakes and pies. In the Levant there is a famous Circassian dish which is called Tajen Alsharkaseiah.[60]

Traditional crafts

The Adyghes have been famous for making carpets (Adyghe: пӏуаблэхэр ) or mats worldwide for thousands of years.

Making carpets was very hard work in which collecting raw materials is restricted to a specific period within the year. The raw materials were dried, and based on the intended colours, different methods of drying were applied. For example, when dried in the shade, its colour changed to a beautiful light gold colour. If it were dried in direct sun light then it would have a silver colour, and if they wanted to have a dark colour for the carpets, the raw materials were put in a pool of water and covered by poplar leaves (Adyghe: екӏэпцӏэ ).

The carpets were adorned with images of birds, beloved animals (horses), and plants, and the image of the Sun was widely used.

The carpets were used for different reasons due to their characteristic resistance to humidity and cold, and in retaining heat. Also, there was a tradition in Circassian homes to have two carpets hanging in the guest room, one used to hang over rifles (Adyghe: шхончымрэ ) and pistols (Adyghe: къэлаеымрэ), and the other used to hang over musical instruments.

The carpets were used to pray upon, and it was necessary for every Circassian girl to make three carpets before marriage; a big carpet, a small carpet, and the last for praying as a prayer rug. These carpets would give the grooms an impression as to the success of their brides in their homes after marriage.[61]

Circassian tribes

From the late Middle Ages, a number of territorial- and political-based Circassian tribes or ethnic entities began to take shape. Their culture, traditions, and way of life differed little.

At the end of the Caucasian War with most Circassians were expelled to the Ottoman Empire, many of the tribes were destroyed or evicted from their historical homeland.
Ethnic group Circassian name Sub-ethnic group (tribe)[62][63] Circassian name Notes
Adyghes (West Circassians) Abzakh (Abadzekh[62]) Абдзах
Adamiy Адэмый
Bzhedug (Bzhedukh[62]) Бжъэдыгъу
Guaye Гъоайе Not found after the Caucasian War
Yegerquay Еджэрыкъуай completely expelled from the Caucasus after the Caucasian War
Zhaney (Zhan[62]) Жанэ Not found after the Caucasian War
Mamkhegh Мэмхэгъ, Мамхыгъ
Makhosh (Mequash) (Mokhosh[62]) Махошъ
Natukhai (Notkuadj[62]) Натыхъуай , Наткъуадж ) completely expelled from the Caucasus after the Caucasian War
Temirgoy (Kemgui[62]) КIэмгуй
Hatuqwai (Khatukai[62]) Хьэтыкъуай completely expelled from the Caucasus after the Caucasian War
Shegak (Khegaik[62]) Хэгъуайкъу Not found after the Caucasian War
Adali (Khatko) (Khetuk or Adali[62]) ХьэтIукъу Not found after the Caucasian War
Chebsin (Čöbein[62]) ЦIопсынэ Not found after the Caucasian War
Shapsug Шэпсыгъ, Шапсыгъ
Kabardays (Kabardian language speakers[64]) Къэбэрдэй , Къэбэртай
Cherkesses (Kabardian language speakers[64]) Baslaney (Beslenei[62]) Беслъэней
Ubykhs Убых , Пэху completely expelled from the Caucasus after the Caucasian War

Most Adyghe living in Circassia are Bzhedugh, Kabarday and Kemirgoy, while the majority in diaspora are Abzekh and Shapsugh. Standard Adyghe language is based on Kemirgoy dialect.

The twelve stars on the Circassian flag symbolize the individual tribes of the Circassians; the nine stars within the arc symbolize the nine aristocratic tribes of Adygea, and the three horizontal stars symbolize the three democratic tribes. The twelve tribes are the Abdzakh, Baslaney, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Kabarday, Mamkhegh, Natukhai, Shapsugs, Temirgoy, Ubykh, Yegeruqay, and Zhaney.[65]

Circassian diaspora

Adyghe horsemanship in Transjordan, April 1921

Adyghe have lived outside the Caucasus region since the Middle Ages. They were particularly well represented in the Mamluks of Turkey and Egypt. In fact, the Burji dynasty which ruled Egypt from 1382 to 1517 was founded by Adyghe Mamluks.

Starting from the 16th and 17th century up to the course of the 19th century, a massive Circassian diaspora was created in Iran and Turkey due to deportation, importation, resettlement, and to a much lesser extent voluntary migration.

Much of Adyghe culture was disrupted after the conquest of their homeland by Russia in 1864. The Circassian people were subjected to ethnic cleansing and mass exile mainly to the Ottoman Empire, and to a lesser extent Qajar Iran and the Balkans. This increased the number of Circassians in the region and even created several entirely new Circassian communities in the states that got created after the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.

The total number of Circassians worldwide is estimated at 6 million.

Western Asia

Around half of all Circassians live in Turkey, mainly in the provinces of Samsun and Ordu (in Northern Turkey), Kahramanmaraş (in Southern Turkey), Kayseri (in Central Turkey), Bandırma and Düzce (in Northwest Turkey).

Significant communities live in Jordan,[66] Syria (see Circassians in Syria),[66] and smaller communities live in Israel (in the villages of Kfar Kama and Rehaniya — see Circassians in Israel)[66]

  • Circassian World.
  • Circassians.
  • The Cherkess Fund Organization.
  • Justice for North Caucasus.
  • Circassian Cultural Institute.
  • Circassian Education Foundation, USA.
  • EUROXASE (Federation of European Circassians), EU.
  • NART TV (National Adyghe Radio & Television), Jordan.
  • KAFSAM (Kafkasya Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi), Turkey.
  • Map of the diaspora.
  • .www.adigafriends.comUniting all Adyghe, Adyghe network
  • .The New York TimesJordanians and their culture in Jordan,

External links

  • Jaimoukha, Amjad, The Circassians: A Handbook; New York, Palgrave, 2001; London, Routledge Curzon, 2001. ISBN 978-0-312-23994-7.
  • Jaimoukha, Amjad, Circassian Culture and Folklore: Hospitality Traditions, Cuisine, Festivals & Music (Kabardian, Cherkess, Adigean, Shapsugh & Diaspora), Bennett and Bloom, 2010.
  • Bell, James Stanislaus, Journal of a residence in Circassia during the years 1837, 1838, and 1839 .
  • Richmond, Walter. The Circassian Genocide, Rutgers University Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0-8135-6069-4

Further reading

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Oberling, Pierre, Georgians and Circassians in Iran, The Hague, 1963; pp.127-143
  5. ^ Engelbert Kaempfer (p. 204)
  6. ^ Khanbaghi, Aptin, The Fire, the Star and the Cross; minority religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran, pp. 130
  7. ^
  8. ^ Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity (Russian)
  9. ^ Spencer, Edmund, Travels in the Western Caucasus, including a Tour through Imeritia, Mingrelia, Turkey, Moldavia, Galicia, Silesia, and Moravia in 1836. London, H. Colburn, 1838. P. 6.
  10. ^ Loewe, Louis. A Dictionary of the Circassian Language: in Two Parts: English-Circassian-Turkish, and Circassian-English-Turkish. London, Bell, 1854 P. 5.
  11. ^ a b Latham, R. G. Elements of Comparative Philology. London, Walton and Maberly, 1862. P. 279.
  12. ^ Latham, R. G. Descriptive Ethnology. London, J. Van Voorst, 1859. P. 50.
  13. ^ Guthrie, William, James Ferguson, and John Knox. A New Geographical, Historical and Commercial Grammar and Present State of the Several Kingdoms of the World... Philadelphia, Johnson & Warner, 1815. P. 549.
  14. ^ Taitbout, De Marigny. Three Voyages in the Black Sea to the Coast of Circassia. London, 1837. Pp. 5–6.
  15. ^ S. A. Arutyunov. "Conclusion of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the ethnonym "Circassian" and the toponym "Circassia." 25 May 2010. (Russian)
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^ Всероссийская перепись 2010, Итоги, Т. 4. — Табл. 1. Национальный состав населения (скачать:[16]
  18. ^ Всероссийская перепись 2010, Итоги, Т. 4. — Табл. 1. Национальный состав населения (скачать:[16]).
  19. ^
  20. ^ a b
  21. ^
  22. ^ a b The Penny Magazine. London, Charles Knight, 1838. P. 138.
  23. ^ a b Minahan, James. One Europe, Many Nations: a Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Westport, USA, Greenwood, 2000. P. 354.
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ "Rekhaniya". Jewish Virtual Library.
  27. ^
  28. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East Facts On File, Incorporated ISBN 143812676X p 141
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^ W. G. Clarence-Smith (2006). "Islam And The Abolition Of Slavery". Oxford University Press. pp. 13–16. ISBN 0-19-522151-6
  32. ^ "The Circassian Slave; or, The Sultan's Favorite". The Project Gutenberg EBook.
  33. ^
  34. ^ Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728-729 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014 ISBN 1598849484
  35. ^ Levene 2005:297
  36. ^
  37. ^ a b King 2008: 94–6.
  38. ^ Shenfield, Stephen D., 1999. The Circassians: a forgotten genocide?. In Levene, Mark and Penny Roberts, eds., The Massacre in History. Oxford and New York, Berghahn Books. Series: War and Genocide; 1. 149–62.
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See also


In medieval times, the attention of Europe was drawn to the existence of a wild mountain people, related to Europeans. 'Circassian beauties' became a staple of popular fiction and circus advertising, giving a touch of the exotic, yet familiar. The images were of greater or lesser accuracy, depending on the presenter. Over the years, Adyghes have been featured in various popular books and films.

In popular culture

Adyghe organizations in Russia and the Adyghe diaspora around the world have requested that the construction at the site would stop and that the Olympic games would not be held at the site of the Adyghe genocide to prevent the desecration of the Adyghe graves. According to Iyad Youghar, who heads the lobby group International Circassian Council: "We want the athletes to know that if they compete here they will be skiing on the bones of our relatives."[74] The year 2014 also marked the 150th anniversary of the Circassian Genocide which angered the Circassians around the world. Many protests were held all over the world to stop the Sochi Olympics but were not successful.

The 2014 Winter Olympics facilities in Sochi (once the Circassian capital)[74] were built in areas that are claimed to contain mass graves of Circassians who were killed during genocide by Russia in military campaigns lasting from 1860 to 1864.[75]

Sochi Olympics controversy

Numerous Circassians have also immigrated to the United States and settled in Upstate New York, California, and New Jersey. There is also a small Circassian community in Canada.

North America

There may be a small community of Circassians in Serbia and Macedonia. A number of Adyghe also settled in Bulgaria in 1864–1865 but most fled after it became separate from the Ottoman Empire in 1878. The small community that settled in Kosovo (the Kosovo Adyghes) repatriated to the Republic of Adygea in 1998.

Out of 1,010 Circassians living in Ukraine (473 Kabardins, 338 Adygeis and 199 Cherkesses — after the existing Soviet division of Circassians into three groups), only 181 (17.9%) declared fluency in the native language; 96 (9.5%) declared Ukrainian as native language and 697 (69%) marked "other language" as their native and most likely the latter is Russian, though none openly declared it.[73] The major Adyghe community in Ukraine is in Odessa.

There are Circassians in Germany and a small number in the Netherlands.


Circassian communities existed in Egypt, Libya and Tunisia and were assimilated into the local population.[72]

Egypt and Libya

Circassians commemorate the banishment of the Circassians from Russia in Taksim, İstanbul

Circassians are also present in Iraq. Baghdad, Sulaymaniya and Diyala comprise the nations' main cities with Circassians,[71] though lesser numbers are spread in other regions and cities as well.


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