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Citrulline

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Title: Citrulline  
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Subject: Urea cycle, Arginine, Argininosuccinate synthase, Urea cycle disorder, Citrullinemia
Collection: Amino Acids, Urea Cycle, Ureas
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Citrulline

Citrulline
Skeletal formula of citrulline
Ball and stick model of zwitterionic citrulline
Names
IUPAC name
2-Amino-5-(carbamoylamino)pentanoic acid[1]
Identifiers
 N
R N
S N
3DMet
1725417, 1725415 R, 1725416 S
ChEBI  N
ChEMBL  Y
ChemSpider  N
R N
S N
DrugBank  Y
EC number 211-012-2
774677 S
Jmol-3D images Image
Image
KEGG  Y
MeSH
PubChem
 R
 S
UNII  Y
Properties
C6H13N3O3
Molar mass 175.19 g·mol−1
Appearance White crystals
Odor Odourless
log P −1.373
Acidity (pKa) 2.508
Basicity (pKb) 11.489
Thermochemistry
232.80 J K−1 mol−1
254.4 J K−1 mol−1
Related compounds
Related alkanoic acids
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: Y/N?)

The amino acid. Its name is derived from citrullus, the Latin word for watermelon, from which it was first isolated in 1914 by Koga & Odake. It was finally identified by Wada in 1930.[2] It has the formula H2NC(O)NH(CH2)3CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a key intermediate in the urea cycle, the pathway by which mammals excrete ammonia.

In the body, citrulline is produced as a byproduct of the enzymatic production of nitric oxide from the amino acid arginine, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase.[3] This is an essential reaction in the body because nitric oxide is an important vasodilator required for regulating blood pressure.

Contents

  • Biosynthesis 1
  • Function 2
  • Sources 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Biosynthesis

Citrulline is made from ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate in one of the central reactions in the urea cycle. It is also produced from arginine as a by-product of the reaction catalyzed by NOS family (NOS; EC 1.14.13.39).[4] It is made from arginine by the enzyme trichohyalin at the inner root sheath and medulla of hair follicles.[5] Arginine is first oxidized into N-hydroxyl-arginine, which is then further oxidized to citrulline concomitant with release of nitric oxide.

Function

Several proteins contain citrulline as a result of a posttranslational modification. These citrulline residues are generated by a family of enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), which convert arginine into citrulline in a process called citrullination or deimination. Proteins that normally contain citrulline residues include myelin basic protein (MBP), filaggrin, and several histone proteins, whereas other proteins, such as fibrin and vimentin are susceptible to citrullination during cell death and tissue inflammation.

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis often have detectable antibodies against proteins containing citrulline. Although the origin of this immune response is not known, detection of antibodies reactive with citrulline (anti-citrullinated protein antibodies) containing proteins or peptides is now becoming an important help in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.[6]

Circulating citrulline concentration is, in humans, a biomarker of intestinal functionality.[7]

Sources

Citrulline in the form of citrulline malate is sold as a performance-enhancing athletic dietary supplement, which was shown to reduce muscle fatigue in a preliminary human study.[8]

The rind of

  1. ^ "Citrulline - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 16 September 2004. Identification. Retrieved 1 May 2012. 
  2. ^ Fearon, William Robert (1939). "The Carbamido Diacetyl Reaction: A Test For Citrulline" (PDF). Biochemical Journal 33 (6): 902–907. 
  3. ^ "Nos2 - Nitric Oxide Synthase". Uniprot.org. Uniprot Consortium. Retrieved 10 February 2015. 
  4. ^ Cox M, Lehninger AL, Nelson DR (2000). Lehninger principles of biochemistry (3rd ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.  
  5. ^ Rogers, G. E.; Rothnagel, J. A. (1983). "A sensitive assay for the enzyme activity in hair follicles and epidermis that catalyses the peptidyl-arginine-citrulline post-translational modification". Current problems in dermatology 11: 171–184.  
  6. ^ Coenen D, Verschueren P, Westhovens R, Bossuyt X (March 2007). "Technical and diagnostic performance of 6 assays for the measurement of citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis". Clin. Chem. 53 (3): 498–504.  
  7. ^ Crenn P. et al. Post-absorptive plasma citrulline concentration is a marker of intestinal failure in short bowel syndrome patients. Gastroenterology 119 (2000) , 1496-505
  8. ^ Bendahan D, Mattei JP, Ghattas B, Confort-Gouny S, Le Guern ME, Cozzone PJ (Aug 2002). "Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle". Br J Sports Med 36 (4): 282–9.  
  9. ^ Texas A&M University (1 July 2008). "Watermelon may have viagra effect". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 

References

See also

[9]

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