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Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon

Henri de Saint-Simon
Born (1760-10-17)17 October 1760
Paris, France
Died 19 May 1825(1825-05-19) (aged 64)
Paris, France
Era 19th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy

Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (French: ; 17 October 1760 – 19 May 1825), was a French political and economic theorist and businessperson whose thought played a substantial role in influencing politics, economics, sociology, and the philosophy of science.

He created a political and economic ideology known as industrialism that claimed that the needs of an industrial class that he also referred to as the

  • Saint-Simon and Saint-Simonism Catholic Encyclopedia article
  • By Arthur John BoothSaint-Simon and Saint-Simonism: A Chapter in the History of Socialism in France
  • by Caspar Hewett'Henri de Saint-Simon: The Great Synthesist
  • , 1825, Henri de Saint-SimonNew Christianity

External links

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain

References

  1. ^ a b c d Jeremy Jennings. Revolution and the Republic: A History of Political Thought in France Since the Eighteenth Century. Oxford University Press, 2011. P347.
  2. ^ a b c d Gregory Claeys. Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Thought. Oxon, UK: Routledge, 2005. P136.
  3. ^ John Powell, Derek W. Blakeley, Tessa Powell. Biographical Dictionary of Literary Influences: The Nineteenth Century, 1800-1914. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001. P267.
  4. ^ a b Nicholas Capaldi. John Stuart Mill: A Biography. Cambridge University Press, 2004. Pp. 77-80.
  5. ^ a b Rob Knowles. Political Economy from Below: Economic Thought in Communitarian Anarchism 1840-1914: Economic Thought in Communitarian Anarchism, 1840-1914. Routledge, 2013. P342.
  6. ^ Horowitz, Irving Louis, ;;Veblen's Century: A Collective Portrait;; (2002), p. 142
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Keith Taylor (ed, tr.). Henri de Saint Simon, 1760-1825: Selected writings on science, industry and social organization. New York, USA: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc, 1975. Pp. 158-161.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Alan Ryan. On Politics. Book II. Pp 647-650.
  9. ^ a b c d e Alan Ryan. On Politics. Book II. Pp 647-651.
  10. ^ Arthur Bernie. An Economic History of Europe 1760-1930. Routledge, 1930 (original), 2010. P113.
  11. ^ Vincent Mosco. The Political Economy of Communication. SAGE, 2009. P53.
  12. ^ Isaiah Berlin, Freedom and Its Betrayal, Princeton University Press, 2002, p. 96
  13. ^ Busky, Donald F.: "Communism in History and Theory: From Utopian Socialism to the Fall of the Soviet Union"
  14. ^ Manuel, Frank E.: "The Prophets of Paris", Harper & Row 1962
  15. ^ Newman, Michael. (2005) Socialism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-280431-6
  16. ^ a b Murray E. G. Smith. Early Modern Social Theory: Selected Interpretive Readings. P80.
  17. ^ Murray E. G. Smith. Early Modern Social Theory: Selected Interpretive Readings. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Scholars Press, Inc, 1998. P80.
  18. ^ Murray E. G. Smith. Early Modern Social Theory: Selected Interpretive Readings. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Scholars Press, Inc, 1998. P80-81.
  19. ^ Promenades dans Londres, first published 1840. Page 276, Broché edition (2003) from La Découverte.

Notes

See also

  • Lettres d'un habitant de Genève à ses contemporains (1803),
  • L'Industrie (1816-1817),
  • Le Politique (1819),
  • L'Organisateur (1819-1820),
  • Du système industriel, 1822
  • Catéchisme des industriels (1823-1824),
  • Nouveau Christianisme (1825).
  • An edition of the works of Saint-Simon and Enfantin was published by the survivors of the sect (47 vols., Paris, 1865–1878).

Saint-Simon wrote various accounts of his views :

Works

In Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novel The Possessed, 'Saint-Simonist' and 'Fourierist' are used as derogatory insults of others by many of the politically active characters.

French feminist and socialist writer Flora Tristan (1803–1844) claimed that Mary Wollstonecraft, author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, anticipated Saint-Simon's ideas by a generation.[19]

After a time Bazard seceded and many of the strongest supporters of the school followed his example. A series of extravagant entertainments given by the society during the winter of 1832 reduced its financial resources and greatly discredited it in character. They moved to Ménilmontant, to a property of Enfantin, where they lived in a communalistic society, distinguished by a peculiar dress. Shortly after, the chiefs were tried and condemned for proceedings prejudicial to the social order and the sect was entirely broken up in 1832. Many of its members became famous as engineers, economists and men of business.

Early next year the school obtained possession of the Globe through Pierre Leroux, who had joined the school. The school now numbered some of the ablest and most promising young men in France, many of the pupils of the École Polytechnique having caught its enthusiasm. The members formed themselves into an association arranged in three grades, and constituting a society or family, which lived out of a common purse in the Rue Monsigny. Before long dissensions began to arise in the sect. Bazard, a man of stolid temperament, could no longer work in harmony with Enfantin, who desired to establish an arrogant and fantastic sacerdotalism with lax notions as to marriage and the relations between the sexes.

An important departure was made in 1828 by Amand Bazard, who gave a "complete exposition of the Saint-Simonian faith" in a long course of lectures in Paris, which was well attended. His Exposition de la doctrine de St Simon (2 vols., 1828–1830), which is by far the best account of it, won more adherents. The second volume was chiefly by Enfantin, who along with Bazard stood at the head of the society, but who was superior in philosophical acumen and was prone to push his deductions to extremities. The revolution of July (1830) brought a new freedom to the socialist reformers. A proclamation was issued demanding the community of goods, the abolition of the right of inheritance and the enfranchisement of women.

During his lifetime the views of Saint-Simon had very little influence; he left only a few devoted disciples who continued to advocate the doctrines of their master, whom they revered as a prophet . The most important were Olinde Rodrigues, the favoured disciple of Saint-Simon, and Barthélemy Prosper Enfantin who together had received Saint-Simon's last instructions. Their first step was to establish a journal, Le Producteur, but it was discontinued in 1826. The sect had begun to grow, and before the end of 1828 had meetings not only in Paris but in many provincial towns.

Influence

Prior to the publication of the Nouveau Christianisme, Saint-Simon had not concerned himself with

Religious views

In opposition to the The New Christianity, it takes on the form of a religion. This development of his ideas occasioned his final quarrel with Comte.

Feudalism and aristocracy

Karl Marx identified Saint-Simon as being among whom he called the "utopian socialists", though historian Alan Ryan regards certain followers of Saint-Simon, rather than Saint-Simon himself, as being responsible for the rise of utopian socialism that based itself upon Saint-Simon's ideas.[8]

Saint-Simon reviewed the French Revolution and regarded it as an upheaval driven by economic change and class conflict. In his analysis he believed that the solution to the problems that led to the French Revolution would be the creation of an industrial society where hierarchy of merit and respect for productive work would be the basis of society, while ranks of hereditary and military hierarchy would lessen in importance in society because they were not capable to lead a productive society.[8]

Saint-Simon's economic views and ideas were influenced by Adam Smith whom Saint-Simon deeply admired, and referred to him in praise as "the immortal Adam Smith".[2] He shared with Smith the belief that taxes needed to be much reduced from what they were then in order to have a more just industrial system.[2] Saint-Simon desired the minimization of government intervention into the economy to prevent disruption of productive work.[2] He emphasized more emphatically than Smith that state administration of the economy was generally parasitic and hostile to the needs of production.[17] Like Adam Smith, Saint-Simon's model of society emulated the scientific methods of astronomy, and said "The astronomers only accepted those facts which were verified by observation; they chose the system which linked them best, and since that time, they have never led science astray.".[18]

Heavily influenced by the absence of social privilege he saw in the early United States, Saint-Simon renounced his aristocratic title and came to favor a form of meritocracy, becoming convinced that science was the key to progress and that it would be possible to develop a society based on objective scientific principles.[15] He claimed that feudal society in France and elsewhere needed to be dissolved and transformed into an industrial society.[16] As such, he invented the conception of the industrial society.[16]

[8] In 1817 Saint-Simon published a

Industrialism

Ideas

He was buried in Le Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, France.

In 1823, disappointed by the lack of results of his writing (he had hoped they would guide society towards social improvement), he attempted suicide in despair. Remarkably, he shot himself in the head six times without succeeding, losing his sight in one eye. Finally, very late in his career, he did link up with a few ardent disciples. The last and most important expression of his views is Nouveau Christianisme (1825), which he left unfinished.

Saint-Simon's grave in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris

Death and legacy

The first publication caused a sensation, though one that brought few converts. A couple of years later in his writing career, Saint-Simon found himself ruined, and was forced to work for a living. After a few attempts to recover his money from his partner, he received financial support from Diard, a former employee, and was able to publish his second book in 1807: Introduction aux travaux scientifiques du XIX siècle. Diard died in 1810 and Saint-Simon found himself poor again, and this time also in poor health. He was sent to a sanatorium in 1813, but with financial help from relatives he had time to recover his health and gain some intellectual recognition in Europe. In 1821 Du système industriel appeared, and in 1823–1824 Catéchisme des industriels.

When he was nearly 40 he went through a varied course of study and experiment to enlarge and clarify his view of things. One of these experiments was an unhappy marriage in 1801 to Augustin Thierry and Auguste Comte collaborated.

Henri de Saint-Simon, portrait from the first quarter of the 19th century

Life as a working adult

At the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789, Saint-Simon quickly endorsed the revolutionary ideals of The Terror period, Saint-Simon was imprisoned on suspicion of engaging in counter-revolution activities. He was released in 1794 at the end of the Reign of Terror. After he recovered his freedom, Saint-Simon found himself immensely rich due to currency depreciation, but his fortune was subsequently stolen by his business partner. Thenceforth he decided to devote himself to political studies and research.

From his youth, Saint-Simon was highly ambitious. He ordered his valet to wake him every morning with, "Remember, monsieur le comte, that you have great things to do."[13] Among his early schemes was one to connect the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans by a canal, and another to construct a canal from Madrid to the sea.[14]

Henri de Saint-Simon was born in Paris as a French aristocrat. He belonged to a branch of the family of the duc de Saint-Simon. "When he was a young man, being of a restless disposition...he went to America where he entered into American service and took part in the siege of Yorktown under General Washington."[12]

Early years

Biography

Contents

  • Biography 1
    • Early years 1.1
    • Life as a working adult 1.2
    • Death and legacy 1.3
  • Ideas 2
    • Industrialism 2.1
    • Feudalism and aristocracy 2.2
    • Religious views 2.3
  • Influence 3
  • Works 4
  • See also 5
  • Notes 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Saint-Simon and his secretary Auguste Comte developed what Comte would complete as sociology.

[9] This ideology soon inspired and influenced

[7] He strongly criticized any expansion of government intervention into the economy beyond ensuring no hindrances to productive work and reducing idleness in society, regarding intervention beyond these as intruding into the economy.[8]

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