World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Close-mid central rounded vowel

Article Id: WHEBN0000597193
Reproduction Date:

Title: Close-mid central rounded vowel  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Mid central vowel, Table of vowels, Near-close near-back vowel, Egyptian Arabic phonology, International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects
Collection: Vowels
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Close-mid central rounded vowel

Close-mid central rounded vowel
IPA number 323
Entity (decimal) ɵ
Unicode (hex) U+0275
Kirshenbaum @.
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)

The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɵ, a lowercase barred letter o, and should not be confused with the Greek letter theta, θ, which in IPA corresponds to a consonant sound, the voiceless dental fricative. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ö.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

The character ɵ has been used in several Latin-derived alphabets such as the one for Janalif, but in that language it denotes a different sound than it does in the IPA. The character is homographic with Cyrillic Ө. The Unicode code point is U+019F Ɵ latin capital letter o with middle tilde (HTML Ɵ).

This sound rarely contrasts with the near-close near-front rounded vowel. For this reason, it may be sometimes transcribed with the symbol ʏ. An example of a language contrasting /ɵ/ with /ʏ/ is the Hamont dialect of Limburgish, although in phonemic transcription, these sounds are normally transcribed with, respectively, /ʏ/ and /y/.[1]


  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5


IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Cantonese /ceot7 [tsʰɵt˥] 'to go out' See Cantonese phonology
Dutch Standard Netherlandic[2][3] hut [ɦɵ̟t] 'hut' Somewhat fronted. Typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /œ/. It corresponds to [ʊ̈] in Belgium. See Dutch phonology
English American foot [fɵt] 'foot' Some speakers. Centralized and lowered from [ʊ]. See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[4] Younger speakers. Others pronounce [ʊ]. See English phonology
Hull[5] goat [ɡɵːt] 'goat' Corresponds to /oʊ/ in other dialects.
New Zealand[6] bird [bɵːd] 'bird' Somewhat fronted. May be lower ([ø̞̈ː ~ œ̈ː]).
German Chemnitz dialect[7] Boden [ˈpɵːtn̩] 'floor' See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Hiw[8] yöykö [jөjkөŋ] 'forget'
Icelandic[9][10][11] vinur [ˈveːnөr] 'friend' Most often transcribed /ʏ/. See Icelandic phonology
Irish Munster[12] dúnadh [ˈd̪ˠɰuːn̪ˠɰө̠˔] 'closing' Slightly raised and slightly retracted;[12] allophone of /ə/ adjacent to broad consonants, when the vowel in the preceding syllable is either /uː/ or /ʊ/.[12] See Irish phonology
Limburgish Hamont dialect[1] Rùs [ʀɵs²] 'a Russian' May be transcribed /ʏ/.[1][13] See Hamont dialect phonology
Maastrichtian[13] un [ɵn] 'onion'
Mongolian[14] өгөх [ɵɡɵx] 'to give'
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[15] sjuts [ʃɵt͡s]
Tajik кӯҳ [kʰɵːh] 'mountain' Often realised as /uː/ by many speakers
Toda ? [pɵːr̘] 'name'
Uzbek tgʻri [t̪ɤɵʁˈɾɪ] 'true'
West Frisian[16] put [pɵ̜t] 'well' Only slightly rounded;[16] typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /ø/. See West Frisian phonology

The vowel transcribed /ɵ/ in Central Standard Swedish[17] and Standard Russian[18][19] is actually mid ([ɵ̞]).[17][18][19]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  2. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  3. ^ Rietveld & Van Heuven (2009), p. 68.
  4. ^ "Received Pronunciation Phonology". The British Library. 
  5. ^ Williams & Kerswill (1999), pp. 143 and 146.
  6. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–99.
  7. ^ Khan & Weise (2013:236)
  8. ^ François (2013), p. 207.
  9. ^ Árnason (2011:60)
  10. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  11. ^ Haugen (1958:65)
  12. ^ a b c Ó Sé (2000)
  13. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  14. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  15. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:16)
  16. ^ a b Sipma (1913), p. 10.
  17. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  18. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 62–63.
  19. ^ a b Crosswhite (2000), p. 167.


  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press,  
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (1): 97–102,  
  • Cox, F.M. (2006), vowels in the speech of some Australian teenagers"/hVd/"The acoustic characteristics of , Australian Journal of Linguistics 26: 147–179,  
  • Crosswhite, Katherine Margaret (2000), "Vowel Reduction in Russian: A Unified Account of Standard, Dialectal, and 'Dissimilative' Patterns" (PDF), University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language Sciences 1 (1): 107–172 
  • Einarsson, Stefán (1945), Icelandic. Grammar texts glossary., Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press,  
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,  
  • François, Alexandre (2013), "Shadows of bygone lives: The histories of spiritual words in northern Vanuatu", in Mailhammer, Robert, Lexical and structural etymology: Beyond word histories, Studies in Language Change 11, Berlin: DeGruyter Mouton, pp. 185–244 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47,  
  • Gussmann, Edmund (2011). "Getting your head around: the vowel system of Modern Icelandic" (PDF). Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia 12: 71–90.  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association (University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies) 29: 155–166,  
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71,  
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (2): 231–241,  
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Gaeilge), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann,  
  • Rietveld, A.C.M.; Van Heuven, V.J. (2009), Algemene Fonetiek (in Dutch), Uitgeverij Coutinho 
  • Sipma, Pieter (1913), Phonology & grammar of modern West Frisian, London: Oxford University Press 
  • Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997) [1987], Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (2nd ed.), Kerkrade: Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer,  
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2007), "The Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 219–225,  
  • Williams, Ann; Kerswill, Paul (1999), "Dialect levelling: change and continuity in Milton Keynes, Reading and Hull", in Foulkes, Paul; Docherty, Gerard, Urban voices. Accent studies in the British Isles. (PDF), London: Arnold, pp. 141–162 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.