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Close-mid central rounded vowel

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Close-mid central rounded vowel

Close-mid central rounded vowel
ɵ
ö
IPA number 323
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɵ
Unicode (hex) U+0275
X-SAMPA 8
Kirshenbaum @.
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Sound
 ·

The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɵ, a lowercase barred letter o, and should not be confused with the Greek letter theta, θ, which in IPA corresponds to a consonant sound, the voiceless dental fricative. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ö.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

The character ɵ has been used in several Latin-derived alphabets such as the one for Janalif, but in that language it denotes a different sound than it does in the IPA. The character is homographic with Cyrillic Ө. The Unicode code point is U+019F Ɵ latin capital letter o with middle tilde (HTML Ɵ).

This sound rarely contrasts with the near-close near-front rounded vowel. For this reason, it may be sometimes transcribed with the symbol ʏ. An example of a language contrasting /ɵ/ with /ʏ/ is the Hamont dialect of Limburgish, although in phonemic transcription, these sounds are normally transcribed with, respectively, /ʏ/ and /y/.[1]

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Cantonese /ceot7 [tsʰɵt˥] 'to go out' See Cantonese phonology
Dutch Standard Netherlandic[2][3] hut [ɦɵ̟t] 'hut' Somewhat fronted. Typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /œ/. It corresponds to [ʊ̈] in Belgium. See Dutch phonology
English American foot [fɵt] 'foot' Some speakers. Centralized and lowered from [ʊ]. See English phonology
Canadian
Received Pronunciation[4] Younger speakers. Others pronounce [ʊ]. See English phonology
Hull[5] goat [ɡɵːt] 'goat' Corresponds to /oʊ/ in other dialects.
New Zealand[6] bird [bɵːd] 'bird' Somewhat fronted. May be lower ([ø̞̈ː ~ œ̈ː]).
German Chemnitz dialect[7] Boden [ˈpɵːtn̩] 'floor' See Chemnitz dialect phonology
Hiw[8] yöykö [jөjkөŋ] 'forget'
Icelandic[9][10][11] vinur [ˈveːnөr] 'friend' Most often transcribed /ʏ/. See Icelandic phonology
Irish Munster[12] dúnadh [ˈd̪ˠɰuːn̪ˠɰө̠˔] 'closing' Slightly raised and slightly retracted;[12] allophone of /ə/ adjacent to broad consonants, when the vowel in the preceding syllable is either /uː/ or /ʊ/.[12] See Irish phonology
Limburgish Hamont dialect[1] Rùs [ʀɵs²] 'a Russian' May be transcribed /ʏ/.[1][13] See Hamont dialect phonology
Maastrichtian[13] un [ɵn] 'onion'
Mongolian[14] өгөх [ɵɡɵx] 'to give'
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[15] sjuts [ʃɵt͡s]
Tajik кӯҳ [kʰɵːh] 'mountain' Often realised as /uː/ by many speakers
Toda ? [pɵːr̘] 'name'
Uzbek tgʻri [t̪ɤɵʁˈɾɪ] 'true'
West Frisian[16] put [pɵ̜t] 'well' Only slightly rounded;[16] typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /ø/. See West Frisian phonology

The vowel transcribed /ɵ/ in Central Standard Swedish[17] and Standard Russian[18][19] is actually mid ([ɵ̞]).[17][18][19]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  2. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  3. ^ Rietveld & Van Heuven (2009), p. 68.
  4. ^ "Received Pronunciation Phonology". The British Library. 
  5. ^ Williams & Kerswill (1999), pp. 143 and 146.
  6. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), pp. 98–99.
  7. ^ Khan & Weise (2013:236)
  8. ^ François (2013), p. 207.
  9. ^ Árnason (2011:60)
  10. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  11. ^ Haugen (1958:65)
  12. ^ a b c Ó Sé (2000)
  13. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  14. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  15. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:16)
  16. ^ a b Sipma (1913), p. 10.
  17. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  18. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 62–63.
  19. ^ a b Crosswhite (2000), p. 167.

Bibliography

  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press,  
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (1): 97–102,  
  • Cox, F.M. (2006), vowels in the speech of some Australian teenagers"/hVd/"The acoustic characteristics of , Australian Journal of Linguistics 26: 147–179,  
  • Crosswhite, Katherine Margaret (2000), "Vowel Reduction in Russian: A Unified Account of Standard, Dialectal, and 'Dissimilative' Patterns" (PDF), University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language Sciences 1 (1): 107–172 
  • Einarsson, Stefán (1945), Icelandic. Grammar texts glossary., Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press,  
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,  
  • François, Alexandre (2013), "Shadows of bygone lives: The histories of spiritual words in northern Vanuatu", in Mailhammer, Robert, Lexical and structural etymology: Beyond word histories, Studies in Language Change 11, Berlin: DeGruyter Mouton, pp. 185–244 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47,  
  • Gussmann, Edmund (2011). "Getting your head around: the vowel system of Modern Icelandic" (PDF). Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia 12: 71–90.  
  •  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association (University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies) 29: 155–166,  
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71,  
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (2): 231–241,  
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Gaeilge), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann,  
  • Rietveld, A.C.M.; Van Heuven, V.J. (2009), Algemene Fonetiek (in Dutch), Uitgeverij Coutinho 
  • Sipma, Pieter (1913), Phonology & grammar of modern West Frisian, London: Oxford University Press 
  • Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997) [1987], Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (2nd ed.), Kerkrade: Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer,  
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2007), "The Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 219–225,  
  • Williams, Ann; Kerswill, Paul (1999), "Dialect levelling: change and continuity in Milton Keynes, Reading and Hull", in Foulkes, Paul; Docherty, Gerard, Urban voices. Accent studies in the British Isles. (PDF), London: Arnold, pp. 141–162 
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