Coactivator

A coactivator is a protein that increases gene expression by binding to an activator (or transcription factor) which contains a DNA binding domain. The coactivator is unable to bind DNA by itself.[1][2][3]

The coactivator can enhance transcription initiation by stabilizing the formation of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme enabling faster clearance of the promoter. Coactivators may control many other substeps of transcription, including elongation, RNA splicing, and termination and degradation of the coactivator-activator complex.

Some coactivators possess intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, which acetylates histones and causes chromatin to relax in a limited region allowing increased access to the DNA. CBP and p300 are examples of coactivators with HAT activity. Numerous other enzyme activities have been reported among the 300 known coactivators for nuclear receptors.[4] The most well known of these are SRC-1, SRC-2, and SRC-3. Coactivators work in high molecular weight complexes of 6-10 coactivator and coactivator-associated proteins (termed co-coactivators).

The same coactivator will likely be used to increase transcription of many different genes, since it is the activator that provides the specificity to a particular sequence. Recent evidence indicates that coactivators may have diverse roles outside of transcription and that they may act as 'master genes' for regulating major cellular and metabolic growth processes.

In humans several dozen to several hundred coactivators are known, depending on the level of confidence with which the characterisation of a protein as a coactivator can be made.[5]

See also

References

External links

  • Nuclear Receptor Signalling Atlas (NIH-funded research consortium and database; includes open-access PubMed-indexed journal, Nuclear Receptor Signaling)


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.