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Committee

Committee room, designed 1901, in Halifax Town Hall

A committee (or "commission") is a type of small deliberative assembly that is usually intended to remain subordinate to another, larger deliberative assembly. When a larger assembly meets as a committee to discuss or debate, this is called a "committee of the whole". Committees often serve several different functions:

  • Governance: In organizations considered too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a board of directors or executive committee) is given the power to make decisions, spend money, or take actions. Some or all such powers may be limited or effectively unlimited. For an example of the latter case, board of directors can frequently enter into binding contracts and make decisions which, once taken or made, cannot be taken back or undone under the law.

  • Coordination: Individuals from different parts of an organization (for example, all senior vice presidents) might meet regularly to discuss developments in their areas, review projects that cut across organizational boundaries, talk about future options, etc. Where there is a large committee, it is common to have smaller committees with more specialized functions - for example, boards of directors of large corporations typically have an (ongoing) audit committee, finance committee, compensation committee, etc. Large academic conferences are usually organized by a co-ordinating committee drawn from the relevant professional body.

  • Research and recommendations: Committees are often formed to do capital investment might create a temporary working committee of several people to review options and make recommendations to upper management or the board of directors. Such committees are typically dissolved after issuing recommendations (often in the form of a final report).
  • Tabling (opposite meaning in UK English) / sending to committee: As a means of public relations by sending sensitive, inconvenient, or irrelevant matters to committees, organizations may bypass, stall, or disacknowledge matters without declaring a formal policy of inaction or indifference.

Contents

  • Procedures 1
  • Subcommittees 2
    • Executive committees 2.1
    • Steering committees 2.2
    • Standing committees 2.3
    • Working committees 2.4
  • Need 3
    • Cross-field reasons 3.1
  • Conference committee 4
  • Standing committees 5
    • Legislatures 5.1
  • Steering committees 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8

Procedures

  • It is common for a agenda, which is usually distributed in advance.
  • The chairperson is responsible for running meetings: keeping the discussion on the appropriate subject, recognizing members (calling on them to speak) [often omitted in smaller committees], and calling for votes after a debate has taken place [formal voting is normally only done in committees involved in governance]. Governance committees often have formal processes (for example, they might follow Roberts Rules of Order); other types of committees typically operate informally, with the chairperson being responsible for deciding how formal the committee processes will be.
  • Minutes, a record of the discussion and decisions of the meeting, are often taken by a person designated as the secretary of the committee; they may be legally obligatory (again, typically for governance committees, especially boards of directors).
  • For committees that meet regularly, the minutes of the most recent meeting are often circulated to committee members before the next meeting, and are available to the membership of the whole.
  • Committees may meet on a regular basis, often weekly or yearly, or meetings may be called irregularly as the need arises. During an emergency, a committee may meet more than once per day, or sit in permanent session, as, for example, ExComm (the President's Executive Committee) did during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Subcommittees

A committee that is a subset of a larger committee is called a subcommittee.

When the larger group has a name other than "committee", for example "board" or "commission", the smaller group(s) would usually be called committee(s), not subcommittee(s), and might go by an entirely different name, or substitute "commission" for "committee". For example, in the benchmarks in the geologic record and timeline since 1974, all under the auspices of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). It is technically the "International Stratigraphy Committee" (ISC), which has limited executive committee powers to impanel other subcommittees (also called commissions) to resolve certain matters involving the Geologic time scale—its deliberations and those of its subcommittees must be adopted by the IUGS, which meets in a committee of the whole or congress every four years or so to deliberate on the subcommittee recommendations and officially adopt or not adopt them.

From the foregoing, it is obvious that subcommittees can generally be classified further by the adjectives "executive", "standing", and "working".

Executive committees

An executive committee, as a type of subcommittee, has well-defined Board of directors itself functions as a kind of executive committee - established by the charter and by-laws of the entity and elected by the overall franchised membership. Organizations with large Boards of Directors - say 20 people or more - commonly have an Executive Committee of the Board: an executive subcommittee of Board members collectively authorized to make some decisions on behalf of the entire Board.

Steering committees

A steering committee mainly makes strategic decisions concerning future realization of a specific plan: e.g. an enterprise’s investment projects. It is responsible for the management and monitoring of a long-term plan or project, which means that it controls the realization of the project at the strategic level, verifies the project’s coherence with established aims, and keeps established frames such as range, costs and deadlines. Should any changes in the project happen, they must be first presented and accepted by a member of the steering committee. The steering committee assesses and accepts the changes by means of consensus. It deals also with coordination and coherence with other realized projects. The steering committee often creates working groups and chooses experts, with whom the enterprise will work to realize the project. The manager of a project is accountable for a project in front of the committee.

Standing committees

A committee established by an official and providing for its scope and powers. Most governmental legislative subcommittees are standing committees, which by another name is a permanent committee. Standing committees meet on a regular or irregular basis dependent upon their enabling act, and retain any power or oversight claims originally given them until subsequent official actions of the committee of the whole (changes to law or by-laws) disbands the committee.

Working committees

An ad hoc committee established to accomplish a particular task or to oversee an ongoing area in need of control or oversight. Many are research or co-ordination committees in type or purpose, and can be temporary. Some are a sub-group of a larger society with a particular area of interest which decides to meet and discuss matters pertaining to their interests. For example, a group of astronomers might get together ad hoc to discuss how to get the larger society to address near earth objects; A subgroup of engineers and scientists of a large project's development team could meet ad hoc to solve some particular issue with offsetting considerations and trade-offs. The term when used officially, generally means a group with specific duties and related authority, so when encountered in official contexts subsumes all other official types of committees. The International Commission on Stratigraphy and its subcommittees (commissions in name) are working committees that meet both far more regularly and more frequently both in deliberation and co-ordination furthering the needs of the IUGS (which regularly schedules meetings only every fourth year) and the larger scientific community.

Need

Committees are a necessary aspect of organizations of any significant size (say, more than 15 or 20 people). They keep the number of participants manageable.

Cross-field reasons

Committees are a way to formally draw together people of relevant expertise from different parts of an organization who otherwise would not have a good way to share information and coordinate actions. They may have the advantage of widening viewpoints and sharing out responsibilities. They can also be empaneled with experts to recommend actions by the committee of the whole in matters that require specialized knowledge or technical judgment. A "Defense" or "Banking" subcommittee in legislative bodies or the many International science commissions such as the ICS mentioned above, or a local "board of health" are or may be such.

Conference committee

A conference committee in a bicameral legislature is responsible for creating a compromise version of a particular bill when each house has passed a different version. Such committees are common in the legislatures of countries with presidential systems, but are no longer in common use in the most bicameral Westminster-style parliaments. A conference committee in the United States Congress is a temporary panel of negotiators from the House of Representatives and the Senate. Unless one chamber decides to accept the other's original bill, the compromise version must pass both chambers after leaving the conference committee. The committee is usually composed of the senior members of the standing committees that originally considered the legislation in each chamber.

Standing committees

A standing committee is a subunit of a political or deliberative body established in a permanent fashion to aid the parent assembly in accomplishing its duties. A standing committee is usually granted jurisdiction over a particular area of legislation by the parent body.

Under the laws of the United States of America, a standing committee is a Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 greatly reduced the number of committees, and set up the legislative committee structure still in use today, as modified by authorized changes via the orderly mechanism of rules changes .

Legislatures

The phrase is used in the legislatures of the following countries:

Steering committees

A steering committee is a committee that provides guidance, direction and control to a project within an organization.[1] The term is derived from the steering mechanism that changes the steering angle of a vehicle's wheels.

Project steering committees are frequently used for guiding and monitoring project governance. The functions of the committee might include building a business case for the project, planning, providing assistance and guidance, monitoring the progress, controlling the project scope and resolving conflicts.

See also

References

  1. ^ Mcleod (2008). Management Information Systems (10 ed.). Pearson Education. p. 201.  
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