Constitution of burma

Constitution of Burma
File:Constitution of Myanmar of 2008.pdf
Page one of the original copy of the Constitution
Created 9 April 2008
Ratified 29 May 2008
Purpose To replace the 1974 Constitution of Burma
Government
  • Constitution
  • Assembly of the Union
  • (House of Nationalities and
    House of Representatives)
  • Political parties
  • Supreme Court
    Chief Justice: Tun Tun Oo
  • Constitutional Tribunal
    Chairman: Mya Thein
Elections

General elections

Related topics

The Constitution of Burma (Burmese: မြန်မာနိုင်ငံ ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံ အခြေခံ ဥပဒေ [mjəmà nàɪɴŋàɴ pʰwɛ̰zíbòʊɴ ʔətɕèɡàɴ ʔṵbədè]) has changed several times since the country became independent from the United Kingdom. Burma's third and current constitution[1] was published in September 2008[2] after a referendum.

History

1947 Constitution

The 1947 constitution was drafted by Chan Htoon and was used from the country's independence in 1948 to 1962, when the constitution was suspended by the socialist Union Revolutionary Council, led by Ne Win. The national government consisted of three branches: judicial, legislative and executive. The legislative branch was a bicameral legislature called the Union Parliament, consisting of two chambers, the 125-seat Chamber of Nationalities ( Lumyozu Hluttaw) and the Chamber of Deputies ( Pyithu Hluttaw), whose seat numbers were determined by the population size of respective constituencies.[3][4]

1974 Constitution

Approved in a 1973 referendum, the 1974 constitution was the second constitution to be written. It created a unicameral legislature called the Pyithu Hluttaw (the People's Assembly), represented by members of the Burma Socialist Programme Party.[5] Each term was 4 years.[4] Ne Win became the president at this time.

1988-2008

Upon taking power in September 1988, the military based State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) suspended the 1974 constitution.[6][7] The SLORC called a constitutional convention in 1993, but it was suspended in 1996 when the National League for Democracy boycotted it, calling it undemocratic.[7] The constitutional convention was again called in 2004, but without the National League for Democracy.[7] Burma remained without a constitution until 2008.[7]

2008 Constitution

File:Constitution of Myanmar of 2008.pdf

On 9 April 2008, the military government of Burma released its proposed constitution for the country to be put to a vote in public referendum on 10 May 2008, as part of its roadmap to democracy. The constitution is hailed by the military as heralding a return to democracy, but the opposition sees it as a tool for continuing military control of the country.

The legislative branch is the Union Assembly ( Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, which is a bicameral legislature consisting of the 440-seat People's Assembly and the 224-seat National Assembly. Military (Tatmadaw) member delegates are reserved a maximum of 56 of 224 seats in the National Assembly and 110 seats of 440 in the People's Assembly.[8] This is similar to former Indonesian and Thai constitutions.

The revisions in state structure, including the creation of self-administering areas were not implemented until August 2010.[9]

Foreign media often incorrectly allege that the constitution bars Aung San Suu Kyi from holding public office because of her marriage to a British citizen;[8] in fact, she would only be barred from the office of President, under the disqualification of those who have a spouse or children who are foreign citizens. There is no similar disqualification for any other public office.

2008 constitutional referendum

On 10 May 2008[10] a referendum was held to outline the political framework of the country. According to Chief Justice Aung Toe, who is chairman of the drafting commission,
In drafting the constitution, the commission adhered strictly to the six objectives, including giving the Tatmadaw (the military) the leading political role in the future state.[11]

The government did not allow Cyclone Nargis to delay the referendum which took place as scheduled except in the delta areas affected by the cyclone.[12][13]

The National League for Democracy which is led by Aung San Suu Kyi was not allowed to participate in the creation of the constitution,[14] and it urged citizens to reject[15] the constitution which it labeled as a "sham." The referendum itself passed the 2008 Constitution,[16] but was generally regarded as fraudulent by the opposition party and those outside of Burma.[17]
The SPDC reported a heavy turnout on both dates, with few voting irregularities. Opposition groups say the turnout was comparatively light, with many reported cases of voting irregularities, such as premarked ballots, voter intimidation, and other techniques to influence the outcome of the referendum.[18]

2012 by-elections

In spite of its earlier opposition to the 2008 constitution, the NLD participated in the 2012 by-election for 46 seats and won a landslide victory, with Aung San Suu Kyi becoming member of parliament, alongside 42 others from her party.

Content of Constitution

Myanmar Constitution has 15 chapters. Chapter 4,5,6 are separation of power by legislature, judiciary, execution. Due to 50 years military rule, constitution is military dominated. 25% of legislature members (Pyithu Hluttaw) are military representatives. Most of the key persons are ex-military officers. Amendment of constitution (chapter 12) is to support by 20% of legislature members and discuss at Pyithu Hluttaw. 75% is to agreed by members for some amendment. Some special items are to get 75% votes by nation-wide referendum only. Booklet of 194 pages (in Burmese & English Language) is available to download [1]

CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE - Preamble . . . 1 1. Basic Principles of the Union . . . 3 2. State Structure . . . 13 3. Head of State . . . 19 4. Legislature . . . 27 5. Executive . . . 75 6. Judiciary . . . 125 7. Defence Services . . . 148 8. Citizen, Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Citizens . . . 149 9. Election . . . 157 10. Political Parties . . . 163 11. Provisions on State of Emergency . . . 165 12. Amendment of the Constitution . . . 173 13. State Flag, State Seal, National Anthem and the Capital . . . 175 14. Transitory Provisions . . . 177 15. General Provisions . . . 179

References

External links

  • "Booklet of 194 pages (in Burmese & English Language) "
  • "1974 Constitution of Burma"
  • "Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (2008)" Official English version
  • Aung Htoo A Brief Analysis on the Constitution of Burma (2008) // FIDH/BLC Seminar Advancing Human Rights and ending impunity in Burma: which external leverages? Paris: Imprimerie de la FIDH, 2010 — pp. 53–58
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