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Cyclone Keli

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Cyclone Keli

Severe Tropical Cyclone Keli
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Aus scale)
Category 4 (Saffir–Simpson scale)
Cyclone Keli at peak intensity.
Formed June 7, 1997
Dissipated June 17, 1997
Highest winds 10-minute sustained: 150 km/h (90 mph)
1-minute sustained: 215 km/h (130 mph)
Lowest pressure 955 mbar (hPa); 28.2 inHg
Fatalities None reported
Damage $10,000 (1997 USD)
Areas affected Tokelau, Tuvalu, Fiji
Part of the 1996–97 South Pacific cyclone season,

Severe Tropical Cyclone Keli (NPMOC/JTWC Designation: 38P) was the first recorded post-season tropical cyclone to form in June within the South Pacific Ocean.[1][2] The system formed on June 7, 1997, about 460 kilometers (285 mi) to the north of Tokelau. The depression gradually developed over the next few days while moving southwestward. It was designated as Tropical Cyclone Keli early the next day. Cyclone Keli intensified, slowly reaching its 10-minute peak wind speeds of 150 km/h, (90 mph), which made it a Category 3 severe tropical cyclone on the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale. As it came under the influence of strong mid latitude westerlies and moved into an area of strong vertical wind shear, the cyclone started to weaken and was declared as extratropical on June 15.

Cyclone Keli struck the islands of Tuvalu on June 12 and 13, with extensive damage reported throughout the Islands with trees uprooted by wind and waves. On Nivalakita all buildings except for the church were flattened; an estimated cost to rebuild all of the houses as they were before the cyclone hit was estimated at A$12 thousand (US$10 thousand), while it was estimated that the cost of rebuilding the houses with an improved, cyclone-resistant design would be about A$84 thousand (US$63 thousand). The whole of Tepuka Savilivili was left uninhabitable, as coconut trees and other vegetation were swept away with no more than an area of jagged coral left behind. In Fiji, strong winds and rough seas were reported from the cyclone as it was moving to the north of Fiji, and while the cyclone was weakening it dropped 3.76 inches (95.5mm) of rain on American Samoa.

Meteorological history

Early on June 10, Fiji Meteorological Service's Nadi Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC Nadi) reported that a tropical cyclone had developed to the east of Tuvalu, out of a tropical depression that had existed since June 7, and named it Keli.[3][4] The United States Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (NPMOC) subsequently initiated warnings on the system and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 38P.[5] During that day the system continued to develop and became a category 2 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale, as it moved south-eastwards and impacted the island nation of Tuvalu.[6][7] Early on June 11, the NPMOC reported that the system had become equivalent to a category one tropical cyclone on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale (SSHWS) as it moved across the 180th meridian.[8] RSMC Nadi subsequently reported later that day that Keli had become a category 3 severe tropical cyclone.

As the JTWC started to issue warnings they reported that the cyclone had while RSMC Nadi reported that it had become a Category 3 severe tropical cyclone as the cyclone started to move around Tuvalu.[6][9] As it moved around Tuvalu a mid level trough was forecast to approach the system from the west and push Keli to the south.[9] RSMC Nadi then reported early the next day that Keli had recrossed the dateline and had reached its 10-minute peak wind speeds of 150 km/h, (90 mph).[6] However the JTWC did not report until later that day that Keli has reached its 1-minute peak wind speeds of 215 km/h (130 mph), which made it a Category 4 tropical cyclone on the SSHS after rapidly intensifying in an area of low vertical windshear.[9] The JTWC then passed the warning responsibility for Keli back to the NPMOC as it came under the influence of strong mid latitude westerlies which were expected to weaken the system.[9]

During June 13 both RSMC Nadi and the NPMOC reported that Keli had weakened as it began to experience vertical windshear from the north-west as it started the transition into an extra-tropical cyclone.[6][9] At this time RSMC Nadi reported that the system had become a Category 2 cyclone while the JTWC downgraded Keli to a tropical storm as it was located about 400 km (250 mi) to the south-east of the Samoan Islands.[6][9] Early on June 15, the NPMOC issued its final advisory on the system after it had degenerated into an extratropical depression, while it was located about 370 km (230 mi) to the west of Rarotonga in the Cook Islands.[10][11] The system was tracked for another couple of days before it was last noted on June 17 about 2,140 km (1,330 mi) to the southeast of Adamstown in the Pitcairn Islands.[6]

Differences among warning centers

The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in Nadi, Fiji uses the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale which is based on 10-minute sustained winds and three second gusts for its tropical cyclone tracking information, while both the Joint Typhoon Warning Center and the Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center use 1-minute sustained winds.[12] The conversion factor between the two is 1.14.[13] RSMC Nadi's peak intensity for Keli was 150 km/h, (90 mph) 10-minute sustained, or 170 km/h (105 mph) 1-minute sustained.[6][13] The JTWC's peak intensity for Keli was 215 km/h (130 mph) 1-minute sustained, or 190 km/h (120 mph) 10-minute sustained.[13][14]

Impact and aftermath

Image of Keli at peak intensity on June 12, 1997

Tuvalu

As Cyclone Keli struck the islands of Tuvalu on June 12 and 13, peak wind gusts of 165 km/h, (105 mph) were reported, with extensive damage also reported throughout the Islands with trees uprooted by wind and waves.[15] On Nivalakita all buildings except for the church were flattened with an estimated cost to rebuild the houses exactly as they were was estimated at A$12,000 (US$10,000 1997), while it was estimated that the cost of rebuilding the houses with an improved, cyclone-resistant design would be about A$84,000 (63,000 USD 1997).[16] Also on Nivalakita communications were cut with the telephone operator having to resort to sending a Morse code message, however as the storm re-curved and re-hit Tuvalu on June 14, it silenced the weak radio telegraph system.[15] In Tepuka Savilivili the whole island was left uninhabitable as coconut trees and other vegetation were swept away with no more than an area of jagged coral left behind.[17][18]

A New Zealand air force plane was sent to pick up and deliver aid sent by Fiji, France, New Zealand and Australia after reports that the inhabitants of Niualakita atoll were desperately short of water, food and shelter.[19][20][21] The plane flew over one of the atolls affected and reported seeing widespread damage, with loads of trees and flattened buildings. Locals waved from the beach as the plane flew overhead as they had been cut off from the outside world for five days.[22][23][24]

Wallis and Futuna

Cyclone Keli was the third out of four tropical cyclones to damage Wallis and Futuna during a ten month period, after Cyclones Gavin and Hina had affected the island during March 1997.[25][26][27][28] Rainfall totals of 171.6 mm (6.76 in) and 160 mm (6.3 in) were recorded at Hihifo and Aka'aka on Wallis during June 11, while wind gusts of up to 70 km/h (45 mph) were recorded at Maopoopo on Futuna island during July 13.[27]

Heavy rain was reported in American Samoa with a rainfall total, of 160 mm (6.3 in) reported at Afono in American Samoa.[29]

The name Keli was retired after this usage of the name and was replaced with the name Kofi.[30][31]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Information for the Southern Hemisphere". Bureau of Meteorology. 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  2. ^ "Asia-Pacific Workshop on Indicators and Indices for Monitoring Trends in Climate Extremes". Bureau of Meteorology. 1998-12-10. p. 43. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  3. ^ Darwin Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (1997). "June 1997". Darwin Tropical Diagnostic Statement (Australian Bureau of Meteorology) 16 (6): 2.  
  4. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Keli" (Tropical Cyclone Information for the Southern Hemisphere). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on March 31, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014. 
  5. ^ Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (June 10, 1997). Tropical Cyclone 38P (Keli) Warning 1; June 10, 1997 03z. United States Navy, United States Air Force. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. http://www.australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/1997/keli.htm. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g RSMC Nadi – Tropical Cyclone Centre, TCWC Brisbane, TCWC Wellington (May 22, 2009). "TCWC Wellington Best Track Data 1967–2006". Fiji Meteorological Service, Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited, Australian Bureau of Meteorology. United States: International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship. 
  7. ^ Damage Assessment Team (on behalf of the National Disaster Committee) (January 13, 1998). Reassessment Report on the Situation on Niulakita Island after Cyclone Keli. Tuvalu Government. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. http://www.pacificdisaster.net/pdnadmin/data/original/CRP_TUV_1998_Reassmt_rpt.pdf. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  8. ^ Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (June 11, 1997). Tropical Cyclone 38P (Keli) Warning 3; June 11, 1997 03z. United States Navy, United States Air Force. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. http://www.australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/1997/keli.htm. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Tropical Cyclone Keli Advisories".  
  10. ^ Hanstrum, Barry N; Reader, Grahame; Bate, Peter W (September 3, 1999). "The South Pacific and Southeast Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Season 1996–97". Australian Meteorological Magazine (Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal) (Australian Bureau of Meteorology) 48 (3): 121–138. Archived from the original on August 4, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013. 
  11. ^ Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (June 15, 1997). Tropical Cyclone 38P (Keli) Warning 11; June 15, 1997 03z. United States Navy, United States Air Force. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. http://www.australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/1997/keli.htm. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
  12. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (2008-03-31). "Frequently Asked Questions". United States Navy. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  13. ^ a b c "Section 2 Intensity Observation and Forecast Errors".  
  14. ^ "JTWC/NPMOC Tropical Cyclone Best Track: 38P".  
  15. ^ a b Steve Newman (1997-06-24). "EARTHWEEK: A diary of the planet". The Gainesville Sun. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  16. ^ Emily M (2006-03-17). "Tool One: Guidelines for estimating the economic impact of natural disasters". Aus Aid. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  17. ^ Bikenibeu Paeniu (1997-12-07). "Tuvalu and Global Warming". Tuvalu Islands. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  18. ^ Angie Knox (2002-08-28). "Sinking feeling in Tuvalu".  
  19. ^ "Neighbours fly aid to cyclone-hit island in South Pacific". Wellington, New Zealand: Dateline AM cycle. 1997-06-14. 
  20. ^ "Urgent aid being flown to cyclone-hit Tuvalu". Associated Press Worldstream (Wellington, New Zealand: Dateline PM cycle). 1997-06-13. 
  21. ^ "Neighbours fly aid to cyclone-hit island in South Pacific". Wellington, New Zealand: Dateline pm cycle. 1997-06-14. 
  22. ^ "New Zealand crew reports widespread damage on Tuvalu atoll". Wellington, New Zealand: Dateline. 1997-06-16. 
  23. ^ "Damage still undetermined on cyclone-hit Tuvalu". Associated Press Worldstream (Wellington, New Zealand: Dateline). 1997-06-15. 
  24. ^ "Aid on way to cyclone struck isle". The Register Guard (Guard Publishing Company). 1997-06-15. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  25. ^ Kersemakers, Mark; RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (April 4, 1998). Tropical Cyclone Gavin: March 2 — 11, 1997 (Tropical Cyclone Report 96/7). Fiji Meteorological Service. pp. 1–11, 21. http://www.pacificdisaster.net/pdnadmin/data/original/TC_GAVIN.pdf. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  26. ^ Prasad, Vikash R; RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (March 4, 1998). Tropical Cyclone Hina: March 13 - 16, 1997 (Tropical Cyclone Report: 96/8). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on August 4, 2013. http://www.pacificdisaster.net/pdnadmin/data/original/CRP_TON_1998_TC_Hina.pdf. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
  27. ^ a b "Wallis and Futuna Cyclone Passes De 1880 à nos jours". Meteo France New Caledonia. Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  28. ^ "Cyclone Keli might force a cancellation of Saturday's". Agence France Presse. June 14, 1997.   – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  29. ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (November 16, 2012). "Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima". Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved December 7, 2012. 
  30. ^ RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (December 12, 2012) (PDF). List of Tropical Cyclone Names withdrawn from use due to a Cyclone's Negative Impact on one or more countries (Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2012). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 2B-1 - 2B-4 (23 - 26). Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/TCP24_RAVOpPlan_2012.pdf. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
  31. ^ "Tropical cyclone names: Fiji". United Kingdom Met Office. July 18, 2013. Archived from the original on August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2013. 

External links

  • World Meteorological Organization
  • Australian Bureau of Meteorology
  • Fiji Meteorological Service
  • Meteorological Service of New Zealand
  • Joint Typhoon Warning Center


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