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Democratic Party (Italy)


The Democratic Party (}

}}: Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic[1][2] political party in Italy.

The party's leader is Matteo Renzi, who replaced Guglielmo Epifani as national secretary after the November–December 2013 leadership election. Renzi was the fifth leader of the party in six years (see list).

The PD was founded on 14 October 2007 as a merger of various centre-left parties which had been part of The Union in the 2006 general election. At foundation the majority of the PD was formed by the Democrats of the Left (heirs of the Italian Communist Party) and the largely Catholic-inspired Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy.[3] Within the party, an important role is thus played by Christian leftists, who are direct heirs of the former Christian Democracy's left.[4][5][6]

After the resignation of Silvio Berlusconi as Prime Minister in November 2011, the PD gave external support to Mario Monti's technocratic government.[7][8] Since April 2013 Enrico Letta, a Democrat, was Prime Minister, at the head of a government sustained by a grand coalition including The People of Freedom (later replaced by the New Centre-Right), Civic Choice (later divided in two, after the split of the Populars for Italy) and the Union of the Centre. Following his election as party leader, in February 2014 Renzi called for "a new phase" and, consequently, the party's national board voted to ask Letta to resign.[9][10] Subsequently, Renzi was sworn in as Prime Minister at the head of the same coalition.[11]

Following the 2013 general election and the 2014 European Parliament election, the PD was the largest party in the Chamber of Deputies, the Senate and the European Parliament, respectively. As of 2015, other than the national government, Democrats head fifteen regional governments out of twenty and function as coalition partner in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.

Prominent Democrats include Romano Prodi, Giuliano Amato and Francesco Rutelli.

Contents

  • History 1
    • The Olive Tree 1.1
    • Road to the new party 1.2
    • Party foundation 1.3
    • Walter Veltroni 1.4
    • Dario Franceschini 1.5
    • Pier Luigi Bersani 1.6
    • Road to 2013 1.7
    • 2013 general election 1.8
    • Guglielmo Epifani 1.9
    • Matteo Renzi 1.10
  • Ideology 2
    • Ideological trends 2.1
    • International affiliation 2.2
  • Factions 3
    • 2007 leadership election 3.1
    • 2009 leadership election 3.2
    • 2010–2013 developments 3.3
    • 2013 leadership election 3.4
    • Current factions 3.5
  • Popular support 4
  • Electoral results 5
    • Italian Parliament 5.1
    • European Parliament 5.2
    • Regional Councils 5.3
  • Leadership 6
  • Presidents of Italy 7
  • Prime Ministers of Italy 8
  • Symbols 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

History

The Olive Tree

In the early 1990s, following Tangentopoli, the end of the so-called First Republic and the transformation of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) into the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS), a process aimed at uniting left-wing and centre-left forces into a single political entity was started.

In 1995 Romano Prodi, a former Minister of Industry on behalf of the left-wing faction of Christian Democracy (DC), entered politics and founded The Olive Tree (L'Ulivo), a centre-left coalition including the PDS, the Italian People's Party (PPI), the Federation of the Greens (FdV), Italian Renewal (RI), the Italian Socialists (SI) and Democratic Union (UD). The coalition, in alliance with the Communist Refoundation Party (PRC), won the 1996 general election and Prodi became Prime Minister.

In February 1998 the PDS merged with minor centre-left parties to become the Democrats of the Left (DS), while in March 2002 the PPI, RI and The Democrats (Prodi's own party, launched in 1999) became Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy (DL). In the summer of 2003, Romano Prodi suggested that the centre-left forces would participate in the 2004 European Parliament election with a common list. Whereas the Union of Democrats for Europe (UDEUR) and the far-left parties refused the offer, four parties accepted it: the DS, DL, the Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI) and the European Republicans Movement (MRE). They launched a joint list named "United in the Olive Tree" (Uniti nell'Ulivo) which ran in the election and garnered 31.1% of the vote. The project was later abandoned in 2005 by the SDI.

In the 2006 general election the list obtained 31.3% of the vote for the Chamber of Deputies.

Road to the new party

The project of a "Democratic Party" was often mentioned by Prodi as the natural evolution of The Olive Tree and was envisioned in a 2003 appeal in Il Foglio by Michele Salvati, a former centrist deputy of the DS.[12] The term Partito Democratico was used for the first time in a formal context by the DL and DS members of the Regional Council of Veneto, who chose to form a joint group named The Olive Tree – Venetian Democratic Party (L'Ulivo – Partito Democratico Veneto) in March 2007.[13]

The 2006 election result, anticipated by the 2005 primary election in which over four million voters endorsed Prodi as candidate for Prime Minister, gave a push to the project of a unified centre-left party. Francesco Rutelli and Piero Fassino, party leaders of DL and the DS respectively, scheduled their parties' congresses for April 2007 in order to formally approve the merger.

On 19 April 2007 the DS held their final party congress, during which approximately 75% of party members voted in support of the merger into the PD. The left-wing opposition, led by Fabio Mussi, obtained just 15% of the support within the party. A third motion, presented by Gavino Angius and supportive of the PD only within the Party of European Socialists (PES), obtained 10% of the vote. During and following the congress, both Mussi and Angius announced their intention not to join the PD and founded a new party called Democratic Left (SD).

On 22 May 2007 the composition of the organising committee of the nascent party was announced. It featured 45 members, mainly politicians from the two major parties involved in the process, but included also external figures such as Marco Follini, Ottaviano Del Turco, Luciana Sbarbati, Renato Soru, Giuliano Amato, Gad Lerner and Tullia Zevi.[14] On 18 June the committee met to decide the rules for the open election of the 2,400 members of the party's constituent assembly. Prodi announced each voter would choose between a number of lists, each of them associated with a candidate for secretary.

Eight parties agreed to merge into the PD:

Party foundation

All candidates interested in running for the PD leadership had to be associated with one of the founding parties and present at least 2,000 valid signatures by 30 July 2007. A total of ten candidates officially registered their candidacy: Jacopo Schettini, Lucio Cangini and Amerigo Rutigliano. Of these, Pannella and Di Pietro were rejected because of their involvement in external parties (the Radicals and Italy of Values respectively), whereas Cangini and Rutigliano did not manage to present the necessary 2,000 valid signatures for the 9pm deadline, and Colombo's candidacy was instead made into hiatus in order to give him 48 additional hours to integrate the required documentation; Colombo later decided to retire his candidacy citing his impossibility to fit with all the requirements.[15] All rejected candidates had the chance against the decision in 48 hours' time,[16] with Pannella and Rutigliano being the only two candidates to appeal against it.[17] Both were rejected on 3 August.[18]

On 14 October 2007 Veltroni was elected leader with about 75% of the national votes in an open primary attended by over three million voters.[19] Veltroni was proclaimed secretary during a party's constituent assembly held in Milan on 28 October 2007.[20]

On 21 November, the new logo was unveiled; it depicts the party acronym PD with colours reminiscent of the Italian tricolour flag (green, white and red) and features an olive branch, the historical symbol of The Olive Tree. In the words of Ermete Realacci, green represents the ecologist and social-liberal cultures, white is for the Catholic solidarity and red for the socialist and social-democratic traditions.[21] The "green-white-red" idea was coined by Schettini during his campaign.

Walter Veltroni

After the premature fall of the Prodi II Cabinet in January 2008, the PD decided to run in the next general election alone or at the head of a less diverse coalition. The party proposed to the Radicals and the Socialist Party (PS) to join its lists, but only the Radicals accepted, and formed an alliance with Italy of Values (IdV), which was set to join the PD after the election. The party included many notable candidates and new faces in its lists and Walter Veltroni, who tried to present the PD as the party of the renewal in contrast both with Silvio Berlusconi and the previous centre-left government, ran an intense and modern campaign, which led him to visit all provinces of Italy, but that was not enough.

In the 2008 general election on 13–14 April 2008 the PD–IdV coalition won 37.5% of the vote and was defeated by the centre-right coalition, composed of The People of Freedom (PdL), Lega Nord and the Movement for the Autonomy (46.8%). The PD was able to absorb some votes from the parties of the far left (as also IdV did), but lost voters to the Union of the Centre (UdC), ending up with 33.2% of the vote, 217 deputies and 119 senators. After the election Veltroni, who was gratified by the result, formed a shadow cabinet. IdV, excited by its 4.4% which made it the fourth largest party in Parliament, refused to join both the Democratic groups and the shadow cabinet.

The early months after the election were a difficult time for the PD and Veltroni, whose leadership was weakened by the growing influence of internal factions, because of the popularity of Berlusconi and the dramatic rise of IdV in opinion polls.[22] IdV became a strong competitor of the PD and the relations between the two parties became tense. In the 2008 Abruzzo regional election the PD was forced to support IdV candidate Carlo Costantini.[23] In October Veltroni, who distanced from Di Pietro many times, declared that "on some issues he [Di Pietro] is distant from the democratic language of the centre-left".[24]

Dario Franceschini

In February 2009, after a crushing defeat in the Sardinian regional election, Walter Veltroni resigned as party secretary and was replaced by his deputy Dario Franceschini on an interim basis to guide the party toward the selection of a new stable leader.[25][26][26] Franceschini was elected by the party's national assembly with 1,047 votes out of 1,258. His only opponent Arturo Parisi won just 92 votes.[25][26] Franceschini was the first former Christian Democrat to lead the party.

The 2009 European Parliament election was an important test for the PD. Prior to the election, the PD considered offering hospitality to the Socialist Party (PS) and the Greens in its lists, and proposed a similar pact to Democratic Left (SD).[27] However, the Socialists, the Greens and Democratic Left decided instead to contest the election together as a new alliance called Left and Freedom, which failed to achieve the 4% threshold required to return any MEPs, but damaged the PD, which gained 26.1% of the vote, returning 21 MEPs.

The national congress and the subsequent leadership primary were announced for October. By July three candidates announced their bid: Pier Luigi Bersani, Ignazio Marino and the outgoing secretary Dario Franceschini.

Pier Luigi Bersani

On 8 October 2009 the party's electoral commission released the results of the vote among party members. In the local congresses a 56.4% of party members voted. Bersani was by far the most voted candidate with 55.1% of the vote, largely ahead of Franceschini (37.0%) and Marino (7.9%).[28] On 25 October 2009, Bersani was elected new secretary of the party with about 53% of the vote in an open primary in which three million people participated. Franceschini got 34% and Marino 13%. On 7 November, during the first meeting of the new national assembly, Bersani was declared secretary, Rosy Bindi was elected party president (with Marina Sereni and Ivan Scalfarotto vice-presidents), Enrico Letta deputy secretary and Antonio Misiani treasurer.[29][30]

In reaction to the election of Bersani, perceived by some moderates as an old-style social democrat, Francesco Rutelli, a long-time critic of the party's course, and other centrists and liberals within the PD left in order to form a new centrist party, named Alliance for Italy (ApI). The new party was expected to join forces with the UdC at the centre of the Italian political spectrum.[31] Following March 2009, and especially after Bersani's victory, many deputies,[32] senators,[33] one MEP and several regional/local councillors[34] left the party to join UDC, ApI and other minor parties: they included many Rutelliani and most Theo-Dems.

In March 2010 a big round of regional elections, involving eleven regions, took place. The PD lost four regions to the centre-right (Piedmont, Lazio, Campania and Calabria), and maintained its hold on six (Liguria, Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Marche, Umbria and Basilicata), plus Apulia, a traditionally conservative region where, due to divisions within the centre-right, Nichi Vendola of SEL was re-elected with the PD's support.

On 16 September 2011 Bersani was invited by Antonio Di Pietro's IdV to take part to its annual late summer convention in Vasto, Abruzzo. Bersani, who had been accused by Di Pietro of avoiding him in order to court the centre-right UdC,[35] proposed the formation of a "New Olive Tree" coalition comprising the PD, IdV and SEL.[36] The three party leaders agreed in what was soon dubbed the "pact of Vasto".[37][38]

Road to 2013

A year after the "pact of Vasto", the relations between the PD and IdV had become tense. IdV and its leader, Antonio Di Pietro, were thus excluded from the coalition talks led by Bersani. To these talks were instead invited SEL, led by Nichi Vendola, and the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), led by Riccardo Nencini. The talks resulted, on 13 October 2012, in the "Pact of Democrats and Progressives" (later known as Italy. Common Good) and produced the rules for the upcoming centre-left primary election, during which the PD–SEL–PSI joint candidate for prime minister in the 2013 general election would be selected.[39][40]

In the primary the strongest challenge to Bersani was posed by a fellow Democrat, the 37-year-old mayor of Florence Matteo Renzi, a liberal moderniser, who had officially launched his leadership bid on 13 September 2012 in Verona, Veneto.[41] Bersani launched his own bid on 14 October in his hometown Bettola, north-western Emilia.[42][43][44] Other candidates included Nichi Vendola (SEL),[45] Bruno Tabacci (ApI), and Laura Puppato (PD).[46]

In the meantime, in the 2012 regional election Rosario Crocetta, a Democrat, was elected President with 30.5% of the vote thanks to the support of the UdC, but the coalition failed to secure an outright majority in the Regional Assembly.[47][48] For the first time in 50 years, a man of the left had the chance to govern Sicily.

On 25 November Bersani came ahead in the first round of the primary election with 44.9% of the vote, Renzi came second with 35.5%, followed by Vendola (15.6%), Puppato (2.6%) and Tabacci (1.4%). Bersani did better in the South, while Renzi prevailed in Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche.[49] In the subsequent run-off, on 2 December, Bersani trounced Renzi 60.9% to 39.1%, by winning in each and every single region but Tuscany, where Renzi won 54.9% of the vote. The PD secretary did particularly well in Lazio (67.8%), Campania (69.4%), Apulia (71.4%), Basilicata (71.7%), Calabria (74.4%), Sicily (66.5%), and Sardinia (73.5%).[50]

2013 general election

In the election the PD and its coalition fared much worse than expected and according to pollsters predictions. The PD won just 25.4% of the vote for the Chamber of Deputies (–8.0% from 2008) and the centre-left coalition narrowly won the majority in the house over the centre-right coalition (29.5% to 29.3%). Even worse, in the Senate the PD and its allies failed to get an outright majority, due to the rise of the Five Star Movement (M5S) and the centre-right's victory in key regions, such as Lombardy, Veneto, Campania, Apulia, Calabria and Sicily (the centre-right was awarded of the majority premium in those regions, leaving the centre-left with just a handful of elects there). As a result, Bersani, who refused any agreement with the PdL and was rejected by the M5S, failed to form a government.

On 17 April, after an agreement with the centre-right parties, Bersani put forward

  • Manifesto of Values of the Democratic Party
  • Parliamentary Group in the Chamber of Deputies
  • Parliamentary Group in the Senate

External links

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  49. ^ https://www.primarieitaliabenecomune.it/risultati-definitivi
  50. ^ https://www.primarieitaliabenecomune.it/risultati-definitivi-ballottaggio
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  52. ^ a b
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  57. ^ Ministero Dell'Interno - Notizie. Interno.gov.it (2013-04-15). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
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  70. ^ a b [2]
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  77. ^ http://www.repubblica.it/politica/2015/06/23/news/fassina_dice_addio_al_pd_non_ci_sono_le_condizioni_per_continuare_-117553037/
  78. ^ Veltroni quits as leader of Italy's opposition Democratic Party, The Earth Times
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  114. ^ a b
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  117. ^ Areadem con Renzi, Franceschini: "Pronti a votarlo segretario Pd"
  118. ^ I Liberal PD a La Spezia per sostenere la candidatura di Matteo Renzi. | LiberalPD
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  124. ^ a b c
  125. ^ a b
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  128. ^ http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2014/10/22/pd-renzi-vuole-partito-della-nazione-sondaggisti-ma-somma-delle-percentuali-non-vale/1163780/
  129. ^ http://www.rainews.it/dl/rainews/articoli/Pd-a-Roma-iniziativa-sinistra-riformista-speranza-non-diventiamo-struzzi-renzi-sbaglia-64de392a-7c0a-45de-a9df-5081007b50a1.html
  130. ^ Combined result of the PD (36.2%) and Sergio Chiamparino's personal list (4.8%).
  131. ^ Combined result of the PD (25.3%) and Umberto Ambrosoli's personal list (7.0%).
  132. ^ Combined result of the PD (16.7%) and Alessandra Moretti's personal list (3.8%).
  133. ^ Combined result of the PD (29.7%) and Nicola Zingaretti's personal list (4.5%).
  134. ^ Combined result of the PD (19.5%), Vincenzo De Luca's personal list (4.9%) and Free Campania (4.8%).
  135. ^ Combined result of the PD (18.8%) and Michele Emiliano's personal lists (9.2%+4.1%).
  136. ^ Combined result of the PD (15.8%) and Agazio Loiero's personal list (7.0%).
  137. ^ Combined result of the PD (23.7%) and Mario Oliverio's personal list (12.5%).
  138. ^ Combined result of the PD (13.4%) and Rosario Crocetta's personal list (6.2%).
  139. ^ Although she was never elected party president, Finocchiaro presided over all the party's meetings since Prodi's resignation, including the national assembly of 20 June 2008 (see video), the national assembly of 21 February 2009 (see video) and the national congress of 11 October 2009 (see video).
return p

end

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function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '

function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end

function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end


-- Helper functions


local p = {}

local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno


return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --

end

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function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '

function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end

function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end


-- Helper functions


local p = {}

local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


References

See also

Symbols

Prime Ministers of Italy

Presidents of Italy

Leadership

Region Latest election # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
Abruzzo 2014 171,095 (#1) 25.4
11 / 31
Aosta Valley 2013 6,401 (#5) 8.9
3 / 35
Apulia 2015 316,876 (#1) 18.8
14 / 51
Basilicata 2013 58,730 (#1) 24.9
12 / 21
Calabria 2014 282,827 (#1) 36.2
14 / 30
Campania 2015 443,722 (#1) 19.5
16 / 51
Emilia-Romagna 2014 535,109 (#1) 44.5
30 / 50
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 2013 107,155 (#1) 26.8
19 / 49
Lazio 2013 834,286 (#1) 29.7
15 / 50
Liguria 2015 138,190 (#1) 25.6
8 / 31
Lombardy 2013 1,369,440 (#1) 25.3
23 / 80
Marche 2015 186,357 (#1) 35.1
16 / 31
Molise 2013 24,892 (#1) 14.8
3 / 21
Piedmont 2014 704,541 (#1) 36.2
27 / 50
Sardinia 2014 150,492 (#1) 22.1
18 / 60
Sicily 2012 257,274 (#2) 22.1
23 / 90
South Tyrol 2013 19,207 (#5) 6.7
2 / 35
Trentino 2013 52,406 (#1) 22.1
9 / 35
Tuscany 2015 614,869 (#1) 46.3
25 / 41
Umbria 2015 125,777 (#1) 35.8
11 / 20
Veneto 2015 308,438 (#3) 16.7
9 / 51

Regional Councils

Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2009 8,008,203 (#2) 26.1
21 / 72
Dario Franceschini
2014 11,203,231 (#1) 40.8
31 / 73
Increase 10
Matteo Renzi

European Parliament

Senate of the Republic
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2008 11,052,577 (#2) 33.1
118 / 315
Walter Veltroni
2013 8,400,255 (#1) 27.4
112 / 315
Decrease 6
Pier Luigi Bersani
Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2008 12,092,969 (#2) 33.2
217 / 630
Walter Veltroni
2013 8,644,187 (#2) 25.4
297 / 630
Increase 80
Pier Luigi Bersani

Italian Parliament

Electoral results

2008 general 2009 European 2010 regional 2013 general 2014 European 2015 regional
Piedmont 32.4 24.7 23.2 25.1 40.8 41.0[130] (2014)
Lombardy 28.1 21.3 22.9 25.6 40.3 32.4[131] (2013)
Veneto 26.5 20.3 20.3 21.3 37.5 20.5[132]
Emilia-Romagna 45.7 38.6 40.6 37.0 52.5 44.5 (2014)
Tuscany 46.8 38.7 42.2 37.5 56.6 46.3
Lazio 36.8 28.1 26.3 25.7 39.2 34.2[133] (2013)
Campania 29.2 23.4 21.4 21.9 36.1 29.2[134]
Apulia 30.1 21.7 20.8 18.5 33.6 32.1[135]
Calabria 32.6 25.4 22.8[136] 22.4 35.8 36.2[137] (2014)
Sicily 25.4 21.9 18.8 (2008) 18.6 34.9 24.3[138] (2012)
ITALY 33.2 26.1 - 25.4 40.8 -

The electoral results of the PD in the 10 most populated regions of Italy are shown in the table below.

The 2014 European Parliament election gave a thumping 40.8% of the vote to the party, which was the first Italian party to get more than 40% of the vote in a nationwide election since DC won 42.4% of the vote in the 1958 general election. In 2014, as usual, the PD did better in Tuscany (56.6%), Emilia-Romagna (52.5%) and Umbria (49.2%), but made significant gains in Lombardy (40.3%, +19.0% from 2009), Veneto (37.5%, +17.2%) and the South.

In the 2008 and 2013 general elections the PD obtained its best results in Tuscany (46.8% and 37.5%), Emilia-Romagna (45.7% and 37.0%), Umbria (44.4% and 32.1%), Marche (41.4% and 27.7%), Liguria (37.6% and 27.7%) and Lazio (36.8% and 25.7%). Democrats are generally stronger in the North than the South, with the sole exception of Basilicata (38.6% in 2008 and 25.7% in 2013), where the party has drawn most of its personnel from Christian Democracy (DC).

The PD, as previously the Italian Communist Party (PCI), has its strongholds in Central Italy and big cities. The party runs 15 regions out of 20 and the cities of Rome, Turin, Bologna, Florence and Bari; it also takes part to the government of the regions of Apulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, as well as the cities of Milan and Genoa.

Regions of Italy: the 15 (out of 20) regions governed by Democratic Presidents are in red.

Popular support


A more complete list of PD's factions is available in the following table:

As of mid 2015 the main factions within the PD are as follows:

Current factions

Minority led by Pippo Civati (14.2%)
Minority led by Gianni Cuperlo (18.2%)
Majority led by Matteo Renzi (67.6%)

After the election, which saw the victory of Matteo Renzi, the party's internal composition was as follows:

2013 leadership election

In October four candidates filed their bid to become secretary: Renzi, Cuperlo, Pippo Civati and Gianni Pittella.[63]

As the party performed below expectations, more Democrats started to look at Renzi, who had been defeated by Bersani in the 2012 primary election to select the centre-left's candidate for Prime Minister.[113] In early September, two leading centrists, Franceschini and Fioroni, leaders of Democratic Area and The Populars, endorsed Renzi.[114] Also two former leaders of the Democrats of the Left, Veltroni and Fassino,[115] decided to support Renzi, while a third, D'Alema, endorsed Gianni Cuperlo.[116]

According to YouTrend, a website, 35% of the Democratic deputies and senators elected in the 2013 general election were Bersaniani, 23% members of Democratic Area (or Democratic Movement), 13% Renziani, 6% Lettiani, 4.5% Dalemiani, 4.5% Young Turks, 2% Bindiani and 1.5% Civatiani.[112]

Since November 2011 similar differences surfaced in the party over Monti Cabinet: while the party's right-wing, especially Liberal PD, was enthusiastic in its support, Fassina and other leftists, especially those linked to trade unions, were critical.[106][107][108][109] In February 2012 Fassina published a book in which he described his view as "neo-labourite humanism" and explained it in connection with Catholic social teaching, saying that his "neo-labourism" was designed to attract Catholic voters.[110] Once again, his opposition to economic liberalism was strongly criticized by the party's right-wing as well as by Stefano Ceccanti, a leading Catholic in the party and supporter of Tony Blair's New Labour, who said that a leftist platform à la Fassina would never win back the Catholic vote in places like Veneto.[111]

According to Corriere della Sera, in November 2011 the party was divided mainly in three ideological camps battling for its soul:

As of September the party's majority was composed of those who supported Bersani since the beginning (divided in five main factions: Bersaniani, Dalemiani, Lettiani, Bindiani and the party's left-wing) and Democratic Area of Franceschini and Fassino. Then, there were two minority coalitions: Veltroni's Democratic Movement (Veltroniani, Fioroni's Populars, ex-Rutelliani, Democratic Ecologists and a majority of Liberal PD members) and Change Italy of Ignazio Marino.[103]

In the summer of 2010 Dario Franceschini, leader of Democratic Area (the largest minority faction), and Piero Fassino re-approached with Pier Luigi Bersani and joined the party majority.[98] As a response, Walter Veltroni formed Democratic Movement to defend the "original spirit" of the PD.[98] In doing this he was supported by 75 deputies: 33 Veltroniani, 35 Populars close to Giuseppe Fioroni and 7 former Rutelliani led by Paolo Gentiloni.[99][100][101] Some pundits hinted that the Bersani-Franceschini pact was envisioned in order both to marginalise Veltroni and to reduce the influence of Massimo D'Alema, the party bigwig behind Bersani, whose 2009 bid was supported primarily by Dalemiani. Veltroni and D'Alema had been long-time rivals within the centre-left.[102]

2010–2013 developments

  • Olivists: followers of Romano Prodi who want the party to be stuck in the tradition of The Olive Tree; the group, which includes both Christian left exponents and social democrats is led by Arturo Parisi. Most Olivists supported Bersani, while Parisi endorsed Franceschini.
Non-aligned factions
Minority led by Ignazio Marino (12.5%)
Democratic Area, minority led by Dario Franceschini (34.3%)
Majority led by Pier Luigi Bersani (53.2%)

After the election, which saw the victory of Pier Luigi Bersani, the party's internal composition was as follows:

2009 leadership election

The Olivists, whose members were staunch supporters of Romano Prodi, divided in two camps. The largest one, including Arturo Parisi, endorsed Rosy Bindi, while a smaller one, including Paolo De Castro, endorsed Enrico Letta, as Paolo De Castro. Bindi benefited also from the support of Agazio Loiero's Southern Democratic Party, while Letta was endorsed by Lorenzo Dellai's Daisy Civic List, Renato Soru's Sardinia Project and Gianni Pittella's social democrats.

Minorities led by Rosy Bindi (12.9%) and Enrico Letta (11.0%)

Three national lists supported the candidacy of Veltroni. The bulk of the former Democrats of the Left (Veltroniani, Dalemiani, Fassiniani), the Rutelliani of Francesco Rutelli (including the Theo-Dem), The Populars of Franco Marini, Liberal PD, the Social Christians and smaller groups (Middle Italy, European Republicans Movement, Reformist Alliance and the Reformists for Europe) formed a joint-list named "Democrats with Veltroni" (43.7%). The Democratic Ecologists of Ermete Realacci, together with Giovanna Melandri and Cesare Damiano, formed "Environment, Innovation and Labour" (8.1%). The Democrats, Laicists, Socialists, Say Left and the Labourites – Liberal Socialists presented a list named "To the Left" (7.7%). Local lists in support of Veltroni got 16.4%.

Majority led by Walter Veltroni (75.8%)

After the election, which saw the victory of Walter Veltroni, the party's internal composition was as follows:

2007 leadership election

The PD includes several internal factions, most of which trace the previous allegiances of party members. Factions form different alliances depending on the issues and some party members have multiple factional allegiances.

Factions

Matteo Renzi, a centrist who has led the party since 2013, wanted the party to join both the SI and the PES.[93][94][95] On 20 February 2014 the PD leadership applied for full membership of the PES.[96][97] In Renzi's view, the party would count more as a member of a major European party and, within the PES, it would join forces with alike parties such as the British Labour Party. On 28 February the PD was welcomed as a full member into the PES.[70]

Matteo Renzi speaks at the congress of the Party of European Socialists in Rome, 2014.

On 15 December 2012 PD leader Pier Luigi Bersani attended in Rome to the founding convention of the Progressive Alliance (PA), a nascent political international for parties dissatisfied with the continued admittance and inclusion of authoritarian movements into the Socialist International (SI).[90][91] On 22 May 2013 the PD was a founding member of the PA at the international's official inauguration in Leipzig, Germany on the eve of the 150th anniversary of the formation of the General German Workers' Association, the oldest of the two parties which merged in 1875 in order to form the Social Democratic Party of Germany.[92]

The debate on which European political party to join saw the former Democrats of the Left generally in favour of the Party of European Socialists (PES) and most former members of Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy in favour of the European Democratic Party (EDP), a component of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Group. After the party's formation in 2007, the new party's MEPs continued to sit with the PES and ALDE groups to which their former parties had been elected during the 2004 European Parliament election. Following the 2009 European Parliament election, the party's 21 MEPs chose to unite for the new term within the European parliamentary group of the PES, which was renamed the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D).[89]

International affiliation was quite a controversial issue for the PD in its early days and, in fact, it was settled only in 2014.

International affiliation

It is not an easy task to include the trend represented by Matteo Renzi, whose supporters have been known as "Big Bangers", "Now!" or, more frequently, Renziani, in any of the categories above. The nature of Renzi's progressivism is a matter of debate and has been linked both to liberalism and populism.[83][83][84][85][86][87] According to Maria Teresa Meli of Corriere della Sera, Renzi "pursues a precise model, borrowed from the Labour Party and Bill Clinton's Democratic Party", comprising "a strange mix (for Italy) of liberal policies in the economic sphere and populism. This means that, on one side, he will attack the privileges of trade unions, especially of the CGIL, which defends only the already protected, while, on the other, he will sharply attack the vested powers, bankers, Confindustria and a certain type of capitalism [...]."[88]

The PD is a plural party, including several distinct ideological trends:[82]

Ideological trends

The party stresses national and social cohesion, progressivism, a moderate social liberalism, green issues, progressive taxation and (pro-)Europeanism. In this respect, the party's precursors strongly supported the need of balancing budgets in order to comply to Maastricht criteria. Under Veltroni and, more recently, Renzi, the party took a strong stance in favour of constitutional reform and of a new electoral law, on the road toward a two-party system.

The PD is a big tent centre-left party, influenced by the ideas of social democracy and the Christian left. The common roots of the founding components of the party reside in the Italian resistance movement, the writing of Italian Constitution and the Historic Compromise, all three events which saw the Italian Communist Party and Christian Democracy (the two major forerunners of the Democrats of the Left and Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy, respectively) cooperate. The United States Democratic Party and American liberalism are also important sources of inspiration.[78][79][80] In a 2008 interview to El País, Veltroni, who can be considered the main founding father of the party, clearly stated that the PD should be considered a "reformist" party and could not be linked to the traditional values of the left-wing politics.[81]

Ideology

In the 2015 regional elections Democratic Presidents were elected (or re-elected) in five regions out of seven: Enrico Rossi in Tuscany, Luca Ceriscioli in Marche, Catiuscia Marini in Umbria, Vincenzo De Luca in Campania and Michele Emiliano in Apulia. As a result, 16 regions out of 20, including all those of central and southern Italy, were governed by the centre-left, while the opposition Lega Nord led Veneto and Lombardy, and propped up a centre-right government in Liguria.

In January 2015 Gennaro Migliore's leadership (see Freedom and Rights), SC, notably including Stefania Giannini, Pietro Ichino and Andrea Romano, and the M5S. Consequently, the party increased its parliamentary numbers to 311 deputies and 114 senators by April 2015.[73][74] Otherwise, Sergio Cofferati,[75] Giuseppe Civati[76] and Stefano Fassina[77] left.

In the 2014 European Parliament election the party obtained 40.8% of the vote and 31 seats. The party's score was virtually 15 percentage points up from five years before and the best result for an Italian party in a nationwide election since the 1958 general election, when Christian Democracy won 42.4% of the vote. Also, the PD was the largest national party within the Parliament in its 8th term.[71] Following his party's success, Renzi was able to secure the post of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy within the European Commission for Federica Mogherini, his Minister of Foreign Affairs.[72]

On 28 February the PD officially joined the Party of European Socialists (PES) as a full member.[70]

On 13 February the national board decided to put an end to Letta's government and form a new one led by Renzi, as he had proposed.[10] On 22 February Renzi was sworn in as Prime Minister on 22 February 2014.[11]

On 20 January 2014 Cuperlo criticized the electoral reform proposed by Renzi in agreement with Berlusconi, but the proposal was overwhelmingly approved by the party's national board.[68] The day after the vote, Cuperlo resigned from president.[69]

On 8 December Renzi, who won in all regions but was stronger in the Centre-North, trounced his opponents with 67.6% of the vote. Cuperlo, whose support was higher in the South, came second with 18.2%, while Civati, whose message did well with northern urban and progressive voters, third with 14.2%.[65] On 15 December Renzi, whose executive included many young people and a majority of women,[66] was proclaimed secretary by the party's national assembly, while Cuperlo was elected president, as proposed by Renzi.[67]

As usual, the leadership race started with voting by party members in local conventions (7–17 November). Renzi came first with 45.3%, followed by Cuperlo (39.4%), Civati (9.4%) and Pittella (5.8%).[64] The first three were thus admitted to the open primary.

Matteo Renzi

Epifani was however little more than a secretary pro tempore and, in fact, he frequently repeated that he was not going to run for a full term as secretary in the leadership race that would take place in late 2013, saying that a candidacy by him would be a betrayal of his mandate.[59][60][61][62] Four individuals filed their bid on 11 October: Matteo Renzi, Pippo Civati, Gianni Cuperlo and Gianni Pittella.[63]

On 9 November Epifani announced that the PD would organise the next congress of the Party of European Socialists (PES) in Rome in early 2014, sparking protests among some of the party's Christian democrats, who opposed PES membership.[58]

A few weeks after Epifani's election as secretary, the PD had a success in the 2013 local elections, winning in 69 comuni (including Rome and all the other 14 provincial capitals up for election), while the PdL won 22 and the M5S 1.[57]

On 11 May 2013 at the national assembly of the party Guglielmo Epifani was elected secretary with 85.8% of vote. Epifani, secretary-general of the Italian General Confederation of Labour (CGIL), Italy's largest trade union, from 2002 to 2010, was the first former Socialist to lead the party. Epifani's mission was to lead the party toward a national congress in October.[56]

After Bersani's resignation from party secretary on 20 April 2013, the PD remained without a leader for two weeks.

Guglielmo Epifani

On 28 April Enrico Letta, the party's deputy secretary and former Christian Democrat, was sworn in as Prime Minister of Italy at the head of a government based around a grand coalition including the PdL, Civic Choice (SC) and the UdC. Letta was the first Democrat to become Prime Minister.

Also Bindi, the party's president, announced her resignation as she did not want to carry responsibility for the party's bad management during the past weeks. The day after Napolitano accepted to stand again for election and was re-elected President with the support of most parliamentary parties. [55] After the vote, Prodi pulled out of the race and Bersani announced his resignation from party secretary.[54] as more than 100 centre-left electors did not vote for him.[52] Despite his candidacy had received unanimous support among the two parties' delegates, Prodi obtained only 395 votes in the fourth ballot[53] to be their candidate in the fourth ballot.Romano Prodi as more than 200 centre-left delegates rebelled. On 19 April the PD and SEL selected [52] On 18 April Marini received just 521 votes in the first ballot, short of the 672 needed,[51]

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