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Demography of Russia

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Demography of Russia

No exact vital statistics for Russia are available for the period before WWII. Andreev[43] made the following estimates:

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female)
1927 94,596,000 4,688,000 2,705,000 1,983,000 49.6 28.6 21.0 6.729 33.7 37.9
1928 96,654,000 4,723,000 2,589,000 2,134,000 48.9 26.8 22.1 6.556 35.9 40.4
1929 98,644,000 4,633,000 2,819,000 1,814,000 47.0 28.6 18.4 6.227 33.7 38.2
1930 100,419,000 4,413,000 2,738,000 1,675,000 43.9 27.3 16.7 5.834 34.6 38.7
1931 101,948,000 4,412,000 3,090,000 1,322,000 43.3 30.3 13.0 5.626 30.7 35.5
1932 103,136,000 4,058,000 3,077,000 981,000 39.3 29.8 9.5 5.093 30.5 35.7
1933 102,706,000 3,313,000 5,239,000 -1,926,000 32.3 51.0 -18.8 4.146 15.2 19.5
1934 102,922,000 2,923,000 2,659,000 264,000 28.7 26.1 2.6 3.566 30.5 35.7
1935 102,684,000 3,577,000 2,421,000 1,156,000 34.8 23.6 11.3 4.305 33.1 38.4
1936 103,904,000 3,899,000 2,719,000 1,180,000 37.5 26.2 11.4 4.535 30.4 35.7
1937 105,358,000 4,377,000 2,760,000 1,617,000 41.5 26.2 15.3 5.079 30.5 40.0
1938 107,044,000 4,379,000 2,739,000 1,640,000 40.9 25.6 15.3 4.989 31.7 42.5
1939 108,785,000 4,329,000 2,600,000 1,729,000 39.8 23.9 15.9 4.907 34.9 42.6
1940 110,333,000 3,814,000 2,561,000 1,253,000 34.6 23.2 11.4 4.260 35.7 41.9

After WWII[43][44][45]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates Urban fertility Rural fertility Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female) Life Expectancy (total) Abortions reported
1946 98,028,000 2,546,000 1,210,000 1,336,000 26.0 12.3 13.6 2.806 46.6 55.3
1947 98,834,000 2,715,000 1,680,000 1,035,000 27.5 17.0 10.5 2.938 39.9 49.8
1948 99,706,000 2,516,000 1,310,000 1,206,000 25.2 13.1 12.1 2.604 47.0 56.0
1949 101,160,000 3,089,000 1,187,000 1,902,000 30.5 11.7 18.8 3.205 51.0 59.8
1950 102,833,000 2,859,000 1,180,000 1,679,000 27.8 11.5 16.7 2.889 52.3 61.0
1951 104,439,000 2,938,000 1,210,000 1,728,000 28.1 11.6 17.0 2.918 52.3 60.6
1952 106,164,000 2,928,000 1,138,000 1,790,000 27.6 10.7 17.0 2.871 54.6 62.9
1953 107,828,000 2,822,000 1,118,000 1,704,000 26.2 10.4 15.7 2.733 55.5 63.9
1954 109,643,000 3,048,000 1,133,000 1,915,000 27.8 10.3 17.6 2.970 55.9 64.1
1955 111,572,000 2,942,000 1,037,000 1,905,000 26.4 9.3 17.2 2.818 58.3 66.6
1956 113,327,000 2,827,000 956,000 1,871,000 24.9 8.4 16.8 2.731 60.1 68.8
1957 115,035,000 2,880,000 1,017,000 1,863,000 25.0 8.8 16.7 2.750 59.7 68.4 3,407,398
1958 116,749,000 2,861,000 931,000 1,930,000 24.5 8.0 17.0 2.689 61.8 70.4 3,939,362
1959 118,307,000 2,796,228 920,225 1,876,003 23.6 7.8 15.9 2.58 2.03 3.34 62.84 71.14 67.65 4,174,111
1960 119,906,000 2,782,353 886,090 1,896,263 23.2 7.4 15.8 2.56 2.06 3.26 63.67 72.31 68.67 4,373,042
1961 121,586,000 2,662,135 901,637 1,760,498 21.9 7.4 14.5 2.47 2.04 3.08 63.91 72.63 68.92 4,759,040
1962 123,128,000 2,482,539 949,648 1,532,891 20.2 7.7 12.4 2.36 1.98 2.92 63.67 72.27 68.58 4,925,124
1963 124,514,000 2,331,505 932,055 1,399,450 18.7 7.5 11.2 2.31 1.93 2.87 64.12 72.78 69.05 5,134,100
1964 125,744,000 2,121,994 901,751 1,220,243 16.9 7.2 9.7 2.19 1.88 2.66 64.89 73.58 69.85 5,376,200
1965 126,749,000 1,990,520 958,789 1,031,731 15.7 7.6 8.1 2.14 1.82 2.58 64.37 73.33 69.44 5,463,300
1966 127,608,000 1,957,763 974,299 983,464 15.3 7.6 7.7 2.13 1.85 2.58 64.29 73.55 69.51 5,322,500
1967 128,361,000 1,851,041 1,017,034 834,007 14.4 7.9 6.5 2.03 1.79 2.46 64.02 73.43 69.30 5,005,000
1968 129,037,000 1,816,509 1,040,096 776,413 14.1 8.1 6.0 1.98 1.75 2.44 63.73 73.56 69.26 4,872,900
1969 129,660,000 1,847,592 1,106,640 740,952 14.2 8.5 5.7 1.99 1.78 2.44 63.07 73.29 68.74 4,751,100
1970 130,252,000 1,903,713 1,131,183 772,530 14.6 8.7 5.9 2.00 1.77 2.52 63.07 73.44 68.86 4,837,700
1971 130,934,000 1,974,637 1,143,359 831,278 15.1 8.7 6.3 2.02 1.80 2.60 63.24 73.77 69.12 4,838,749
1972 131,687,000 2,014,638 1,181,802 832,836 15.3 9.0 6.3 2.03 1.81 2.59 63.24 73.62 69.02 4,765,900
1973 132,434,000 1,994,621 1,214,204 780,417 15.1 9.2 5.9 1.96 1.75 2.55 63.28 73.56 69.00 4,747,037
1974 133,217,000 2,079,812 1,222,495 857,317 15.6 9.2 6.4 2.00 1.78 2.63 63.12 73.77 68.99 4,674,050
1975 134,092,000 2,106,147 1,309,710 796,437 15.7 9.8 5.9 1.97 1.76 2.64 62.48 73.23 68.35 4,670,700
1976 135,026,000 2,146,711 1,352,950 793,761 15.9 10.0 5.9 1.96 1.74 2.62 62.19 73.04 68.10 4,757,055
1977 135,979,000 2,156,724 1,387,986 768,738 15.9 10.2 5.7 1.92 1.72 2.58 61.82 73.19 67.97 4,686,063
1978 136,922,000 2,179,030 1,417,377 761,653 15.9 10.4 5.6 1.90 1.70 2.55 61.83 73.23 68.01 4,656,057
1979 137,758,000 2,178,542 1,490,057 688,485 15.8 10.8 5.0 1.87 1.67 2.54 61.49 73.02 67.73 4,544,040
1980 138,483,000 2,202,779 1,525,755 677,024 15.9 11.0 4.9 1.87 1.68 2.51 61.38 72.96 67.70 4,506,249
1981 139,221,000 2,236,608 1,524,286 712,322 16.1 10.9 5.1 1.88 1.69 2.55 61.61 73.18 67.92 4,400,676
1982 140,067,000 2,328,044 1,504,200 823,844 16.6 10.7 5.9 1.96 1.76 2.63 62.24 73.64 68.38 4,462,825
1983 141,056,000 2,478,322 1,563,995 914,327 17.6 11.1 6.5 2.11 1.89 2.76 62.15 73.41 68.15 4,317,729
1984 142,061,000 2,409,614 1,650,866 758,748 17.0 11.6 5.3 2.06 1.86 2.69 61.71 72.96 67.67 4,361,959
1985 143,033,000 2,375,147 1,625,266 749,881 16.6 11.4 5.2 2.05 1.87 2.68 62.72 73.23 68.33 4,552,443
1986 144,156,000 2,485,915 1,497,975 987,940 17.2 10.4 6.9 2.18 1.98 2.83 64.77 74.22 69.95 4,579,400
1987 145,386,000 2,499,974 1,531,585 968,389 17.2 10.5 6.7 2.23 2.04 2.88 64.83 74.26 69.96 4,385,627
1988 146,505,000 2,348,494 1,569,112 779,382 16.0 10.7 5.3 2.12 1.96 2.80 64.61 74.25 69.81 4,608,953
1989 147,342,000 2,160,559 1,583,743 576,816 14.7 10.7 3.9 2.01 1.83 2.75 64.20 74.50 69.73 4,427,713
1990 147,969,000 1,988,858 1,655,993 332,865 13.4 11.2 2.3 1.888 1.70 2.60 63.76 74.32 69.36 4,103,425
1991 148,394,000 1,794,626 1,690,657 103,969 12.1 11.4 0.7 1.733 1.53 2.45 63.41 74.23 69.11 3,608,421
1992 148,538,000 1,587,644 1,807,441 -219,797 10.7 12.2 -1.5 1.552 1.35 2.22 61.96 73.71 67.98 4,436,695
1993 148,459,000 1,378,983 2,129,339 -750,356 9.3 14.3 -5.1 1.386 1.20 1.95 58.80 71.85 65.24 3,243,957
1994 148,408,000 1,408,159 2,301,366 -893,207 9.5 15.5 -6.0 1.385 1.24 1.92 57.38 71.07 63.93 3,060,237
1995 148,376,000 1,363,806 2,203,811 -840,005 9.2 14.9 -5.7 1.345 1.19 1.82 58.11 71.60 64.62 2,766,362
1996 148,160,000 1,304,638 2,082,249 -777,611 8.8 14.1 -5.2 1.281 1.14 1.71 59.61 72.41 65.89 2,652,038
1997 147,915,000 1,259,943 2,015,779 -755,836 8.5 13.6 -5.1 1.230 1.10 1.62 60.84 72.85 66.79 2,498,716
1998 147,671,000 1,283,292 1,988,744 -705,452 8.7 13.5 -4.8 1.240 1.11 1.64 61.19 73.12 67.14 2,346,138
1999 147,215,000 1,214,689 2,144,316 -929,627 8.3 14.6 -6.3 1.171 1.04 1.53 59.86 72.42 65.99 2,181,153
2000 146,597,000 1,266,800 2,225,332 -958,532 8.6 15.2 -6.5 1.195 1.09 1.55 58.99 72.25 65.38 2,138,800
2001 145,976,000 1,311,604 2,254,856 -943,252 9.0 15.4 -6.5 1.223 1.12 1.56 58.88 72.16 65.30 2,114,700
2002 145,306,496 1,396,967 2,332,272 -935,305 9.6 16.1 -6.4 1.286 1.19 1.63 58.68 71.90 64.95 1,944,481
2003 144,648,624 1,477,301 2,365,826 -888,525 10.2 16.4 -6.1 1.320 1.22 1.67 58.53 71.85 64.84 1,864,647
2004 144,067,312 1,502,477 2,295,402 -792,925 10.4 15.9 -5.5 1.344 1.25 1.65 58.91 72.36 65.31 1,797,567
2005 143,518,816 1,457,376 2,303,935 -846,559 10.2 16.1 -5.9 1.294 1.21 1.58 58.92 72.47 65.37 1,675,693
2006 143,049,632 1,479,637 2,166,703 -687,066 10.3 15.1 -4.8 1.305 1.21 1.60 60.43 73.34 66.69 1,582,398
2007 142,805,120 1,610,122 2,080,445 -470,323 11.3 14.6 -3.3 1.416 1.29 1.80 61.46 74.02 67.61 1,479,010
2008 142,742,368 1,713,947 2,075,954 -362,007 12.0 14.5 -2.6 1.502 1.37 1.91 61.92 74.28 67.99 1,385,600
2009 142,785,344 1,761,687 2,010,543 -248,856 12.3 14.1 -1.8 1.542 1.42 1.94 62.87 74.79 68.78 1,292,389
2010 142,849,472 1,788,948 2,028,516 -239,568 12.5 14.2 -1.7 1.567 1.44 1.98 63.09 74.88 68.94 1,186,108
2011 142,960,908 1,796,629 1,925,720 -129,091 12.6 13.5 -0.9 1.582 1.44 2.06 64.04 75.61 69.83 1,124,880
2012 143,213,095 1,902,084 1,906,335 -4,251 13.3 13.3 -0.0 1.691 1.541 2.215 64.56 75.86 70.24 1,070,980
Urban live births Urban deaths Urban natural change Urban rude birth rate (per 1,000) Urban rude death rate (per 1,000) Urban natural change (per 1,000) Rural live births Rural deaths Rural natural change Rural crude birth rate (per 1,000) Rural crude death rate (per 1,000) Rural natural change (per 1,000)
1950 1,171,250 436,792 734,458 26.1 9.7 16.4 1,574,747 594,218 980,529 27.5 10.4 17.1
1960 1,332,812 436,709 896,103 20.4 6.7 13.7 1,449,541 449,831 1,000,160 26.5 8.2 18.3
1970 1,205,207 646,129 559,078 14.8 7.9 6.9 698,506 485,054 213,452 14.3 10.0 4.3
1980 1,535,723 970,256 565,467 15.8 10.0 5.8 667,056 555,499 111,557 16.1 13.4 2.7
1990 1,386,247 1,140,613 245,634 12.7 10.5 2.2 602,611 515,380 87,231 15.5 13.2 2.3
1995 933,460 1,554,182 -620,722 8.7 14.4 -5.7 430,346 649,269 -219,283 10.9 16.5 -5.6
2000 886,908 1,564,034 -677,126 8.3 14.6 -6.3 379,892 661,298 -281,406 9.8 17.1 -7.3
2001 928,642 1,592,254 -663,612 8.7 14.9 -6.2 382,962 662,602 -279,640 10.0 17.3 -7.3
2002 998,056 1,638,822 -640,766 9.4 15.4 -6.0 398,911 693,450 -294,539 10.5 18.2 -7.7
2003 1,050,565 1,657,569 -607,004 9.9 15.6 -5.7 426,736 708,257 -281,521 11.1 18.4 -7.3
2004 1,074,247 1,606,894 -532,647 10.1 15.2 -5.1 428,230 688,508 -260,278 11.2 18.1 -6.9
2005 1,036,870 1,595,762 -558,892 9.8 15.1 -5.3 420,506 708,173 -287,667 11.0 18.6 -7.6
2006 1,044,540 1,501,245 -456,705 10.0 14.3 -4.3 435,097 665,458 -230,361 11.4 17.4 -6.0
2007 1,120,741 1,445,411 -324,670 10.7 13.8 -3.1 489,381 635,034 -145,653 12.9 16.7 -3.8
2008 1,194,820 1,443,529 -248,709 11.4 13.8 -2.4 519,127 632,425 -113,298 13.7 16.7 -3.0
2009 1,237,615 1,397,591 -159,976 11.8 13.3 -1.5 524,072 612,952 -88,880 13.9 16.3 -2.4
2010 1,263,893 1,421,734 -157,841 12.0 13.5 -1.5 520,055 606,782 -81,727 14.0 16.1 -2.1
2011 1,270,047 1,356,696 -88,649 12.0 12.8 -0.8 526,582 569,024 -42,442 14.1 15.2 -1.1
2012 1,355,674 1,353,635 2,039 12.8 12.8 0.0 546,410 552,700 -6,290 14.7 14.8 -0.1

[46]

[46] TFR 2002 - 2011 source [47]

Total fertility rates


As of 2013, Russian TFR of 1,7 children per woman[3] is among the highest in the Eastern Europe, which means an average Russian family has more children (1,7) than an average family in most other Eastern European countries. Still, this rate is far below the replacement rate of 2,1 - 2.14.

In 1990, just prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia's total fertility rate (TFR) stood at 1.89. Fertility rates had already begun to decline in the late 80s due to the natural progression of Russia's demographic structure, but the rapid and widely negative changes in society following the collapse greatly influenced the rate of decline.[48] The TFR hit an historic low of 1.16 in 1999 and has since begun to rise again, reaching 1.59 in 2010 (growth of 37%).[49] The only federal subject of Russia to see a decline in fertility since 1999 is Ingushetia, where the TFR has fallen by 20% from 2.44 to 1.97 as of 2009.[50] However, TFR for Ingushetia for the year 2011 was recorded at 2.94.[51]

In 2009, 8 of Russia's federal subjects had a TFR above 2.1 children per woman (the approximate minimum required to ensure population replacement). These federal subjects are Chechnya (3.38), Tuva (2.81), Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug (2.73), Agin-Buryat Okrug (2.63), Komi-Permyak (2.16), Evenk Okrug (2.58), Altai Republic (2.36), Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2.1). Of these federal subjects, four have an ethnic Russian majority (Altai, Evenk, Ust-Orda and Nenets).[50][52] In 2011, the highest TFR were recorded in Chechnya (3.362), Tyva (3.249), Ingushetia (2.94), Altai Republic (2.836), Sakha Republic (2.057), Buryatia (2.027), and Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2.007).[51]

Until 2010, the Russian republic of Chechenya was the region with the highest birth rate in the former USSR (excluding Central Asia). However in 2011, the Armenian province of Qashatagh overtook it (28.9 vs 29.3 per 1,000).[53]

In 2010, The average number of children born to women has decreased from 1513 to 1000 women from 2002 to 1469 in 2010 in urban areas the figure was 1328 children (2002 - 1350), and in the village - 1876 (in 2002. - 1993 ).


In recent years the percentage of children per woman 16 years or more were:

Year : 2002-2010

1 child : 30.5%-31.2%

2 children : 33.7%-34.4%

3 children : 8.9%-8.7%

4 or more children : 5.2%-4.2%

no children : 21.7%-21.5%

Note that despite a decrease in women who have not had children, the number of three-child and large families has declined between 2002 and 2010.

In every region in Russia rural areas reported higher TFR compared to urban areas. In most of the federal subjects in Siberia and the Russian Far East, the total fertility rates were high, but not high enough to ensure population replacement. For example, Zabaykalsky Krai had a TFR of 1.82, which is higher than the national average, but less than the 2.1 needed for population replacement.[50]

Compared to other G8 countries, in 2011, Russian TFR of 1.61 children/ woman[54] was lower than that of  France (2.00), the  UK (1.97), the  USA (1.89). Yet its TFR is higher than in other G8 countries like  Germany (1.36),  Japan (1.39),  Canada (1.59) and  Italy (1.40).

Compared to other most populous nations, Russia has a lower TFR than  Nigeria (5.49),  Pakistan (3.42),  India (2.59),  Indonesia (2.09), the USA (1.895),[55]  Brazil (2.19), and higher TFR than  China (1.40).

Compared to its neighbors, in 2011 Russia has a lower TFR than  Kazakhstan (2.41),  Mongolia (2.19),  Azerbaijan (1.92),  Norway (1.88), North Korea (2.01),  Finland (1.83). While Russian TFR is higher than in  Estonia (1.52),  Lithuania (1.55),  Belarus (1.50),  Georgia (1.70)

Health

Main article: Health in Russia

Life expectancy

total population: 70.3 years[40]
male: 62.8 years[58]
female: 76.1 years (2011)[59]

The disparity in the average lifespan between genders in Russia is largest in the world. Women live 9–12 years longer than men, while the difference in lifespan is typically only five years in other parts of the world. While medical sources, like The Lancet,[20] name mass privatization, and the neo-liberalist shock therapy policies of Yeltsin administration as key reasons of falling life expectancy of Russian men, other sources, like Luke Harding from The Guardian claim alcoholism explains the large difference in gender mortality levels in Russia.[60] As of 2011, the average life expectancy in Russia was 64.3 years for males and 76.1 years for females.[59] According to the WHO 2011 report,[61] annual per capita alcohol consumption in Russia is about 15.76 litres, fourth highest volume in Europe (compare to 13.37 in the UK, 13.66 in France, 15.6 in Ukraine, 16.45 in the Czech Republic, etc.). In the late 1950s, the USSR claimed a higher life expectancy than the United States,[62] but the Soviet Union has lagged behind Western countries in terms of mortality and life expectancy since the late 1960s.

The life expectancy was about 70 in 1986,[63] prior to the transition-induced disruption of the healthcare system. The turmoil in the early 1990s caused life expectancy in Russia to steadily decrease while it was steadily increasing in the rest of the world. Recently however, Russian life expectancy has again begun to rise. Between 2006—2011 the male life expectancy in Russia rose by almost four years, increasing the overall life expectancy by nearly 4 years to 70.3.[59]

Mortality

In 2012, 1,043,292, or 55% of all deaths in Russia were caused by cardiovascular disease. The second leading cause of death was cancer which claimed 287,840 lives (15.2%). External causes of death such as suicide (1.5%), road accidents (1.5%), murders (0.8%), accidental alcohol poisoning (0.4%), and accidental drowning (0.5%), claimed 202,175 lives in total (10.6%). Other major causes of death were diseases of the digestive system (4.6%), respiratory disease (3.6%), infectious and parasitic diseases (1.6%), and tuberculosis (0.9%).[46] The infant mortality rate in 2012 was 7.6 deaths per 1,000 (down from 8.2 in 2009 and 16.9 in 1999).[46]

Under-five mortality rate

13 deaths/1,000 live births (2008)[64]

Abortions and Family Planning

Main article: Abortion in Russia

In the 1980s only 8–10% of married Russian women of reproductive age used hormonal and intrauterine contraception methods, compared to 20–40% in developed countries. This led to much higher abortion rates in Russia compared to developed countries: in the 1980s Russia had a figure of 120 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age compared with only 20 per 1,000 in Western countries. However, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union many changes took place, such as the demonopolization of the market for contraceptive drugs and media liberalization, which led to a rapid conversion to more efficient pregnancy control practices. Abortion rates fell in the first half of the 1990s for the first time in Russia's history, even despite declining fertility rates. From the early 1990s to 2006, the number of expected abortions per women during her lifetime fell by nearly 2.5 times, from 3.4 to 1.2. As of 2004, the share of women of reproductive age using hormonal or intrauterine birth control methods was about 46% (29% intrauterine, 17% hormonal).[65]

Despite an increase in "family planning", the target of desired children at the desired time for a large portion of Russian families has not yet been achieved. According to a 2004 study, current pregnancies were termed "desired and timely" by 58% of respondents, while 23% described them as "desired, but untimely", and 19% said they were "undesired". The share of unexpected pregnancies remains much lower in countries with developed family planning culture, such as the Netherlands, whose percentage of unwanted pregnancies 20 years ago was half of that in Russia today.[65]

Ethnic groups

Further information: List of indigenous peoples of Russia

The Russian Federation is home to as many as 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples. As of the 2010 census, 80.90% of the population that disclosed their ethnicity (111,016,896 people) is ethnically Russian, followed by (groups larger than one million):[10][11]

According to the 2010 Census in Russia lived 142,856,536 people. It is important to note that 5,629,429 people (3.94% of the overall population.) did not declare any ethnic origin, compared to about 1 million in the 2002 Census. This is due to the fact that those people were counted from administrative databases and not directly, and were therefore unable to state their ethnicity.[10][66] Therefore, the percentages mentioned above are taken from the total population that declared their ethnicity, given that the non-declared remainder is thought to have an ethnic composition similar to the declared segment.[67]

Most smaller groups live compactly in their respective regions and can be categorized by language group. The ethnic divisions used here are those of the official census, and may in some respects be controversial. The following lists all ethnicities resolved by the 2010 census, grouped by language:[10]

Historical perspective[69]

The ethno-demographic structure of Russia has gradually changed over time. During the past century the most striking change is the fast increase of the peoples from the Caucasus. In 1926, these people composed 2% of the Russian population, compared to 6.5% in 2010. Though low in absolute numbers, the Siberian people also increased during the past century, but their growth was mainly realized after WW II (from 0.7% in 1959 to 1.2% in 2010) and not applicable to most of the small peoples (less than 10,000 people).

Peoples of European Russia

The relative proportion of the peoples of European Russia gradually decreased during the past century, but still compose 91% of the total population of Russia in 2010. The absolute numbers of most of these peoples reached its highest level in the beginning of the 1990s. Since 1992, natural growth in Russia has been negative and the numbers of all peoples of European Russia were lower in 2010 than in 2002, the only exceptions being the Roma (due to high fertility rates) and the Gagauz (due to high levels of migration from Moldova to Russia).

Several peoples saw a much larger decrease than can be explained by the low fertility rates and high mortality rates in Russia during the past two decades. Emigration and assimilation contributed to the decrease in numbers of many peoples. Emigration was the most important factor for Germans, Jews and Baltic peoples (Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians). The number of Germans halved between 1959 and 2010. Their main country of destination is Germany.

The number of Jews decreased by more than 80% between 1959 and 2010. In 1970, the Soviet Union had the third largest population of Jews in the world, (2,183,000 of whom 808,000 with residence in Russia), following only that of the United States and Israel. By 2010, due to Jewish emigration, their number fell as low as 158,000. A sizeable emigration of other minorities has been enduring, too. The main destinations of emigrants from Russia are the USA (Jews, Belarussians, Chechens, Meskhetian Turks, Ukrainians and others), Israel (Jews), Germany (Germans and Jews), Poland (Poles), Canada (Finns and Ukrainians), Finland (Finns), France (Jews and Armenians) and the United Kingdom (mainly rich Russians).


Russia experiences a constant flow of immigration. On average, close to 300,000 legal immigrants enter the country every year; about half are ethnic Russians from the other republics of the former Soviet Union. There is a significant inflow of ethnic Armenians, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz and Tajiks into big Russian cities, something that is viewed unfavorably by some citizens.[70] In addition, there are an estimated 4 million illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.[32]

The Kazakhs in Russia are mostly not recent immigrants. The majority inhabit regions bordering Kazakhstan such as the Astrakhan (16% of the population are Kazakhs), Orenburg (6% of the population are Kazakhs), Omsk (4% of the population are Kazakhs) and Saratov (3% of the population are Kazakhs) oblasts. Together these oblasts host 60% of the Kazakh population in Russia. The number of Kazakhs slightly decreased between 2002 and 2010 due to emigration to Kazakhstan, which has by far the strongest economy in Central Asia; other Central Asian populations (especially Uzbeks, Tajiks, and Kyrgyz) have continued to rise rapidly.

Russian statistical organizations classify the immigrants based on their ethnicity, although the information is published only up to 2007. In that year, the net immigration was 190,397 (plus another 49,546 for which ethnicity was unknown). Of this, 97,813 was Slavic / Germanic / Finnic (51.4%, of which   Russian - 72,769, Ukrainian - 17,802), Turkic and other Muslim - 52,536 (27.6%, of which Azeri - 14,084, Tatar - 10,391, Uzbek - 10,517, Tajik - 9,032, Kyrgyz - 7,533 & Kazakh - (-)1,424) and Others - 40,048 (21.0%, of which   Armenian - 25,719).[71]

Peoples of Central Asia in the Russian Federation, 1926-2010

Ethnic
group
Language
family
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Kazakhs Turkic 136,501 0.15% 356,500 0.33% 382,431 0.33% 477,820 0.37% 518,060 0.38% 635,865 0.43% 653,962 0.46% 647,732 0.47%
Uzbeks Turkic 942 0.00% 16,166 0.01% 29,512 0.03% 61,588 0.05% 72,385 0.05% 126,899 0.09% 122,916 0.09% 289,862 0.21%
Tajiks Indo-European 52 0.00% 3,315 0.00% 7,027 0.01% 14,108 0.01% 17,863 0.01% 38,208 0.03% 120,136 0.08% 200,666 0.15%
Kyrgyz Turkic 285 0.00% 6,311 0.01% 4,701 0.00% 9,107 0.01% 15,011 0.01% 41,734 0.03% 31,808 0.02% 103,422 0.08%
Turkmens Turkic 7,849 0.01% 12,869 0.01% 11,631 0.01% 20,040 0.02% 22,979 0.02% 39,739 0.03% 33,053 0.02% 36,885 0.03%
Uygurs Turkic 26 0.00% 642 0.00% 720 0.00% 1,513 0.00% 1,707 0.00% 2,577 0.00% 2,867 0.00% 3,696 0.00%
Karakalpaks Turkic 14 0.00% 306 0.00% 988 0.00% 2,267 0.00% 1,743 0.00% 6,155 0.00% 1,609 0.00% 1,466 0.00%

The 2010 census[10] found the following figures for foreign citizens resident in Russia:
 Uzbekistan: 131,100  Ukraine: 93,400  Tajikistan: 87,100  Azerbaijan: 67,900  Armenia: 59,400  Kyrgyzstan: 44,600  Moldova: 33,900  China: 28,400  Kazakhstan: 28,100  Belarus: 27,700  Georgia: 12,100  Vietnam: 11,100  Turkmenistan: 5,600  Turkey: 5,400  Estonia,  Latvia,  Lithuania: 5,300  India: 4,500 All others: 41,400

Median age and fertility

Median ages of ethnic groups vary considerably between groups. Ethnic Russians and other Slavic and Finnic groups have higher median age compared to the Caucasian groups.

Median ages are strongly correlated with fertility rates, ethnic groups with higher fertility rates have lower median ages, and vice versa. For example, in 2002, in the ethnic group with the lowest median age – Ingush – women 35 or older had, on average, 4.05 children; in the ethnic group with the highest median age – Jews – women 35 or older averaged only 1.37 children.[72] Ethnic Jews have both the highest median age and the lowest fertility rate; this is a consequence of Jewish emigration. The most noticeable trend in the past couple of decades is the convergence of birth rates between minorities (including Muslim minorities) and the Russian majority.

About 3 million students attend Russia's 519 institutions of higher education and 48 universities. As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and space and aviation research is generally of a high order.[78]

Labour force

The Russian labour force is undergoing tremendous changes. Although well-educated and skilled, it is largely mismatched to the rapidly changing needs of the Russian economy. The unemployment rate in Russia was 5.3% as of 2013.[79] Unemployment is highest among women and young people. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union and the economic dislocation it engendered, the standard of living fell dramatically. However, since recovering from the 1998 economic crisis, the standard of living has been on the rise. As of 2010 about 13.1% of the population was living below the poverty line, compared to 40% in 1999.[80] The average yearly salary in Russia was $14,302 (about $23,501 PPP) as of October 2013, up from $455 per year in August 1999.[81][82][83]

According to the FMS, as of 2011, there were 7,000,000 immigrants working in Russia. Half of these were from Ukraine, while the remainder was mostly from Central Asia. Only 3 million or less than half of all the immigrants are legal. Illegal immigrants number 4 million, mostly from Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Moldova.[32] The Census usually covers only a part of this population and the last one (2002 Census) counted one million non-citizens.

Population of main cities

Template:Largest cities

Rural life

Rural life in Russia is distinct from many other nations. Russia is one of few nations that have small towns hundreds of kilometres from major population centres. Relatively few Russian people live in villages—rural population accounted for 26% of the total population according to the 2010 Russian Census. Some people own or rent village houses and use them as dachas (summer houses).

See also

Soviet Union:

Census information:

References

  1. Population data since 1992 from Russian Federal Service of State Statistics (Rosstat)
  2. http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/B13_00/IssWWW.exe/Stg/dk08/8-0.htm
  3. ↑ Euromonitor International, retrieved on 26 March 2013.
  4. Statistics on the Total Population in Russia, 2002-2012, International Monetary Fund, retrieved on 1 August 2012.
  5. http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/B13_00/IssWWW.exe/Stg/dk08/8-0.htm
  6. The mood of Russia: Time to shove off, The Economist, 10 September 2011.
  7. ↑ 2009 demographic figures Rosstat Retrieved on 18 February 2010
  8. ↑ BBC Retrieved on 18 February 2009
  9. Russian death rates 1950–2008 Demoscope Retrieved on 29 May 2009
  10. Russian birth rates 1950–2008 Demoscope Retrieved on 29 May 2009
  11. Burlington Free Press, June 26, 2009, page 2A, "Study blames alcohol for half Russian deaths"
  12. ↑ Смертность в России сквозь призму приватизации (Russian)
  13. ↑ http://english.pravda.ru/russia/economics/15-09-2006/84467-childless-0 (accessed January 3, 2010.)
  14. http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20060714/51327247.html
  15. http://en.ria.ru/society/20120820/175324629.html
  16. a b c
  17. a b
  18. [1]
  19. ISBN 0-8330-2446-9
  20. ↑ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2012/wo-man12.rar
  21. Fertility Rate Statistics Demoscope.ru Retrieved on 10 September 2009
  22. http://www.stat-nkr.am/files/yearbooks/2004_2010/5_bnakchut.pdf
  23. Life Expectancy of the Russian Federation since 1992 Retrieved on 29 May 2008
  24. http://argumenti.ru/society/2013/03/239412
  25. a b c
  26. a b
  27. ↑ CIA World Factbook updated 6 March 2008
  28. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD

Further reading

  • Gavrilova N.S., Gavrilov L.A. Aging Populations: Russia/Eastern Europe. In: P. Uhlenberg (Editor), International Handbook of the Demography of Aging, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2009, pp. 113–131.
  • Gavrilova N.S., Semyonova V.G., Dubrovina E., Evdokushkina G.N., Ivanova A.E., Gavrilov L.A. Russian Mortality Crisis and the Quality of Vital Statistics. Population Research and Policy Review, 2008, 27: 551-574.
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Gavrilov, L.A., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina, G.N., Ivanova, A.E. 2005. Patterns of violent crime in Russia. In: Pridemore, W.A. (ed.). Ruling Russia: Law, Crime, and Justice in a Changing Society. Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield Publ., Inc, 117-145
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina G.N., Gavrilov, L.A. The response of violent mortality to economic crisis in Russia. Population Research and Policy Review, 2000, 19: 397-419.

External links

  • Igor Beloborodov, Demographic situation in Russia in 1992–2010 (report at the Moscow Demographic Summit — June 2011)
  • Nicholas Eberstadt, National Bureau of Asian Research Project Report, May 2010)
  • Edited by Julie DaVanzo, Gwen Farnsworth ISBN 0-8330-2446-9
  • Jessica Griffith University of Leicester
  • Results of population policy and current demographic situation (2008)
  • United States Census Bureau.
  • Population Reference Bureau
  • Population density and distribution maps (text is in Russian; the topmost map shows population density based on 1996 data)
  • Ethnic groups of Russia
  • Problems with mortality data in Russia
  • V. Borisov “Demographic situation in Russia and the role of mortality in reproduction of population”, 2005 (in English)
  • Russian Empire:
    • The Red Book of the peoples of the Russian Empire
  • (Russian) Kommersant-Money, 25 October 2005
  • Choice between mass migration and birth rate increase as possible solutions of depopulation problem in Russia (in Russian)
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