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Divine retribution

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Title: Divine retribution  
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Subject: Attributes of God in Christianity, Omnibenevolence, Flood, Divinity, Salvation (Christianity)
Collection: Attributes of God in Christian Theology, Christian Terminology, Theology
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Divine retribution

Divine retribution is supernatural punishment of a person, a group of people, or everyone by a deity in response to some action. Many cultures have a story about how a deity exacted punishment on previous inhabitants of their land, causing their doom.

An example of divine retribution is the story found in many cultures about a great flood destroying all of humanity, as described in the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Hindu Vedas, or Book of Genesis (6:9-8:22), leaving one principal 'chosen' survivor. In the first example it is Utnapishtim, and in the last example Noah. References in the Qur'an to a man named Nuh (Noah) who was commanded by God to build an ark also suggest that one man and his followers were saved in a great flood.

Other examples in Hebrew religious literature include the dispersion of the builders of the Tower of Babel (Genesis 11:1-9), the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 18:20-21, 19:23-28)(Quran 7:80-84),[1] and the Ten Plagues visited upon the ancient Egyptians for persecuting the children of Israel (Exodus, Chapters 7-12). Similarly, in Greek mythology, the goddess Hera often became enraged when her husband, Zeus, would impregnate mortal women, and would exact divine retribution on the children born of such affairs. In some versions of the myth, Medusa was turned into her monstrous form as divine retribution for her vanity; in others it was as punishment for being raped by Poseidon.

In most cases, the Bible refers to be divine retribution as being delayed or "treasured up" to a future time.[2] Sight of God's supernatural works and retribution would mitigate against faith in God's Word.[3] William Lane Craig says that In Paul’s view God’s properties, His eternal power and deity, are clearly revealed in creation, so that people who fail to believe in an eternal, powerful Creator of the world are without excuse. Indeed, Paul says that they actually do know that God exists, but they suppress this truth because of their unrighteousness.[4]

Some religions have no concept of divine retribution, or of a God being capable of expressing human sentiments such as jealousy, vengeance, or wrath. For example, in Deism and Pandeism, the Creator has no need to intervene in our Universe at all, and so exhibits no such behavior. In Pantheism (as reflected in Pandeism as well), God is the Universe and encompasses everything within it, and so has no need for retribution, as all things against which retribution might be taken are simply within God. This view is reflected in some pantheistic or pandeistic forms of Hinduism, as well.

The concept of divine retribution is resolutely denied in Buddhism. Gautama Buddha did not endorse belief in a creator deity,[5][6] refused to express any views on creation[7] and stated that questions on the origin of the world are worthless.[8][9] The non-adherence[10] to the notion of an omnipotent creator deity or a prime mover is seen by many as a key distinction between Buddhism and other religions.

But Buddhists do accept the existence of beings in higher realms (see Buddhist cosmology), known as devas, but they, like humans, are said to be suffering in samsara,[11] and are not necessarily wiser than us. The Buddha is often portrayed as a teacher of the gods,[12] and superior to them.[13] Despite this there are believed to be enlightened devas.[14] But since there may also be unenlightened devas, there also may be godlike beings who engage in retributive acts, but if they do so, then they do so out of their own ignorance of a greater truth.

Despite this nontheism, Buddhism nevertheless fully accepts the theory of karma, which posts punishment-like effects, such as rebirths in realms of torment, as a consequence of wrongful actions. Unlike in most Abrahamic monotheistic religions, these effects are not eternal, though they can last for a very long time. Even theistic religions do not necessarily see such effects as "punishment" imposed by a higher authority, rather than natural consequences of wrongful action.

Contents

  • "Wrath of God" 1
  • Divine Retribution in the Pentateuch 2
  • Other notable biblical retributions 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

"Wrath of God"

"The wrath of God", an anthropomorphic expression for the attitude which some believe God has towards sin,[15] is mentioned many times in the Christian Bible. Leaving aside the references to it in the Old Testament, where it is used of God not only when punishing the wicked but also when sending trials to the just, as in Job 14:13, it is mentioned in at least twenty verses of the New Testament. Examples are:

  • John 3:36 - Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.
  • Romans 1:18 - For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth.
  • Romans 5:9 - Since, therefore, we have now been justified by his blood, much more shall we be saved by him from the wrath of God.
  • Romans 12:19 - Beloved, never avenge yourselves, but leave it to the wrath of God, for it is written, "Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord."
  • Ephesians 5:6 - Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience.
  • Revelation 6:17 - For the great day of his wrath has come, and who is able to withstand?
  • Revelation 14:19 - So the angel swung his sickle across the earth and gathered the grape harvest of the earth and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God.
  • Revelation 15:1 - Then I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvelous: seven angels having the seven last plagues, for in them the wrath of God was finished.
  • Revelation 19:15 - From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty.

The New Testament associates the wrath of God particularly with imagery of the Last Day, described allegorically in Romans 2:5 as the "day of wrath", and the Book of Revelation.

Divine Retribution in the Pentateuch

Divine retribution is easily seen in the Pentateuch or first five books of the Bible which set a hermeneutical foundation of the other Bible books. Major examples of divine retribution in the Pentateuch include:

Biblical passages incident reason
Genesis 3:14-24 Curse upon Adam and Eve and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden disobedience and excuses including blaming God
Genesis 4:9-15 Curse upon Cain after his slaying of his brother, Abel deceit, murder, lies
Genesis 6-7 The destruction of the Great Flood rampant evil and Nephilim
Genesis 11:1-9 The confusion of languages at the Tower of Babel impiety on a massive scale
Genesis 19:23-29 Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah people of no redeeming value
Genesis 38:6-10 Destruction of Er and Onan wickedness in the Lord's sight
Exodus 7-14 Plagues of Egypt to establish his power over that of the gods of Egypt
Exodus 19:10-25 Divine threatenings at Mount Sinai warn that the mountain is off limits and holy
Exodus 32 Plagues at the incident of the golden calf disowning the people for breaking his covenant with them
Leviticus 10:1-2 Nadab and Abihu are burned offering unauthorized fire in their censers
Leviticus 26:14-39 Curses upon the disobedient divine warning
Numbers 11 A plague accompanies the giving of quail meat in the wilderness rejecting his gracious gift of heavenly food and failing his test of obedience
Numbers 16 The rebellion of Korah, Dathan and Abiram - Their supernatural deaths and the plague that followed insolence and attempting self-promotion to roles they were unworthy of holding
Numbers 20:9-13 Reprimand of Moses at the water of Meribah disobeying the Lord's instruction, showing distrust and indífference in God's presence
Numbers 21 Murmuring of the people and the plague of fiery serpents spurning God's grace
Numbers 25 Whoredom with the Moabites and resulting plague breaching God's covenant through sexual immorality and worshipping other gods
Deuteronomy 28 Curses pronounced upon the disobedient another divine warning

Other notable biblical retributions

The Bible being full of cases of divine retribution, some instances are particularly notable for heralding in new eras, while others were meant to serve as abject lessons in dealing with God and keeping faithful to his commands.
Biblical passages Incident Reason
(1 Samuel 6:19) some/many men of Beth Shemesh killed looking into the ark of the covenant thus displaying irreverent curiosity
(2 Samuel 6:1-7) Uzzah struck dead after touching the Ark of the covenant despite good intentions he was in clear violation of the instructions given on how to deal with the object
(1 Kings 11) God promises to tear Solomon's kingdom from his son except for a single tribe. Idolatry and unrepentance.
(Acts 5:1) Ananias and his wife Sapphira struck dead committed the first recorded sin of the new church by pretending to be generous and lying to The Holy Spirit about an offering.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://quran.com/7
  2. ^ Luke 3:7; Romans 2:5
  3. ^ For we are saved by hope: but hope that is seen is not hope...(Romans 8:24)
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ Approaching the Dhamma: Buddhist Texts and Practices in South and Southeast Asia by Anne M. Blackburn (editor), Jeffrey Samuels (editor). Pariyatti Publishing: 2003 ISBN 1-928706-19-3 pg 129
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ http://www.himalayanart.org/pages/Visual_Dharma/yidams.html
  15. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article wrath of God, the

External links

  • R. G. V. Tasker. The Biblical Doctrine of the Wrath of God
  • W. L. Craig.True Love: The Doctrine of Divine Retribution
  • Herbert W. Byrne. The Wrath of God (2005 ISBN 1-59781-511-X)
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