World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Djurleite

Article Id: WHEBN0005956394
Reproduction Date:

Title: Djurleite  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Sulfide minerals, Supergene (geology), Digenite, Copper minerals, Arthurite
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Djurleite

Djurleite
Djurleite pseudomorph after pyrite from New Mexico, specimen size 2.4 cm
General
Category Copper sulfide
Formula
(repeating unit)
Cu31S16
Strunz classification 02.BA.05b
Dana classification 2.4.7.2
Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m, space group P21/n
Unit cell a = 26.897 Å, b = 15.745 Å, c = 13.565 Å β = 90.13° Z=8
Identification
Formula mass 2483 g
Color Grey, blue-black or black
Crystal habit Crystals are short prismatic and thick tabular, also massive and compact
Crystal system Monoclinic
Twinning Pseudohexagonal twins are common, twin axis [100].[1]
Cleavage None
Fracture Conchoidal
Tenacity Brittle
Mohs scale hardness 2½ to 3
Luster Submetallic to metallic
Streak Black
Diaphaneity Opaque
Specific gravity 5.63[2]
References [3][4][5][6]

Djurleite is a copper sulfide mineral of secondary origin with formula Cu31S16 that crystallizes with monoclinic-prismatic symmetry. It is typically massive in form, but does at times develop thin tabular to prismatic crystals. It occurs with other supergene minerals such as chalcocite, covellite and digenite in the enriched zone of copper orebodies. It is a member of the chalcocite group, and very similar to chalcocite, Cu2S, in its composition and properties, but the two minerals can be distinguished from each other by x-ray powder diffraction.[7] Intergrowths and transformations between djurleite, digenite and chalcocite are common.[1] Many of the reported associations of digenite and djurleite, however, identified by powder diffraction, could be anilite and djurleite, as anilite transforms to digenite during grinding.[4]

Djurleite was named for the Swedish chemist Seved Djurle (1928–2000), from the University of Uppsala, Sweden, who first synthesized the mineral in 1958, prior to its discovery in nature. The natural material was first described in 1962 by E H Roseboom Jr, of the US Geological Survey, from occurrences at the type locality, Barranca del Cobre, Chihuahua, Mexico.[7]

Contents

  • The chalcocite group 1
  • Unit cell 2
  • Physical properties 3
  • Optical properties 4
  • Environment 5
  • Occurrence 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

The chalcocite group

The chalcocite group is a group of closely related copper sulfides, with the formulae:[8]

Unit cell

Djurleite has a monoclinic structure with a large unit cell containing 248 copper and 128 sulfur atoms.[9] The formula is Cu31S16, molar mass 2483 g, and there are 8 formula units per unit cell (Z = 8).

The crystal class is 2/m, meaning the structure has an axis of twofold rotational symmetry perpendicular to a mirror plane. The space group is P21/c, and the unit cell parameters are a = 26.897 Å, b = 15.745 Å, c = 13.565 Å and β = 90.13°. The structure is based on hexagonal closest packing of sulfur atoms with a monoclinic space group.[10]

Physical properties

Crystals are short prismatic and thick tabular, but the mineral usually occurs in a massive and compact form. There is no cleavage. Pseudohexagonal twins are common, with crystal blocks rotated around the a crystal axis, which is normal to the close-packed layers, by multiples of 60°.[1] Djurleite is brittle, with a conchoidal (shell-like) fracture. It is a soft mineral, with hardness 2½ to 3, a little less than that of calcite. The specific gravity, 5.63, is high, due to the copper content, djurleite is denser than the copper-iron sulfide bornite, but not as dense as the iron-arsenic sulfide arsenopyrite.

Optical properties

Djurleite is grey, blue-black or black, with a black streak and a submetallic to metallic luster. It is an opaque mineral, so refractive indices are not defined. The reflectivity (the percentage of incident energy which is reflected from a surface) for light of wavelength 540 nm varies between 29.6 and 30.2, and is slightly dependent on the direction of the incident light, that is to say, the mineral is weakly anisotropic.[3][5][6]

Environment

Djurleite with quartz and pyrite from Butte, Montana (size: 9.0 x 6.2 x 4.0 cm)

Djurleite is a widely distributed but little known ore mineral of copper, found in the secondary enrichment zones of copper deposits, associated with other secondary copper sulfides digenite, chalcocite, bornite, chalcopyrite and anilite with pyrite.[6]

Occurrence

The type locality is Barranca de Cobre, Chihuahua, Mexico, and the type material is conserved at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada, M25369, and at the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA.[6]

References

  1. ^ a b c Pósfai, M. & Buseck, P. R. (1994): Djurleite, digenite, and chalcocite: Intergrowths and transformations. American Mineralogist, 79, 308-315
  2. ^ Fleischer M (1963) New mineral names, American Mineralogist 48, 215
  3. ^ a b Gaines et al (1997) Dana’s New Mineralogy Eighth Edition, Wiley
  4. ^ a b Mindat.org
  5. ^ a b Webmineral data
  6. ^ a b c d Handbook of Mineralogy
  7. ^ a b Roseboom, E.H. (1962) Djurleite, Cu1.96S, a new mineral. American Mineralogist: 47: 1181-1184.
  8. ^ http://rruff.info/ima
  9. ^ H. T. Evans "Djurleite (Cu1.94S) and Low Chalcocite (Cu2S): New Crystal Structure Studies" Science 203 (1979) 356
  10. ^ Klein et al (1993) Manual of Mineralogy 21st Edition, Wiley

External links

  • JMol: http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/AMS/viewJmol.php?id=10818
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.