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Dohuk

Duhok
دهۆک
View on Duhok with the Duhok Dam in the background
View on Duhok with the Duhok Dam in the background
Duhokدهۆک is located in Iraq
Duhok
دهۆک
Dohuk's location in Iraq
Coordinates:
Country  Iraq
Autonomous region  Kurdistan[1]
Governorate Dohuk Governorate
District Dohuk District
Subdistrict Dohuk Subdistrict
Elevation 1,854 ft (565 m)
Population (2013)[2]
 • Total 1,000,000+
Postcode 42001
Website http://www.duhokgov.org/

Dohuk (Kurdish: دهۆک‎, Dihok, Dahūk; Syriac: ܢܘܗܕܪܐ Nohadrā; Arabic: نوهدرةNōhidrāh;) is the capital of Dohuk Governorate in Kurdistan and part of Iraqi Kurdistan, with a population of approximately 350,000 inhabitants, consisting mostly of Kurds, with a significant Arab and Assyrian population. The city is encircled by mountains along the Tigris river. Dohuk has a growing tourist industry. Its population has increased rapidly since the 1990s, as the rural population moved to the cities. The University of Dohuk, founded in 1992, is a renowned center for teaching and research.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Demographics 2
  • Educational institutions 3
  • Sport 4
  • Climate 5
  • See also 6
  • Twin towns 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

History

Throughout history to the present time, Duhok has acquired a strategic position historically and geographically. Between the 25th and 22nd century BC, it changed hands between the Gutians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Hurrians and Hattians, before becoming an integral part of Assyria from the mid 21st century BC until the dissolution of Assyria (then known as Athura/Assuristan) in the 7th century AD.[3] During the Assyrian period the town was named Nohadra (and also Bit Nuhadra or Naarda), where, during the Parthian-Sassanid rule in Assyria it became an eparchy within the Assyrian Church of the East metropolitanate of Ḥadyab (Arbil).[4][5]

The city became prominent again in 1236, when Hasan Beg Saifadin joined the Kurdish Badinan principality. In 1842, the principality was dissolved by the Ottomans and connected to the city of Mosul.[6]

Duhok by night

In 1898 there were according to a report eleven small and private schools in the city, two Assyrian Christian and two Jewish schools. In 1920 there were in all of Iraq only five primary schools that were accessible for girls, and one of them was in Dohuk.

From 22 to 24 September 2005 Dohuk held a cultural festival that was for the first time in Dohuk to which Kurdish writers from all countries were invited.

Demographics

The city's population of approximately 1,000,000+ inhabitants , consists mostly of Kurds, with a significant Assyrian population. In 2014 many Yazidi and Assyrian refugees who were escaping the advance of the Islamic State fled to the city.[7][8]

Educational institutions

List of current higher educational institutions in Duhok is as below:

Sport

The city is home to several sporting clubs including Dohuk SC, a professional football club that plays in the Iraqi Premier League, its home stadium can hold up to 30,000 spectators . Another football team from the city is Zeravani SC which plays in the Kurdish Premier League. Dohuk also has a range of other sport clubs, notably the Duhok Basketball Club. Duhok SC basketball competes in the Iraqi Division I Basketball League and successfully came third in FIBA Asia Champions Cup in 2012.

Duhok SC football club won the Iraqi premier league championship In the 2009/2010 season beating Talaba SC 1–0 to become the champions for the first time.

Climate

Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as dry-summer subtropical (Csa). The temperatures are typical to the Mesopotamia region, with extremely hot summer temperatures and mild winter temperatures. Precipitation falls in the cooler months.

Climate data for Dohuk, Iraq
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20
(68)
27
(81)
30
(86)
34
(93)
42
(108)
44
(111)
48
(118)
49
(120)
45
(113)
39
(102)
31
(88)
24
(75)
49
(120)
Average high °C (°F) 11
(52)
14
(57)
19
(66)
24
(75)
32
(90)
38
(100)
42
(108)
41
(106)
37
(99)
29
(84)
20
(68)
13
(55)
26.7
(80)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7
(45)
10
(50)
14
(57)
18
(64)
25
(77)
31
(88)
34
(93)
34
(93)
29
(84)
22
(72)
14
(57)
9
(48)
20.6
(69)
Average low °C (°F) 3
(37)
5
(41)
9
(48)
13
(55)
18
(64)
23
(73)
27
(81)
26
(79)
21
(70)
15
(59)
8
(46)
6
(43)
14.5
(58)
Record low °C (°F) −4
(25)
−6
(21)
−1
(30)
3
(37)
6
(43)
10
(50)
13
(55)
17
(63)
11
(52)
4
(39)
−2
(28)
−2
(28)
−6
(21)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 101
(3.98)
120
(4.72)
111
(4.37)
70
(2.76)
38
(1.5)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.04)
10
(0.39)
57
(2.24)
108
(4.25)
616
(24.25)
Average precipitation days 9 9 10 9 4 1 1 3 6 10
Average snowy days 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Average relative humidity (%) 60 53 46 39 23 15 13 15 17 28 42 62 34.4
Source #1: My Forecast[9]
Source #2: Levoyageur for rainfall[10]

See also

Twin towns

References

  1. ^ http://krg.org/articles/detail.asp?lngnr=12&smap=03010300&rnr=140&anr=23911
  2. ^ http://www.uod.ac/en/duhokcity
  3. ^ http://www.uod.ac/en/duhokcity#sthash.m1dKO7nV.dpuf
  4. ^ Société des études arméniennes, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Association de la revue des études arméniennes. Revue des études arméniennes , Volume 21. pp. 303, 309. 
  5. ^ NAARDA, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854)
  6. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bahdinan-kurdish-region-river-dialect-group-and-amirate>
  7. ^ Khalel, Sheren; Vickery, Matthew (27 October 2014). "The Forgotten Yazidis".  
  8. ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2014/09/iraq-exodus-201493132419188566.html>
  9. ^ "Dahuk, Iraq Climate". My Forecast. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
  10. ^ "Climate, weather, temperatures - City : DUHOK". Levoyageur. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 

External links

  • Iraq Image - Dahuk Satellite Observation
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