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Dorothy Day

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Title: Dorothy Day  
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Subject: Christian anarchism, Distributism, Catholic Worker Movement, Ammon Hennacy, National Women's Hall of Fame
Collection: 1897 Births, 1980 Deaths, 20Th-Century Roman Catholics, 20Th-Century Venerated Christians, American Anarchists, American Anti–vietnam War Activists, American Anti-War Activists, American Christian Pacifists, American Christian Socialists, American Memoirists, American People of English Descent, American People of Irish Descent, American People of Scotch-Irish Descent, American Roman Catholic Religious Writers, American Tax Resisters, American Women Writers, Anarcho-Pacifists, Anti-Poverty Advocates, Anti–world War II Activists, Benedictine Oblates, Benedictine Servants of God, Cardiovascular Disease Deaths in New York, Catholic Workers, Christian Anarchists, Christian Radicals, Converts to Roman Catholicism from Anglicanism, Converts to Roman Catholicism from Atheism or Agnosticism, Deaths from Myocardial Infarction, Editors of Christian Publications, Industrial Workers of the World Members, Laetare Medal Recipients, Nonviolence Advocates, People from Greenwich Village, People from Staten Island, Roman Catholic Activists, Servants of God, Silent Sentinels, University of Illinois at Urbana–champaign Alumni, Women Memoirists, Writers from Brooklyn
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Dorothy Day

Dorothy Day
Born (1897-11-08)November 8, 1897
Brooklyn, New York,
United States
Died November 29, 1980(1980-11-29) (aged 83)
New York, New York,
United States
Cause of death Myocardial infarction
Resting place Cemetery of the Resurrection
Staten Island, New York,
United States
Nationality American
Education University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
Known for co-founder of the Catholic Worker Movement
Title Servant of God
Religion Catholic
Spouse(s) Berkeley Tobey, Forster Batterham (common-law)
Children Tamar Hennessy (1926-2008), daughter of Batterham
Parent(s) John and Grace (née Satterlee) Day
Relatives Brothers Donald, Sam, and John; sister Della

Dorothy Day, Obl.S.B., (November 8, 1897 – November 29, 1980) was an American journalist, social activist, and Catholic convert.

Dorothy Day became famous after her conversion. She initially lived a bohemian lifestyle before becoming Catholic.[1] This conversion is described in her autobiography, The Long Loneliness.[2]

Day's social activism is also described in her autobiography. In 1917 she was imprisoned as a member of suffragist Alice Paul's nonviolent Silent Sentinels. In the 1930s, Day worked closely with fellow activist Peter Maurin to establish the Catholic Worker Movement, a pacifist movement that combines direct aid for the poor and homeless with nonviolent direct action on their behalf. She practiced civil disobedience, which led to others arrests in 1955,[3] 1957,[4] and in 1972 at the age of seventy-five.[5]

Day was also an active journalist, and described her social activism in her writings. As part of the Catholic Worker Movement, Day co-founded the Catholic Worker newspaper in 1931, and served as its editor from 1933 until her death in 1980. In this newspaper, Day advocated the Catholic economic theory of distributism, which she considered a third way between capitalism and socialism.[6][7] Her activism and writing gave her a national reputation as a political radical,[5] perhaps the most famous radical in American Catholic Church history.[8]

Dorothy Day's life is an inspiration for the Catholic Church. Pope Benedict XVI used her conversion story as an example of how to "journey towards faith... in a secularized environment."[2] Pope Francis described the example of her social activism when he addressed the United States Congress.[9] The Church has opened the cause for Day's possible canonization, which was accepted by the Holy See for investigation. Due to this, the Church refers to her with the title of Servant of God.


  • Biography 1
    • Early years 1.1
    • Social activism 1.2
    • The Catholic Worker movement 1.3
    • Activism 1.4
    • Later years 1.5
  • Beliefs 2
    • Charity and poverty 2.1
    • All men are brothers 2.2
      • Sympathy with anarchists 2.2.1
      • Sympathy with Communists 2.2.2
    • Catholic Church property 2.3
    • Catholic orthodoxy 2.4
    • The laity 2.5
    • Sex 2.6
  • Cause for sainthood 3
  • Posthumous recognition 4
  • Works 5
  • See also 6
  • Notes 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9


Early years

Dorothy Day was born on November 8, 1897, in the Brooklyn Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. She was born into a family described by one biographer as "solid, patriotic, and middle class".[10] Her father, John Day, was a Tennessee native of Scots-Irish heritage, while her mother, Grace Satterlee, a native of upstate New York, was of English ancestry. Her parents were married in an Episcopal church in Greenwich Village.[11] She had three brothers and a sister. In 1904, her father, who was a sports writer devoted to horse racing, took a position with a newspaper in San Francisco. The family lived in Oakland, California, until the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 destroyed the newspaper's facilities and her father lost his job. From the spontaneous response to the earthquake's devastation, the self-sacrifice of neighbors in a time of crisis, Day drew a lesson about individual action and Christian community. The family relocated to Chicago.[12]

Day's parents were nominal Christians who rarely attended church. As a young child, she showed a marked religious streak, reading the Bible frequently. When she was ten she started to attend an Episcopal church, after its rector convinced her mother to let Day's brothers join the church choir. She was taken with the liturgy and its music. She studied the catechism and was baptized and confirmed in that church.[13]

Day was an avid reader in her teens, particularly fond of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. She worked from one book to another, noting Jack London's mention of Herbert Spencer in Martin Eden, and then from Spencer to Darwin and Huxley. She learned about anarchy and extreme poverty from Peter Kropotkin, who promoted a belief in cooperation in contrast to Darwin's competition for survival.[14] She also enjoyed Russian literature in university, especially Dostoesvky, Tolstoy, and Gorky.[15] Day read a lot of socially conscious work, which gave her a background for her future; it helped bolster her support for and involvement in social activism.

In 1914, Day attended the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on a scholarship. She was a reluctant scholar.[16] Her reading was chiefly in a Christian radical social direction.[16] She avoided campus social life and supported herself rather than rely on money from her father, buying all her clothing and shoes from discount stores.[17] She left the university after two years and moved to New York City.[16]

Social activism

She settled on the Lower East Side and worked on the staff of several Socialist publications, including The Liberator,[18] The Masses, and The Call. She "smilingly explained to impatient socialists that she was 'a pacifist even in the class war.'"[19] Years later, Day described how she was pulled in different directions: "I was only eighteen, so I wavered between my allegiance to Socialism, Syndicalism (the I.W.W.'s) and Anarchism. When I read Tolstoy I was an Anarchist. My allegiance to The Call kept me a Socialist, although a left-wing one, and my Americanism inclined me to the I.W.W. movement."[20][21]

She celebrated the bloodless Alice Paul and the National Women's Party. Sentenced to 30 days in jail, she served 15 days before being released from prison, ten of them on a hunger strike.[23][24]

She spent several months in Greenwich Village, where she became close to Eugene O'Neill, whom she later credited with having produced "an intensification of the religious sense that was in me".[25] She had a love affair of several years with Mike Gold, a radical writer who later became a prominent Communist.[26] She maintained friendships with such prominent American Communists as Anna Louise Strong, and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, who became the head of the Communist Party USA.

Initially Day lived a bohemian life. In 1920 or 1921, just after ending an unhappy love affair with Lionel Moise and having an abortion, she married Berkeley Tobey in a civil ceremony. She spent a year with him in Europe removed from politics, focusing on art and literature, and writing an semi-autobiographical novel, The Eleventh Virgin (1924), based on her affair with Moise. In its "Epilogue", she tried to draw lessons about the status of women from her experience: "I thought I was a free and emancipated young woman and found out I wasn't at all ... [F]reedom is just a modernity gown, a new trapping that we women affect to capture the man we want."[27] She later called it a "very bad book".[28] The sale of the movie rights to the novel gave her $2,500, and she bought a beach cottage as a writing retreat in Staten Island, New York.[29] Soon she found a new lover, Forster Batterham, an activist and biologist, who joined her there on weekends. She lived there from 1925 to 1929, entertaining friends and enjoying a romantic relationship that foundered when she took passionately to motherhood and religion.[30]

Day, who had thought herself sterile following her abortion, was elated to find she was pregnant in mid-1925, while Batterham dreaded fatherhood. While she visited her mother in Florida and separated from Batterham for several months, she intensified her exploration of Catholicism. When she returned to Staten Island, Batterham found her increasing devotion, attendance at Mass, and religious reading incomprehensible. Soon after the birth of their daughter Tamar Teresa, on March 4, 1926, Day encountered a local Catholic

  • Dorothy Day Collection
    • 721 documents Day wrote for the Catholic Worker
    • the full text of four of her books and other selected articles
  • Dorothy Day, Union Square Speech, 1965
  • Dorothy Day quotations, PBS
  • CollectionCatholic WorkerDorothy Day-, Marquette University
  • The Georgia BulletinFebruary 1965 Interview with Dorothy Day in
  • Stephen Beale, "The Dorothy Day Few of Us Know", Crisis Magazine, March 19, 2013
  • Robert Royal, "Re-reading Dorothy Day", Catholic Thing, March 17, 2014

External links

  • Carol Byrne (2010) The Catholic Worker Movement (1933-1980): A Critical Analysis, Central Milton Keynes, UK: AuthorHouse
  • Virginia Cannon, "Day by Day: A Saint for the Occupy Era?" The New Yorker, November 30, 2012
  • Jeffrey M. Shaw (2014) Illusions of Freedom: Thomas Merton and Jacques Ellul on Technology and the Human Condition Wipf and Stock.
  • Robert Coles (1987) Dorothy Day: A Radical Devotion, Radcliffe Biography Center, Perseus Books, conversations with Dorothy Day
  • Elie, Paul (2003). The Life You Save May Be Your Own. New York, NY: Farrar, Strauss, and Grioux. 
  • Brigid O'Shea Merriman (1994) Searching for Christ: The Spirituality of Dorothy Day
  • William Miller (1982) Dorothy Day: A Biography, NY: Harper & Row
  • June O'Connor (1991) The Moral Vision of Dorothy Day: A Feminist Perspective
  • Mel Piehl (1982) Breaking Bread: The Origins of Catholic Radicalism in America
  • William J. Thorn, Phillip Runkel, Susan Mountin, eds. (2001) Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker Movement: Centenary Essays, Marquette University Press, 2001
  • Robert Atkins (2013) "Dorothy Day's social Catholicism: the formative French influences"

Further reading

  1. ^ Elie (2003), p. 43
  2. ^ a b Pope Benedict XVI (2013-02-13). "General Audience, 13 February 2013". Vatican. Retrieved 2015-09-30. 
  3. ^ Elie (2003), pp. 236-237
  4. ^ Elie (2003), pp. 279
  5. ^ a b Elie (2003), p. 433
  6. ^ "G.K. Chesterton and Dorothy Day on Economics:Neither Socialism nor Capitalism (Distributism)". Retrieved 2015-10-02. 
  7. ^ "The ChesterBelloc Mandate: Dorothy Day and Distributism". Retrieved 2015-10-02. 
  8. ^ Cannon, Virginia (2012-11-30). "Day by Day; A Saint for the Occupy Era?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2015-09-30. 
  9. ^ Pope Francis (2015-09-24). "Visit to the Joint Session of the United States Congress". Vatican. Retrieved 2015-09-30. 
  10. ^ Coles, Robert (1987). Dorothy Day: A Radical Devotion. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 
  11. ^ Miller, William D. (1982). Dorothy Day: A Biography. NY: Harper & Row. pp. 1–7. 
  12. ^ Miller, William D. (1982). Dorothy Day: A Biography. NY: Harper & Row. pp. 9–10, 13–4. 
  13. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. pp. 14–5. 
  14. ^ a b Miller, William D. (1982). Dorothy Day: A Biography. NY: Harper & Row. pp. 27–8. 
  15. ^ Day, Dorothy (1981). The Long Loneliness: the autobiography of Dorothy Day. San Francisco: Harper & Row. p. 43. 
  16. ^ a b c Coles (1987), p. 2.
  17. ^ a b "Dorothy Day dead at 83".  
  18. ^ Cornell, Tom. "A Brief Introduction to the Catholic Worker Movement". Retrieved February 21, 2009. 
  19. ^ Vance, Laurence (December 4, 2006) Bill Kauffman: American Anarchist,
  20. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. p. 30. 
  21. ^ Day, Dorothy. "Chapter 6 - New York". From Union Square to Rome. Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 27, 2014. 
  22. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. pp. 32–3. 
  23. ^ "Suffrage Pickets Freed from Prison". New York Times. November 28, 1917. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Cat-and-Mouse Remedy for Hunger-Striking". New York Times. November 29, 1917. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  25. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. pp. 44–7. 
  26. ^ a b Whitman, Alden (November 30, 1980). "Dorothy Day, Outspoken Catholic Activist, Dies at 83". New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  27. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. pp. 56–7.  Tobey later founded the Literary Guild.
  28. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. p. 65. 
  29. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. pp. 65–6. 
  30. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. p. 67ff. 
  31. ^ Day, Dorothy (May 1978). "On Pilgrimage". The Catholic Worker: 2. 
  32. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. pp. 74–86.  Her baptism was conditional, because she had already been baptized in the Episcopal Church.
  33. ^ A Russian neighbor's sister had named her daughter Tamar, and Day was impressed by St.  
  34. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. pp. 90–95. 
  35. ^ Patrick Jordan, ed., Dorothy Day: Writings from Commonweal [1929-1973] (Liturgical Press, 2002), 1-55
  36. ^ Day, Dorothy (1981). The Long Loneliness: the autobiography of Dorothy Day. San Francisco: Harper & Row. pp. 165–166. 
  37. ^ Loaves and Fishes, 1983 reprint, pp. 13-14.
  38. ^ Atkins, Robert (2013-05-01). "Dorothy Day's social Catholicism: the formative French influences". International journal for the Study of the Christian Church 13 (2): 96–110.  
  39. ^ Sheila Webb, "Dorothy Day and the Early Years of the Catholic Worker: Social Action through the Pages of the Press", in U.S. Catholic Historian, Vol. 21, No. 3, Summer, 2003, 71-80, JSTOR, accessed January 30, 2014
  40. ^ Sheila Webb, "Dorothy Day and the Early Years of the Catholic Worker: Social Action through the Pages of the Press", in U.S. Catholic Historian, Vol. 21, No. 3, Summer, 2003, 80-84, JSTOR, accessed January 30, 2014
  41. ^ Sheila Webb, "Dorothy Day and the Early Years of the Catholic Worker: Social Action through the Pages of the Press", in U.S. Catholic Historian, Vol. 21, No. 3, Summer, 2003, 84-8, JSTOR, accessed January 30, 2014
  42. ^ Coles (1987), pp. 14–15.
  43. ^ "List of Catholic Worker Communities". Retrieved November 30, 2008. 
  44. ^ a b Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. pp. 152–6. 
  45. ^ Day, Dorothy (September 1938). "Explains CW Stand on Use of Force". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  46. ^ Sheila Webb, "Dorothy Day and the Early Years of the Catholic Worker: Social Action through the Pages of the Press", in U.S. Catholic Historian, Vol. 21, No. 3, Summer, 2003, 84, JSTOR, accessed January 30, 2014
  47. ^ Day, Dorothy (1938). From Union Square to Rome: Chapter 1. 
  48. ^ Day, Dorothy (1938). From Union Square to Rome: Introduction. 
  49. ^ "Catholic Readers Get List of Books". New York Times. April 2, 1939. Retrieved January 27, 2014.  Dorothy Day, From Union Square to Rome, Silver Spring, MD: Preservation of the Faith Press, 1938
  50. ^ Merriman, Bridget O'Shea (1994). Searching for Christ: The Spirituality of Dorothy Day. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. pp. 100–107, 124–127. 
  51. ^ All the Way to Heaven: The Selected Letters of Dorothy Day, Robert Ellsberg, ed., Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, p. 301
  52. ^ December 8, 1941 speech to the Liberal-Socialist Alliance, New York City, quoted in Sandra J. Sarkela, Susan Mallon Ross, Margaret A. Lowe, From Megaphones to Microphones: Speeches of American Women, 1920-1960, 2003, pp. 191-192
  53. ^ Day, Dorothy (January 1942). "Our Country Passes from Undeclared War to Declared War; We Continue Our Christian Pacifist Stand". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  54. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. pp. 161–2. 
  55. ^ David L. Gregory, "Dorothy Day, Workers' Rights,and Catholic Authenticity", Fordham Urban Law Journal, Vol 26 Issue 5, 1998, 1371-92, available online
  56. ^ Fraser, C. Gerald (December 4, 1990). "Fritz Eichenberg, A Book Illustrator And Educator, 89". New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  57. ^ "Paperbacks in Review". New York Times. January 17, 1960. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  58. ^ "7 Pacifists Insist on Guilty Pleas". New York Times. September 29, 2014. Retrieved January 26, 2014.  The statute at issue was the New York State Defense Emergency Act.
  59. ^ "9 Pacifists Seized in Defying Alert". New York Times. May 7, 1958. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  60. ^ "Pacifists' Dissent Backed". New York Times. July 30, 1957. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  61. ^ Kaufman, Michael T. (May 27, 2004). "David Dellinger, of Chicago 7, Dies at 88". New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  62. ^ Day, Dorothy (January 1960). "Letter to an Imprisoned Editor". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  63. ^ "Vatican Declares Castro Incurred Church's Excommunication Automatically," New York Times, January 4, 1962; "Castro Excommunicated," Evening Press, January 3, 1962, pp. 1, 13,
  64. ^ Day, Dorothy (September 1962). "Pilgrimage to Cuba--Part I". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  65. ^ Day, Dorothy (December 1965). "On Pilgrimage; Good News". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  66. ^ Day, Dorothy (November 1965). "On Pilgrimage; October First". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  67. ^ Mark and Louis Zwick, "Introduction" to Dorothy Day, On Pilgrimage (Eerdmans, 1999), p. 51, available online, accessed January 28, 2014
  68. ^ Miller, William D. Dorothy Day: A Biography. San Francisco: Harper & Rowe, 1982, p. 491
  69. ^ a b Duty of Delight, 2011, p. 447.
  70. ^ Roberts, Nancy L. (1984). Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker. State Univ of New York Press. p. 164. 
  71. ^ Day, January (January 1970). "On Pilgrimage; Perkinsville". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  72. ^ "Pacem In Terris Past Recipients". Diocese of Davenport. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  73. ^ "Laetare Medal Recipients". University of Notre Dame Archives. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  74. ^ The Duty of Delight, 2011, pp. 587-588.
  75. ^ Day, Dorothy (September 1971). "On Pilgrimage: First Visit to Soviet Russia". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  76. ^ Day, Dorothy (October–November 1971). "On Pilgrimage: Russia, II: Kremlin Wall". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  77. ^ Krupa, Stephen J. (August 27, 2001). "Celebrating Dorothy Day". America. Retrieved January 26, 2014. Dorothy Day remains, at the dawn of the new millennium, the radical conscience of American Catholicism. 
  78. ^ Forest, Jim (2011). All is Grace: A Biography of Dorothy Day. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. pp. 252–60. 
  79. ^ Caldwell, Earl (August 3, 1973). "Picket Shot, Many More Arrested in Grape Strike". New York Times. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  80. ^ Day, Dorothy (September 1973). "On Pilgrimage". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  81. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (January 28, 2013). "LCWR receives Paulist award for social justice work". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  82. ^ Eileen Egan, "Dorothy Day: Pilgrim of Peace", in Patrick G. Coy, ed., A Revolution of the Heart: Essays on the Catholic Worker, pp. 69-71, available online
  83. ^ Nicholas Rademacher, "'To Relate the Eucharist to Real Living': Mother Teresa and Dorothy Day at the Forty-First International Eucharistic Congress, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania", U.S. Catholic Historian, Volume 27, Number 4, Fall 2009, pp. 59-72
  84. ^ Harrington, Michael (June 13, 1982). "Existential Saint". New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  85. ^ Stone, Elained Murray (2004). Dorothy Day: Champion of the Poor. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. p. 102. 
  86. ^ Dorothy Day, Photos, accessed January 26, 2014
  87. ^ Riegle, Rosalie G. (2003). Dorothy Day: Portraits by Those Who Knew Her. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. pp. 112–15.  Tamar Teresa Hennessy died in Vermont on March 25, 2008.
  88. ^ "Dorothy Day-Catholic Worker Collection". Special Collections & University Archives. Raynor Memorial Libraries. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  89. ^ Roberts, pp. 179–182; Catholic Worker, "Statement of Ownership, Management, and Circulation," December 2013, p. 2.
  90. ^ "The Challenge of Peace: God's Promise and Our Response, May 3, 1983" (PDF). US Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  91. ^ Barrett, Wayne (May 1, 2001). "Sacking a Saint". Village Voice. Retrieved January 26, 2014.  This was not the same bungalow where she was living at the time of her conversion to Catholicism.
  92. ^ Day, Dorothy (1963). The Faces of Poverty, in Hearing the Call Across Traditions. p. 117. 
  93. ^ a b c Day, Dorothy (1963). The Faces of Poverty, in Hearing the Call Across Traditions. p. 120. 
  94. ^ "James - Chapter 5". Catholic Online. Retrieved 2015-09-24. Can you hear crying out against you the wages which you kept back from the labourers mowing your fields? The cries of the reapers have reached the ears of the Lord Sabaoth. 
  95. ^ Day, Dorothy (May 1951). 31, 2014 "The Incompatibility of Love and Violence" . Dorothy Day Collection. 
  96. ^ "On Pilgrimage--Our Spring Appeal," Catholic Worker, May 1970
  97. ^ Day, Dorothy (1981). The Long Loneliness: the autobiography of Dorothy Day. San Francisco: Harper & Row. p. 38. 
  98. ^ Elie (2003), p. 17
  99. ^ Elie (2003), p. 57
  100. ^ Day, Dorothy (February 1974). "On Pilgrimage; Small is Beautiful". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  101. ^ Day, Dorothy (May 1974). "On Pilgrimage; A Hard Job". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  102. ^ Day, Dorothy (May 1936). "A Restatement of C. W. Aims and Ideals". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved March 30, 2014. 
  103. ^ (September 1946) "The Church and Work," Catholic Worker.
  104. ^ Porter, Russel (October 22, 1949). "Law Change Cited". New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 
  105. ^ a b Day, Dorothy (November 1949). "Beyond Politics". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved March 30, 2014. 
  106. ^ Day, Dorothy (July 1961). "About Cuba". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved March 30, 2014. 
  107. ^ Dreher, Rod (June 5, 2006) All-American Anarchists, The American Conservative
  108. ^ "Hutterite Communities," Catholic Worker (July–August 1969)
  109. ^ Roberts, Nancy L. (1984). Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker. State Univ of New York Press. p. 161. 
  110. ^ From Union Square to Rome (1938), pp. 144-45; John Spivak was a leftist and journalist.
  111. ^ "Story Priest Disputes Coast Cardinal". New York Times. December 29, 1964. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  112. ^ "Priest Who Assailed Cardinal McIntyre Talks at Chancery". New York Times. June 17, 1964. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  113. ^ Day, Dorothy (July–August 1964). "The Case of Cardinal McIntyre". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  114. ^ Day, Dorothy (September 1963). "On Pilgrimage: Cuba and Sex". Dorothy Day Collection. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 
  115. ^ Duty of Delight (2011) pp. 522-523.
  116. ^ "US bishops endorse sainthood cause of Catholic Worker's Dorothy Day". Catholic New Service. November 13, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012. 
  117. ^ "Some followers question Day sainthood". Catholic San Francisco. December 5, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2014. 
  118. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (February 13, 2013). "Looking to legacy, pope mentions Dorothy Day". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  119. ^ 1996Entertaining Angels at the Internet Movie Database
  120. ^ 2006Dorothy Day: Don't Call Me a Saint at the Internet Movie Database
  121. ^ The Duty of Delight
  122. ^ "The Peace Abbey Courage of Conscience Award Recipients". The Peace Abbey. Retrieved October 13, 2009. 
  123. ^ "National Women's Hall of Fame, Women of the Hall, Dorothy Day". National Women's Hall of Fame. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  124. ^ "David L. Gregory". Retrieved February 25, 2008. 
  125. ^ "David L. Gregory Appointed Dorothy Day Professor of Law". Retrieved February 25, 2008. 
  126. ^ Broadway Housing Communities
  127. ^ "Address of the Holy Father". The Vatican. September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 24, 2015. 


See also

  • Dorothy Day (1924) The Eleventh Virgin, semi-autobiographical novel; Albert and Charles Boni; reissued Cottager 2011
  • Dorothy Day (1938) From Union Square to Rome, Silver Spring, MD: Preservation of the Faith Press
  • Dorothy Day (1948) On Pilgrimage, diaries; reprinted 1999 by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
  • Dorothy Day (1952) The Long Loneliness: The Autobiography of Dorothy Day
  • Dorothy Day (1963) Loaves and Fishes: The Inspiring Story of the Catholic Worker Movement, Lutterworth Press; reprinted 1997 by Orbis Books
  • Dorothy Day (1979) Therese: A Life of Therese of Lisieux, Templegate Publishing
  • Dorothy Day, ed. Phyllis Zagano (2002) Dorothy Day: In My Own Words
  • Dorothy Day, ed. Patrick Jordan (2002), Dorothy Day: Writings from Commonweal [1929-1973], Liturgical Press
  • Dorothy Day, ed. Robert Ellsberg (2005) Dorothy Day, Selected Writings
  • Dorothy Day, ed. Robert Ellsberg, (2008) The Duty of Delight: The Diaries of Dorothy Day
  • Dorothy Day, ed. Robert Ellsberg, (2010) All the Way to Heaven: The Selected Letters of Dorothy Day


Posthumous recognition

Pope Benedict XVI, on February 13, 2013, in the closing days of his papacy, cited Day as an example of conversion. He quoted from her writings and said: "The journey towards faith in such a secularized environment was particularly difficult, but Grace acts nonetheless."[118]

A proposal for Day's canonization was put forth publicly by the Claretian Missionaries in 1983. At the request of Cardinal John J. O'Connor, head of the diocese in which she lived, in March 2000 Pope John Paul II granted the Archdiocese of New York permission to open her cause, allowing her to be called a "Servant of God" in the eyes of the Catholic Church. As canon law requires, the Archdiocese of New York submitted this cause for the endorsement of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, which it received in November 2012.[116] Some members of the Catholic Worker Movement objected to the canonization process as a contradiction of Day's own values and concerns.[117]

Cause for sainthood

For some weeks now my problem is this: What to do about the open immorality (and of course I mean sexual morality) in our midst. It is like the last times—there is nothing hidden that shall not be revealed. But when things become a matter for open discussion, what about example set, that most powerful of all teachers. We have with us now a beautiful woman with children whose husband has taken up with a seventeen-year-old, is divorcing her and starting on a new marriage. She comes to us as to a refuge where by working for others in our community of fifty or more, she can forget once in a while her human misery. . . . We have one young one, drunken, promiscuous, pretty as a picture, college educated, mischievous, able to talk her way out of any situation—so far. She comes to us when she is drunk and beaten and hungry and cold and when she is taken in, she is liable to crawl into the bed of any man on the place. We do not know how many she has slept with on the farm. What to do? What to do?

In 1968, Day wrote again about sex—this time in her diary—in response to the criticisms of Stanley Vishnewski (and other coworkers at the Tivoli farm) that she had "no power" over marijuana smoking "or sexual promiscuity, or solitary sins."[69] The situation continued to remain a problem, as Day also documented in her diary:[115]

[W]hen sex is treated lightly, as a means of pleasure ... it takes on the quality of the demonic, and to descend into this blackness is to have a foretaste of hell.... There is no such thing as seeing how far one can go without being caught, or how far one can go without committing mortal sin.

In September 1963, Day discussed pre-marital sex in her column, warning against those who portrayed it as a form of freedom: "The wisdom of the flesh is treacherous indeed." She described herself as "a woman who must think in terms of the family, the need of the child to have both mother and father, who believes strongly that the home is the unit of society" and wrote that:[114]


In response to press coverage in 1964 of an ongoing dispute between Cardinal James McIntyre of Los Angeles and some of his priests, who criticized him for a lack of leadership on civil rights,[111][112] Day authored an essay on the laity's responsibility to act independently of the church hierarchy. When the Catholic Worker during World War II, she wrote, took a pacifist stance, "Bishop McIntyre merely commented ... 'We never studied these things much in the seminary' ... adding doubtfully, 'There is the necessity of course to inform one's conscience.' " For that attitude, Day added, "our shepherds are to be reproached, that they have not fed their sheep these strong meats ... capable of overcoming all obstacles in their advance to that kind of society where it easier to be good." She instructed her readers: "Let Catholics form their associations, hold their meetings in their own homes, or in a hired hall, or any place else. Nothing should stop them. Let the controversy come out into the open in this way."[113]

The laity

Day wrote in one of her memoirs: "I had a conversation with John Spivak, the Communist writer, a few years ago, and he said to me, "How can you believe? How can you believe in the Immaculate Conception, in the Virgin birth, in the Resurrection?" I could only say that I believe in the Roman Catholic Church and all she teaches. I have accepted Her authority with my whole heart. At the same time I want to point out to you that we are taught to pray for final perseverance. We are taught that faith is a gift, and sometimes I wonder why some have it and some do not. I feel my own unworthiness and can never be grateful enough to God for His gift of faith."[110]

Catholic orthodoxy

Jesuit priest Daniel Lyons "called Day 'an apostle of pious oversimplification.' He said that the Catholic Worker 'often distorted beyond recognition' the position of the Popes".[109]

Day's belief in smallness also applied to the property of others, including the Catholic Church, as when she wrote: "Fortunately, the Papal States were wrested from the Church in the last century, but there is still the problem of investment of papal funds. It is always a cheering thought to me that if we have good will and are still unable to find remedies for the economic abuses of our time, in our family, our parish, and the mighty church as a whole, God will take matters in hand and do the job for us. When I saw the Garibaldi mountains in British Columbia . . . I said a prayer for his soul and blessed him for being the instrument of so mighty a work of God. May God use us!"[108]

Bill Kauffman of The American Conservative wrote of Day: "The Little Way. That is what we seek. That—contrary to the ethic of personal parking spaces, of the dollar-sign god—is the American way. Dorothy Day kept to that little way, and that is why we honor her. She understood that if small is not always beautiful, at least it is always human."[107]

Catholic Church property

In regard to Fidel Castro's Cuba, she explained: "We are on the side of the revolution. We believe there must be new concepts of property, which is proper to man, and that the new concept is not so new. There is a Christian communism and a Christian capitalism.... We believe in farming communes and cooperatives and will be happy to see how they work out in Cuba.... God bless Castro and all those who are seeing Christ in the poor. God bless all those who are seeking the brotherhood of man because in loving their brothers they love God even though they deny Him."[106]

The Communists point to it as forced upon them, and say that when it comes they will take part in it, and in their plans they want to prepare the ground, and win as many as possible to their point of view and for their side. And where will we be on that day? ... [W]e will inevitably be forced to be on their side, physically speaking. But when it comes to activity, we will be pacifists, I hope and pray, non-violent resisters of aggression, from whomever it comes, resisters to repression, coercion, from whatever side it comes, and our activity will be the works of mercy. Our arms will be the love of God and our brother.

In November 1949, in the course of explaining why she had protested the recent denial of bail to several Communists,[104] she wrote: "[L]et it be remembered that I speak as an ex-Communist and one who has not testified before Congressional Committees, nor written works on the Communist conspiracy. I can say with warmth that I loved the [communist] people I worked with and learned much from them. They helped me to find God in His poor, in His abandoned ones, as I had not found Him in Christian churches."[105] She identified points on which she agreed with the Communists: "from each according to his ability, to each according to his need" and the "withering away of the State." Others she added with qualifications: "the communal aspect of property as stressed by the early Christians". And she identified differences: "we disagree over and over again with the means chosen to reach their ends". She agreed that "Class war is a fact and one does not need to advocate it", but posed the question of how to respond:[105]

She also stated: "To labor is to pray -- that is the central point of the Christian doctrine of work. Hence, it is that while both Communism and Christianity are moved by 'compassion for the multitude,' the object of communism is to make the poor richer but the object of Christianity is to make the rich poor and the poor holy."[103]

We believe in widespread private property, the de-proletarianizing of our American people. We believe in the individual owning the means of production, the land and his tools. We are opposed to the "finance capitalism" so justly criticized and condemned by Karl Marx but we believe there can be a Christian capitalism as there can be a Christian Communism.

In the first years of the Catholic Worker, Day provided a clear statement of how her individualism contrasted with Communism:[102]

Sympathy with Communists

Day explained that anarchists accepted her as someone who shared the values of their movement "[b]ecause I have been behind bars in police stations, houses of detention, jails and prison farms, ... eleven times, and have refused to pay Federal income taxes and have never voted", but were puzzled by what they saw as her "Faith in the monolithic, authoritarian Church". She reversed the viewpoint and ignored their professions of atheism. She wrote: "I in turn, can see Christ in them even though they deny Him, because they are giving themselves to working for a better social order for the wretched of the earth."[101]

Discussing the term anarchism, she wrote: "We ourselves have never hesitated to use the word. Some prefer personalism. But Peter Maurin came to me with Kropotkin in one pocket and St. Francis in the other!"[100]

Day was saddened by the executions of the anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti in 1927. She wrote that when they died, "All the nation mourned." As a Catholic, she felt a sense of solidarity with them, specifically "the very sense of solidarity which made me gradually understand the doctrine of the Mystical Body of Christ whereby we are all members of one another."[99]

Day encountered anarchism while studying in university. She read The Bomb by Frank Harris, a fictionalized biography of one of the Haymarket anarchists.[97] She discussed anarchy and extreme poverty with Peter Kropotkin.[14] After moving to New York, Day studied the anarchism of Emma Goldman and attended the Anarchists Ball at Webster Hall.[98]

Sympathy with anarchists

the two words [anarchist-pacifist] should go together, especially at this time when more and more people, even priests, are turning to violence, and are finding their heroes in Camillo Torres among the priests, and Che Guevara among laymen. The attraction is strong, because both men literally laid down their lives for their brothers. "Greater love hath no man than this." "Let me say, at the risk of seeming ridiculous, that the true revolutionary is guided by great feelings of love." Che Guevara wrote this, and he is quoted by Chicano youth in El Grito Del Norte.

In 1970, Day emulated Maurin when she wrote:[96]

Peter Maurin was constantly restating our position, and finding authorities from all faiths, and races, all authorities. He used to embarrass us sometimes by dragging in Marshall Petain and Fr. Coughlin and citing something good they had said, even when we were combating the point of view they were representing. Just as we shock people by quoting Marx, Lenin, Mao-Tse-Tung, or Ramakrishna to restate the case for our common humanity, the brotherhood of man and the fatherhood of God.

In the Catholic Worker in May 1951, Day wrote that Marx, Lenin, and Mao Tse-Tung "were animated by the love of brother and this we must believe though their ends meant the seizure of power, and the building of mighty armies, the compulsion of concentration camps, the forced labor and torture and killing of tens of thousands, even millions." She used them as examples because she insisted that the belief that "all men are brothers" required the Catholic to find the humanity in everyone without exception. She explained that she understood the jarring impact of such an assertion:[95]

All men are brothers

Day also denounced sins against the poor. She said that "depriving the laborer" was a deadly sin,[93] using similar language to the Epistle of James in the Bible.[94] She also said that advertising men were sinners ("woe to that generation") because they made the poor "willing to sell [their] liberty and honor" to satisfy "paltry desires."[93]

Day struggled to write about poverty most of her life.[92] She admired America's efforts to take responsibility through the government, but ultimately felt that charitable works were personal decisions that needed the warmth of an individual.[93]

Charity and poverty


Attempts to preserve the Staten Island beach bungalow at the Spanish Camp community where she lived for the last decade of her life failed in 2001.[91]

In May 1983, a pastoral letter issued by the U.S.Conference of Catholic Bishops, "The Challenge of Peace", noted her role in establishing non-violence as a Catholic principle: "the nonviolent witness of such figures as Dorothy Day and Martin Luther King has had profound impact upon the life of the Church in the United States."[90]

Day's papers are housed at Marquette University along with many records of the Catholic Worker movement.[88] The Catholic Worker had a circulation of more than 100,000 for some years and reported a circulation of under 30,000 in 2013.[89]

Day suffered a heart attack and died on November 29, 1980, at Maryhouse on East 3rd Street in Manhattan.[26] Cardinal Terence Cooke greeted her funeral procession at the Church of the Nativity, the local parish church.[84] Day was buried in the Cemetery of the Resurrection on Staten Island just a few blocks from the beachside cottage where she first became interested in Catholicism.[85] Her gravestone is inscribed with the words Deo Gratias.[86] Day's daughter Tamar, the mother of nine children, was with her mother when she died, and she and her father joined the funeral procession and attended a later memorial Mass the cardinal celebrated at St. Patrick's Cathedral. Day and Batterham had remained lifelong friends.[87]

Day made her last public appearance at the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, an inappropriate day to honor the military.[82][83]

In 1974, Boston's Paulist Center Community named her the first recipient of their Isaac Hecker Award, given to a person or group "committed to building a more just and peaceful world".[81]

[80] and spent ten days in jail.[79] in his campaign for farm laborers in the fields of California. She was arrested with other protesters for defying an injunction against picketingCesar Chavez In the summer of 1972, she joined [78] Day had supported the work of

In 1972, the Jesuit magazine America marked her 75th birthday by devoting an entire issue to Day and the Catholic Worker movement. The editors wrote: "By now, if one had to choose a single individual to symbolize the best in the aspiration and action of the American Catholic community during the last forty years, that one person would certainly be Dorothy Day."[77]

Day visited the Kremlin, and she reported: "I was moved to see the names of the Americans, Ruthenberg and Bill Haywood, on the Kremlin Wall in Roman letters, and the name of Jack Reed (with whom I worked on the old Masses), in Cyrillac characters in a flower-covered grave". Ruthenberg was C. E. Ruthenberg, founder of the Communist Party USA. Bill Haywood was a key figure in the IWW. Jack Reed was the journalist better known as John Reed, author of Ten Days That Shook the World.[76]

Solzhenitsin lives in poverty and has been expelled from the Writers Union and cannot be published in his own country. He is harassed continually, and recently his small cottage in the country has been vandalized and papers destroyed, and a friend of his who went to bring some of his papers to him was seized and beaten. The letter Solzhenitsin wrote protesting this was widely printed in the west, and I was happy to see as a result a letter of apology by the authorities in Moscow, saying that it was the local police who had acted so violently.

Despite suffering from poor health, Day visited India, where she met Mother Teresa and saw her work. In 1971, Day visited Poland, the Soviet Union, Hungary, and Romania as part of a group of peace activists,with the financial support of Corliss Lamont, whom she described as a "'pinko' millionaire who lived modestly and helped the Communist Party USA." [74] She met with three members of the Writers' Union and defended Alexander Solzhenitsyn against charges that he had betrayed his country. Day informed her readers that:[75]

In 1971, Day was awarded the Pacem in Terris Award of the Interracial Council of the Catholic Diocese of Davenport, Iowa.[72] The University of Notre Dame awarded her its Laetare Medal in 1972.[73]

Later years

In 1970, at the height of American participation in the Vietnam War, she described Ho Chi Minh as "a man of vision, as a patriot, a rebel against foreign invaders" while telling a story of a holiday gathering with relatives where one needs "to find points of agreement and concordance, if possible, rather than the painful differences, religious and political."[71]

In 1966, Spellman visited U.S. troops in Vietnam at Christmas, where he was reported as saying: "This war in Vietnam is ... a war for civilization." Day authored a response in the January 1967 issue of the Catholic Worker that avoided direct criticism but cataloged all the war zones Spellman had visited over the years: "It is not just Vietnam, it is South Africa, it is Nigeria, the Congo, Indonesia, all of Latin America." Visiting was "a brave thing to do", she wrote, and asked: "But oh, God, what are all these Americans doing all over the world so far from our own shores?"[70]

Despite her anti-establishment sympathies, Day's judgment of the 60s counterculture was nuanced. She enjoyed it when Abbie Hoffman told her she was the original hippie, accepting it as a form of tribute to her detachment from materialism.[17] At the same time she disapproved of many who called themselves hippies. She described some she encountered in 1969 in Minnesota: "They are marrying young–17 and 18, and taking to the woods up by the Canadian border and building houses for themselves–becoming pioneers again." But she recognized in them the self-indulgence of middle-class affluence, people who had "not known suffering" and lived without principles. She imagined how soldiers returning from Vietnam would want to kill them, but thought what the "flower-people" deserved was "prayer and penance".[68] Day struggled as a leader with influence but without direct authority over the Catholic Worker houses, even the Tivoli Catholic Worker Farm that she visited regularly. She recorded her frustration in her diary: "I have no power to control smoking of pot, for instance, or sexual promiscuity, or solitary sins."[69]

Day's account of the Catholic Worker movement, Loaves and Fishes, was published in 1963.

Day hoped that the Second Vatican Council would endorse nonviolence as a fundamental tenet of Catholic life and denounce nuclear arms, both their use in warfare and the "idea of arms being used as deterrents, to establish a balance of terror".[65] She lobbied bishops in Rome and joined with other women in a ten-day fast.[66] She was pleased when the Council in Gaudium et spes (1965), its statement on "the Church in the Modern World", said that nuclear warfare was incompatible with traditional Catholic just war theory: "Every act of war directed to the indiscriminate destruction of whole cities or vast areas with their inhabitants is a crime against God and man, which merits firm and unequivocal condemnation."[67]

In 1960, she praised Fidel Castro's "promise of social justice". She said: "Far better to revolt violently than to do nothing about the poor destitute."[62] On January 3, 1962, a Vatican press conference revealed that Castro had excommunicated himself by his persecution of the clergy and bishops.[63] (This excommunication occurred latae sententiae,“by the very commission of the offense.”). Several months later, Day traveled to Cuba and reported her experiences in a four-part series in the Catholic Worker. In the first of these, she wrote: "I am most of all interested in the religious life of the people and so must not be on the side of a regime that favors the extirpation of religion. On the other hand, when that regime is bending all its efforts to make a good life for the people, a naturally good life (on which grace can build) one cannot help but be in favor of the measures taken."[64]

In 1956, along with David Dellinger and Rev. A.J. Muste, two veteran allies in the pacifist movement, she helped found Liberation magazine.[61]

On June 15, 1955, Day joined a group of pacifists in refusing to participate in civil defense drills scheduled that day. Some of them challenged the constitutionality of the law under which they were charged, but Day and six others took the position that their refusal was not a legal dispute but one of philosophy. Day said she was doing "public penance" for the United States' first use of an atom bomb. They pled guilty on September 28, 1955, but the judge refused to send them to jail saying "I'm not making any martyrs."[58] She did the same in each of the next five years. In 1958, instead of taking shelter she joined a group picketing the offices of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.[59] After some years, sentences were suspended, but once she served 30 days in jail.[60]

The autobiography, well and thoughtfully told, of a girl with a conventional upstate New York background whose concern for her neighbors, especially the unfortunate, carried her into the women's suffrage movement, socialism, the I.W.W., communism and finally into the Church of Rome, where she became a co-founder of the Catholic Worker Movement.

Her autobiography, The Long Loneliness, was published in 1952 with illustrations by the Quaker Fritz Eichenberg.[56] The New York Times summarized it a few years later:[57]

On January 13, 1949, unions representing workers at cemeteries managed by the Archdiocese of New York went on strike. After several weeks, Cardinal Francis Spellman used lay brothers from the local Maryknoll seminary and then diocesan seminarians under his own supervision to break the strike by digging graves. He called the union action "Communist-inspired". Employees of the Catholic Worker joined the strikers' picket line, and Day wrote Spellman, telling him he was "misinformed" about the workers and their demands, defending their right to unionize and their "dignity as men", which she deemed far more important than any dispute about wages. She begged him to take the first steps to resolve the dispute: "Go to them, conciliate them. It is easier for the great to give in than the poor." Spellman stood fast until the strike ended on March 11 when the union members accepted the Archdiocese's original offer of a 48-hour 6-day work week. Day wrote in the Catholic Worker in April: "A Cardinal, ill-advised, exercised so overwhelming a show of force against the union of poor working men. There is a temptation of the devil to that most awful of all wars, the war between the clergy and the laity." Years later she explained her stance vis-à-vis Spellman: "[H]e is our chief priest and confessor; he is our spiritual leader–of all of us who live here in New York. But he is not our ruler." On March 3, 1951, the Archdiocese ordered Day to cease publication or remove the word Catholic from the name of her publication. She replied with a respectful letter that asserted as much right to publish the Catholic Worker as the Catholic War Veterans had to their name and their own opinions independent of those of the Archdiocese. The Archdiocese took no action, and later Day speculated that perhaps church officials did not want members of the Catholic Worker movement holding prayer vigils for him to relent: "We were ready to go to St. Patrick's, fill up the Church, stand outside it in prayerful meditation. We were ready to take advantage of America's freedoms so that we could say what we thought and do what we believed to be the right thing to do."[55]

The circulation of the Catholic Worker, following its losses during the Spanish Civil War, had risen to 75,000, but now plummeted again. The closing of many of the movement's houses around the country, as staff left to join the war effort, showed that Day's pacifism had limited appeal even within the Catholic Worker community.[54]

We are still pacifists. Our manifesto is the Sermon on the Mount, which means that we will try to be peacemakers. Speaking for many of our conscientious objectors, we will not participate in armed warfare or in making munitions, or by buying government bonds to prosecute the war, or in urging others to these efforts. But neither will we be carping in our criticism. We love our country and we love our President. We have been the only country in the world where men of all nations have taken refuge from oppression. We recognize that while in the order of intention we have tried to stand for peace, for love of our brother, in the order of execution we have failed as Americans in living up to our principles.

Day reaffirmed her pacifism following the U.S. declaration of war in 1941 and urged noncooperation in a speech that day:[52] "We must make a start. We must renounce war as an instrument of policy. . . . Even as I speak to you I may be guilty of what some men call treason. But we must reject war. . . . You young men should refuse to take up arms. Young women tear down the patriotic posters. And all of you--young and old--put away your flags." Her January 1942 column was headlined "We Continue Our Christian Pacifist Stand". She wrote:[53]

In the early 1940s she affiliated with the Benedictines, professing as an oblate of St. Procopius Abbey in 1955. This gave her a spiritual practice and connection that sustained her throughout the rest of her life. She was briefly a postulant in the Fraternity of Jesus Caritas, which was inspired by the example of Charles de Foucauld.[50] Day felt unwelcome there and disagreed with how meetings were run. When she withdraw as a candidate for the Fraternity, she wrote to a friend: "I just wanted to let you know that I feel even closer to it all, tho it is not possible for me to be a recognized 'Little Sister,' or formally a part of it".[51]


The Cardinal's Literature Committee of the New York Archdiocese recommended it to Catholic readers.[49]

What I want to bring out in this book is a succession of events that led me to His feet, glimpses of Him that I received through many years which made me feel the vital need of Him and of religion. I will try to trace for you the steps by which I came to accept the faith that I believe was always in my heart.

In 1938, she published an account of the transformation of her political activism into religiously motivated activism in From Union Square to Rome. She recounted her life story selectively, without providing the details of her early years of "grievous mortal sin" when her life was "pathetic little and mean".[47] She presented it as an answer to Communist relatives and friends who have asked: "How could you become a Catholic?":[48]

The paper's circulation fell as many Catholic churches, schools, and hospitals that had previously served as its distribution points withdrew support.[44] Circulation fell from 150,000 to 30,000.[46]

We must prepare now for martyrdom–otherwise we will not be ready. Who of us if he were attacked now would not react quickly and humanly against such attack? Would we love our brother who strikes us? Of all at The Catholic Worker how many would not instinctively defend himself with any forceful means in his power? We must prepare. We must prepare now. There must be a disarmament of the heart.

Beginning in 1935, the Catholic Worker began publishing articles that articulated a rigorous and uncompromising pacifist position, breaking with the traditional Catholic doctrine of just war theory. The next year, the two sides that fought the Spanish Civil War roughly approximated two of Day's allegiances, with the Church allied with Franco fighting radicals of many stripes, the Catholic and the worker at war with one another. Day refused to follow the Catholic hierarchy in support of Franco against the Republican forces, which were atheist and anticlerical in spirit, led by anarchists and Communists.[44] She acknowledged the martyrdom of priests and nuns in Spain and said she expected the age of revolution she was living in to require more martyrs:[45]

Over several decades, the Catholic Worker attracted such writers and editors as Michael Harrington, Ammon Hennacy, Thomas Merton, and Daniel Berrigan. From the publishing enterprise came a "house of hospitality", a shelter that provided food and clothing to the poor of the Lower East Side and then a series of farms for communal living.[42] The movement quickly spread to other cities in the United States and to Canada and the United Kingdom. More than 30 independent but affiliated Catholic Worker communities had been founded by 1941.[43]

The Catholic Worker movement started when the first issue of the Catholic Worker appeared on May 1, 1933, priced at one cent, and published continuously since then. It was aimed at those suffering the most in the depths of the Great Depression, "those who think there is no hope for the future", and announced to them that "the Catholic Church has a social program...there are men of God who are working not only for their spiritual but for their material welfare." It accepted no advertising and did not pay its staff. Like many newspapers of the day, including those for which Day had been writing, it was an unapologetic example of advocacy journalism. It provided coverage of strikes, explored working conditions, especially of women and blacks, and explicated papal teaching on social issues.[39] Its viewpoint was partisan and stories were designed to move its readers to take action locally, for example, by patronizing laundries recommended by the Laundry Workers' Union. Its advocacy of federal child labor laws put it at odds with the American Church hierarchy from its first issue, but Day censored some of Maurin's attacks on the Church hierarchy and tried to have a collection of the paper's issues presented to Pope Pius XI in 1935.[40] The paper's principal competitor both in distribution and ideology was the Communist Daily Worker. Day opposed its atheism, its advocacy of "class hatred" and violent revolution, and its opposition to private property. The first issue of the Catholic Worker asked: "Is it not possible to be radical and not atheist?" and celebrated its distribution in Union Square on May Day as a direct challenge to the Communists. Day defended government relief programs like the Civilian Conservation Corps that the Communists ridiculed. The Daily Worker responded by mocking the Catholic Worker for its charity work and for expressing sympathy for landlords when calling evictions morally wrong. In this fight, the Church hierarchy backed Day's movement and Commonweal, a Catholic journal that expressed a wide range of viewpoints, said that Day's background positioned her well for her mission: "There are few laymen in this country who are so completely conversant with Communist propaganda and its exponents."[41]

In 1932, Day met Peter Maurin, the man she always credited as the founder of the movement with which she is identified. Maurin, a French immigrant and something of a vagabond, had entered the Brothers of the Christian Schools in his native France, before emigrating, first to Canada, then to the United States. Despite his lack of formal education, Maurin was a man of deep intellect and decidedly strong views. He had a vision of social justice and its connection with the poor which was partly inspired by St. Francis of Assisi. He had a vision of action based on a sharing of ideas and subsequent action by the poor themselves. Maurin was deeply versed in the writings of the Church Fathers and the papal documents on social matters that had been issued by Pope Leo XIII and his successors. Maurin provided Day with the grounding in Catholic theology of the need for social action they both felt. Years later Day described how Maurin also broadened her knowledge by bringing "a digest of the writings of Kropotkin one day, calling my attention especially to Fields, Factories, and Workshops. Day observed: "I was familiar with Kropotkin only through his Memoirs of a Revolutionist, which had originally run serially in the Atlantic Monthly. She wrote: "Oh, far day of American freedom, when Karl Marx could write for the morning Tribune in New York, and Kropotkin could not only be published in the Atlantic, but be received as a guest into the homes of New England Unitarians, and in Jane Addams' Hull House in Chicago!"[37] The French models and literature Maurin drew to Day's attention are of particular interest. [2][38]

Day in 1934

The Catholic Worker movement

It was during one of her assignments for The Commonweal in Washington, D.C. when she decided to take a greater role in social activism and Catholicism. During the hunger strikes in D.C. in December 1932, she noted that she was filled with pride watching the marchers, but she couldn't do much with her conversion. She writes in her autobiography: "I could write, I could protest, to arouse the conscience, but where was the Catholic leadership in the gathering of bands of men and women together, for the actual works of mercy that the comrades had always made part of their technique in reaching the workers?" Later, she visited the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in northeast D.C. to offer a prayer to find a way to use her gifts and talents to help her fellow workers and the poor.[36]

In the summer of 1929, to put the situation with Batterham behind her, Day accepted a job writing film dialogue for Pathé Motion Pictures and moved to Los Angeles with Tamar. A few months later, following the 1929 stock market crash, her contract was not renewed. She returned to New York via a sojourn in Mexico and a family visit in Florida. Day supported herself as a journalist, writing a gardening column for the local paper, the Staten Island Advance and features articles and book reviews for several Catholic publications, like Commonweal.[34][35]


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