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In Mongolia, most television dubbing uses the Russian method, with only a few voice actors and the original language audible underneath. In movie theaters, foreign films are shown in their original language with Mongolian subtitles. The Ra.One is first film dubbed in Mongolian.


In India, where "foreign films" are synonymous with "Hollywood films," dubbing is done mostly in three major Indian languages, including Hindi, Tamil and Telugu. Dubbing of foreign languages is rarely done with the other major Indian languages, namely Malayalam and Bengali, due to the high literacy rate among the population who speak the languages. The finished works are released into the towns and lower tier settlements of the respective states (where English penetration is low), often with the English-language originals released in the metropolitan areas. In all other states, the English originals are released along with the dubbed versions, where often the dubbed version collections are more outstanding than the originals. The most recent dubbing of Spider-Man 3 was also done in the Bhojpuri language, a language popular in eastern India. A Good Day to Die Hard, the most recent installment in the Die Hard franchise, was the first ever Hollywood film to receive a Punjabi language dub as well. Some of the most popular big dubbing studios in India are, Sound & Vision India, Main Frame Software Communications, Blue Whale Entertainment, Jai Hand Entertainment, Sugar Mediaz and more.

Most TV channels mention neither the Indian-language dubbing credits, nor its staff, at the end of the original ending credits, since changing the credits casting for the original actors or voice actors involves a huge budget for modifying, making it somewhat difficult to find information for the dubbed versions. The same situation is encountered for films. Sometimes foreign programs and films receive more than one dub, such as for example, Jumanji, Dragonheart and Van Helsing having two Hindi dubs. Information for the Hindi, Tamil and Telugu voice actors who have done the voices for specific actors and for their roles on foreign films and television programs are published in local Indian data magazines, for those that are involved in the dubbing industry in India. But on a few occasions, there are some foreign productions that do credit the dubbing cast, such as animated films like the Barbie films, and some Disney films. Disney Channel original series released on DVD with their Hindi dubs show a list of the artists in the Hindi dub credits, after the original ending credits. Theatrical releases and VCD releases of foreign films do not credit the dubbing cast or staff. The DVD releases, however, do have credits for the dubbing staff, if they are released multilingual. As of recently, information for the dubbing staff of foreign productions have been slowly been posted online for people to see, as it continues to expand more. For a list of Indian voice-dubbing artists, click here. A few Indian dubbing artists are listed in the table below.

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Dubbing (filmmaking)

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Title: Dubbing (filmmaking)  
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Dubbing (filmmaking)

Sherwin Revestir Kirsten Dunst


In Pakistan, almost 60% of the population speaks Punjabi as their mother tongue. Therefore, Punjabi films generate more business than Urdu films. The film companies produced Punjabi films and re-record all films in Urdu, releasing the result as a "double version" film.

Also in Pakistan, where "foreign films" are synonymous with Hollywood films, dubbing is done mostly in Urdu, which is the national language, and the finished works are released in the major cities throughout country.


In Vietnam, foreign-language films and programs are subtitled on television in Vietnamese. They were not dubbed until 1985, but are briefly translated with a speaker before commercial breaks. Rio was considered to be the very first American Hollywood film to be entirely dubbed in Vietnamese. Since then, children's films that came out afterwards have been released dubbed in theaters. HTV3 has dubbed television programs for children, including Ben 10, and Ned's Declassified School Survival Guide, by using various voice actors to dub over the character roles.[17][18]


In multilingual Singapore, English-language programs on the free-to-air terrestrial channels are usually subtitled in Chinese or Malay, while Chinese, Malay and Tamil programs are almost always subtitled in English. Dual sound programs, such as Korean and Japanese dramas, offer sound in the original languages with subtitles, Mandarin-dubbed and subtitled, or English-dubbed. The deliberate policy to encourage Mandarin among citizens made it required by law for programs in other Chinese dialects (Hokkien, Cantonese and Teochew) to be dubbed into Mandarin, with the exception of traditional operas. Cantonese and Hokkien shows from Hong Kong and Taiwan, respectively, are available on VCD and DVD. In a recent development, news bulletins are subtitled.


In Iran, foreign films and television programs are dubbed in Persian. Dubbing began in 1946 with the advent of movies and cinemas in the country. Since then, foreign movies have always been dubbed for the cinema and TV. Using various voice actors and adding local hints and witticisms to the original contents, dubbing played a major role in attracting people to the cinemas and developing an interest in other cultures. The dubbing art in Iran reached its apex during the 1960s and 1970s with the inflow of American, European and Hindi movies.

The most famous musicals of the time, such as My Fair Lady and The Sound of Music, were translated, adjusted and performed in Persian by the voice artists. Since the 1990s, for political reasons and under pressure from the state, the dubbing industry has declined, with movies dubbed only for the state TV channels. During recent years, DVDs with Persian subtitles have found a market among viewers for the same reason, but most people still prefer the Persian-speaking dubbed versions. Recently, privately operated companies started dubbing TV series by hiring famous dubbers.

A List of Persian voice actors that associate with their actor counterparts are listed here.


The Maghreb

In Algeria and Morocco, most foreign movies (especially Hollywood productions) are shown dubbed in French. These movies are usually imported directly from French film distributors. The choice of movies dubbed into French can be explained by the history of colonization of these countries by France and the widespread use of the French language (among the intellectual elite), in addition to the marginalization of one national language. Another important factor is that local theaters and private media companies do not dub in local languages in order to avoid high costs, but also because of the lack of both expertise and demand.

Beginning in the 1980s, dubbed series and movies for children in Modern Standard Arabic became a popular choice among most TV channels, cinemas and VHS/DVD stores. However, dubbed films are still imported, and dubbing is performed in Arab countries with a strong tradition of dubbing and subtitling (mainly Syria, Lebanon and Jordan). The evolution of movies targeting the adult audience was different. After the satellite boom in the Arab world and the emergence of Pan-Arab channels, the use of subtitles, which was already popular in the Middle East, was highly popular among local viewers in Algeria and Morocco.

In the Arab world (member states in North Africa, Western Asia and others), only children's films and TV series were dubbed in Arabic. Many different anime titles are dubbed in the Arabic language, as well. Everything else is usually shown in its original language with Arabic subtitles. Recently, The Arabic dubbing industry has boomed, and channels such as MBC Max, are now offering famous older action films aimed at an older audience dubbed in Arabic to be broadcast on television. Action movies such as Braveheart, The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and Troy have become some of the first foreign action titles to be dubbed in Arabic, rather than using subtitles, on the MBC Max channel. However, they can still be watched in their original language with subtitles.[19]

There's even a list that showcases Arabic voice actors that dub for certain performers that associate with them.

In Tunisia, theaters usually show French-dubbed movies, but cinema attendance in the country for such movies is in continuous decline compared to Tunisian and Arab movies. This decline can be traced to the huge popularity of free-to-air Pan-Arab movie channels offering primarily subtitled content, and the government's reduced efforts to limit piracy. Tunisia National Television (TNT), the public broadcaster of Tunisia, is not allowed to show any content in any language other than Arabic, which forces it to broadcast only dubbed content (this restriction was recently removed for commercials). During the 1970s and 1980s, TNT (known as ERTT at the time) started dubbing famous cartoons in Tunisian and Standard Arabic. This move was highly successful locally, but was not able to compete with mainstream dubbing companies (especially in the Middle East). In the private sector, television channels are not subject to the language rule and sometimes broadcast foreign content dubbed into French (excluding children content), although some of them, such as Hannibal TV, started adopting subtitling in Arabic instead, which proved to be more popular than simply importing French-dubbed content.

South Africa

In South Africa, many television programmes were dubbed in Afrikaans, with the original soundtrack (usually in English, but sometimes Dutch or German) "simulcast" in FM stereo on Radio 2000. These included US series such as The Six Million Dollar Man, (Steve Austin: Die Man van Staal)[20] Miami Vice (Misdaad in Miami),[21] Beverly Hills 90210.,[22] and the German detective series Derrick.[23]

This practice has declined as a result of the reduction of airtime for the language on SABC TV, and the increase of locally produced material in Afrikaans on other channels like KykNet.

Similarly, many programmes, such as The Jeffersons, were dubbed into Zulu,[24] but this has also declined as local drama production has increased.

As a result of the boycott by the British actors' union Equity, which banned the sale of most British television programmes, the puppet series The Adventures of Rupert Bear was dubbed into South African English, as the original voices had been recorded by Equity voice artists.[25]


In common with other English-speaking countries, there has traditionally been little dubbing in Australia, with foreign-language television programmes and films being shown (usually on SBS) with subtitles. This has also been the case in New Zealand, but the Maori Television Service, launched in 2004, has dubbed animated films into Maori.[26] However, some TV commercials from foreign countries are dubbed, even if the original commercial came from another English-speaking country.



Subtitles can be used instead of dubbing, as different countries have different traditions regarding the choice between dubbing and subtitling. On DVDs with higher translation budgets, the option for both types will often be provided to account for individual preferences; purists often demand subtitles. For small markets (small language area or films for a select audience), subtitling is more suitable, because it is cheaper. In the case of films for small children who cannot yet read, or do not read fast enough, dubbing is necessary.

In most English-speaking countries, dubbing is comparatively rare. In Israel, some programmes need to be comprehensible to speakers of both Hebrew and Russian. This cannot be accomplished with dubbing, so subtitling is much more commonplace—sometimes even with subtitles in multiple languages, with the soundtrack remaining in the original language, usually English. The same applies to certain television shows in Finland, where Finnish and Swedish are both official languages.

In the Netherlands, Flanders, Nordic countries and Estonia, films and television programmes are shown in the original language (usually English) with subtitles, and only cartoons and children's movies and programs are dubbed, such as the Harry Potter series, Finding Nemo, Shrek, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and others. Cinemas usually show both a dubbed version and one with subtitles for this kind of movie, with the subtitled version shown later in the evening.

In Portugal, this has traditionally been the case (at least for live-action material), but one terrestrial channel, TVI, dubs U.S. series like Dawson's Creek into Portuguese. RTP also transmitted Friends in a dubbed version, but it was poorly received and later re-aired in a subtitled version. Cartoons, on the other hand, are usually dubbed, sometimes by well-known actors, even on TV. Animated movies are usually released to the cinemas in both subtitled and dubbed versions.

In Argentina and Venezuela, terrestrial channels air films and TV series in a dubbed version, as demanded by law. However, those same series can be seen on cable channels at more accessible time-slots in their subtitled version, and usually before they are shown on open TV. In contrast, the series The Simpsons is aired in its Mexican-dubbed version both on terrestrial television and on the cable station Fox, which broadcasts the series for the area. Although the first season of the series appeared with subtitles, this was not continued for the following seasons.

Apart from airing dubbed TV series (for example, Lost, ER and House), the Argentinian open TV station Canal 13 (Argentina) has bought the rights to produce and air a "ported version" of Desperate Housewives in Argentina, with local actors and actresses.

Dubbing and subtitling

In Bulgaria, television series are dubbed, but most television channels use subtitles for action and drama movies. AXN uses subtitles for its series, but as of 2008 emphasizes dubbing. Only Diema channels dub all programs. Movies in theaters, with the exception of films for children, use subtitles. Dubbing of television programs is usually done using voiceovers, but usually with at least four or five actors reading the lines, while trying to give each character a different voice by using appropriate intonations. Dubbing with synchronized voices is rarely used, mostly for animated films. Mrs. Doubtfire is a rare example of a feature film dubbed this way on BNT Channel 1, though a subtitled version is currently shown on other channels.

Walt Disney Television's animated series (such as DuckTales, Darkwing Duck, and Timon and Pumbaa) were only aired with synchronized Bulgarian voices on BNT Channel 1 until 2005, but then the Disney shows were canceled. When airing of Disney series resumed on Nova Television and Jetix in 2008, voiceovers were used, but Disney animated-movie translations still use synchronized voices. Voiceover dubbing is not used in theatrical releases. The Bulgarian film industry law requires all children's films to be dubbed, not subtitled. Nova Television dubbed and aired the Pokémon anime with synchronized voices. Now, the show is airing on Disney Channel, also in a synchronized form.

In Hungary, practically all television programs are dubbed, as are about 50 percent of movies in theaters. In the socialist era, every film was dubbed with professional and mostly popular actors. Care was taken to make sure the same voice actor would lend his voice to the same original actor. In the early 1990s, as cinemas tried to keep up with showing newly released films, subtitling became dominant in the cinema. This, in turn, forced TV channels to make their own cheap versions of dubbed soundtracks for the movies they presented, resulting in a constant degrading of dubbing quality. Once this became customary, cinema distributors resumed the habit of dubbing for popular productions, presenting them in a quality varying from very poor to average. However, every feature is presented with the original soundtrack in at least one cinema in large towns and cities.

However, in Hungary, most documentary films and series (for example, those on Discovery Channel, National Geographic Channel) are made with voiceover. Some old movies and series, or ones that provide non-translatable jokes and conversations (for example, the Mr. Bean television series), are shown only with subtitles.

There is a more recent problem arising from dubbing included on DVD releases. Many generations have grown up with an original (and, by current technological standards, outdated) soundtrack, which is either technologically (mono or bad quality stereo sound) or legally (expired soundtrack license) unsuitable for a DVD release. Many original features are released on DVD with a new soundtrack, which in some cases proves to be extremely unpopular, thus forcing DVD producers to include the original soundtrack. In some rare cases, the Hungarian soundtrack is left out altogether. This happens notably with Warner Home Video Hungary, which ignored the existence of Hungarian soundtracks completely, as they did not want to pay the licensees for the soundtracks to be included on their new DVD releases, which appear with improved picture quality, but very poor subtitling.



In lector. Films are always subtitled besides films broadcast on Global Media Group channels.


In Poland, cinema releases for general audiences are almost exclusively subtitled, with the exception of children's movies, and television screenings of movies, as well as made-for-TV shows. These are usually shown with voice-over, where a voice talent reads a translation over the original soundtrack. This method, called "juxtareading," is similar to the so-called Gavrilov translation in Russia, with one difference—all dialogues are translated with only one acute, and usually male voice, preferably deep and neutral, that does not interfere with the pitch of voice of the original speakers in the background. To some extent, it resembles live translation. Certain highly qualified lectors are traditionally assigned to a particular kind of production, such as action or drama. Standard dubbing is not widely popular with most audiences, with the exception of cartoons and children's shows, which are dubbed also for TV releases.

Poland's dubbing traditions began between the two world wars. In 1931, among the first movies dubbed into Polish were Dangerous Curves (1929), The Dance of Life (1929), Paramount on Parade (1930), and Darling of the Gods (1930). In 1949, the first dubbing studio opened in Łódź. The first film dubbed that year was Russkiy Vopros (filmed 1948).

The Polish dubbing in the first post-war years suffered from poor synchronization. The Polish dialogues were unclear, so people could not understand them. Cinemas had an old aperture that sometimes made a film more unclear than it was. In the 1950s, the Polish publicist discussed the quality of Polish versions of foreign movies.

The number of dubbed movies and the quality improved. Polish dubbing had a golden age in the 1960s-1980s. Approximately one-third of foreign movies were dubbed in the cinemas. The "Polish dubbing school" was known for its high quality. In that time, Poland had some of the best dubbing in the world. The most important person who initiated high quality dubbing versions was director Zofia Dybowska-Aleksandrowicz. Her works were as good as the originals and sometimes even better. In that time, dubbing in Poland was very popular. The Polish television dubbed popular films and TV series such as Rich Man, Poor Man, Fawlty Towers, Forsyte Saga, Elizabeth R, I, Claudius, I'll Take Manhattan, and Peter the Great.

In the 1980s, due to budget cuts, television did not have money for tapes, so they used the actual recordings. After the first emission, dubbing was cancelled. In the era of communism, almost 1,000 films were dubbed. In the 1990s, after democratic transformation, Polish television TVP was still dubbing films and TV series. Unfortunately, as in the 1980s, it was a dubbing only for one emission.

In 1995, Canal+ was launched. In its first years, it dubbed 30% of the schedule. They dubbed very ambitious films and popular TV series. One of the most well-known and popular dubbings was the Polish dub of Friends. Unfortunately, they stopped dubbing Friends in 2001, and stopped dubbing films in 1999, although many people supported the idea of dubbing and bought the access only for dubbing versions of foreign productions. In the 1990s, dubbing was done by the television channel known as Wizja Jeden. They mainly dubbed BBC productions such as The League of Gentlemen, Absolutely Fabulous and Men Behaving Badly. Wizja Jeden was closed in 2001. In the same year, TVP stopped dubbing the TV series Frasier, although that dubbing was very popular.

Currently, dubbing of films and TV series for teenagers is made by Nickelodeon and Disney Channel. One of the major breakthroughs in dubbing was the Polish release of Shrek, which contained many references to local culture and Polish humor. Since then, people seem to have grown to like dubbed versions more, and pay more attention to the dubbing actors. However, this seems to be the case only with animated films, as live-action dubbing is still considered a bad practice. In the case of DVD releases, most discs contain both the original soundtrack and subtitles, and either lector or dubbed Polish track. The dubbed version is, in most cases, the one from the theater release, while voice-over is provided for movies that were only subtitled in theaters.

Since theatrical release of The Avengers in May 2012, The Walt Disney Company Polska dubs all films for theater releases. Also in 2012, United International Pictures Polska dubbed The Amazing Spider-Man, while Forum Film Polska – former distributor of Disney’s films – decided to dub The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey.


Russian television is generally dubbed with only a couple of voice actors, with the original speech still audible underneath. In the Soviet Union, most foreign movies to be officially released were dubbed. However, with the fall of the regime, many popular foreign movies, previously forbidden, or at least questionable under communist rule, started to flood in, in the form of low-quality home-copied videos. Being unofficial releases, they were dubbed in a very primitive way. For example, the translator spoke the text directly over the audio of a video being copied, using primitive equipment. The quality of the resulting dub was very low, the translated phrases were off-sync, interfering with the original voices, background sounds leaked into the track, translation was inaccurate and, most importantly, all dub voices were made by a single person who usually lacked the intonation of the original, making comprehension of some scenes quite difficult. This method of translation exerted a strong influence on Russian pop culture. Voices of translators became recognizable for generations. In modern Russia, the overdubbing technique is still used in many cases, although with vastly improved quality, and now with multiple voice actors dubbing different original voices.


In Ukraine, television and cinema is usually dubbed with the overdubbing technique, with multiple voice actors dubbing different original voices. But for Russian films, subtitles are possible. Russian-language TV programs are usually not dubbed.

Latvia and Lithuania

In Latvia and Lithuania, voice-over dubbing is hugely popular on television. Almost all shows are voice-over dubbed. This dubbing method is similar to the Polish method—one person reads the whole translated text, while the original sound plays at a low volume in the background. In cinemas, only children's animated films (such as The Tale of Despereaux) and children's live-action films (such as Charlotte's Web) are dubbed in Latvian and Lithuanian languages. But some other kids shows, like SpongeBob SquarePants, use the voiceover dub.

General use

Dubbing is also used in applications and genres other than traditional film, including video games, television, and pornographic films.

Video games

Many video games originally produced in North America, Japan, and PAL countries are dubbed into foreign languages for release in areas such as Europe and Australia, especially for video games that place a heavy emphasis on dialogue. Because characters' mouth movements can be part of the game's code, lip sync is sometimes achieved by re-coding the mouth movements to match the dialogue in the new language. The Source engine automatically generates lip-sync data, making it easier for games to be localized.

To achieve synchronization when animations are intended only for the source language, localized content is mostly recorded using techniques borrowed from movie dubbing (such as rythmo band) or, when images are not available, localized dubbing is done using source audios as a reference. Sound-synch is a method where localized audios are recorded matching the length and internal pauses of the source content.

For the European version of a video game, the on-screen text of the game is available in various languages and, in many cases, the dialogue is dubbed into each respective language, as well.

The North American version of any game is always available in English, with translated text and dubbed dialogue, if necessary, in other languages, especially if the North American version of the game contains the same data as the European version. Several Japanese games, such as those in the Sonic the Hedgehog, Dynasty Warriors, and Soul Calibur series, are released with both the original Japanese audio and the American English dub included.


Dubbing is occasionally used on network television broadcasts of films that contain dialogue that the network executives or censors have decided to replace. This is usually done to remove profanity. In most cases, the original actor does not perform this duty, but an actor with a similar voice reads the changes. The results are sometimes seamless, but, in many cases, the voice of the replacement actor sounds nothing like the original performer, which becomes particularly noticeable when extensive dialogue must be replaced. Also, often easy to notice, is the sudden absence of background sounds in the movie during the dubbed dialogue. Among the films considered notorious for using substitute actors that sound very different from their theatrical counterparts are the Smokey and the Bandit and the Die Hard film series, as shown on broadcasters such as TBS. In the case of Smokey and the Bandit, extensive dubbing was done for the first network airing on ABC Television in 1978, especially for Jackie Gleason's character, Buford T. Justice. The dubbing of his phrase "sombitch" (son of a bitch) became the more palatable (and memorable) "scum bum," which became a catchphrase of the time.

Dubbing is commonly used in science fiction television, as well. Sound generated by effects equipment such as animatronic puppets or by actors' movements on elaborate multi-level plywood sets (for example, starship bridges or other command centers) will quite often make the original character dialogue unusable. Stargate and Farscape are two prime examples where ADR is used heavily to produce usable audio.

Since some anime series contain profanity, the studios recording the English dubs often re-record certain lines if a series or movie is going to be broadcast on Cartoon Network, removing references to death and hell as well. Some companies will offer both an edited and an uncut version of the series on DVD, so that there is an edited script available in case the series is broadcast. Other companies also edit the full-length version of a series, meaning that even on the uncut DVD characters say things like "Blast!" and "Darn!" in place of the original dialogue's profanity. Bandai Entertainment's English dub of G Gundam is infamous for this, among many other things, with such lines as "Bartender, more milk".

Dubbing has also been used for comedic purposes, replacing lines of dialogue to create comedies from footage that was originally another genre. Examples include the Australian shows The Olden Days and Bargearse, re-dubbed from 1970s Australian drama and action series, respectively, and the Irish show Soupy Norman, re-dubbed from Pierwsza miłość, a Polish soap opera.

Dubbing into a foreign language does not always entail the deletion of the original language. In some countries, a performer may read the translated dialogue as a voice-over. This often occurs in Russia and Poland, where "lektories" or "lektors" read the translated dialogue into Russian and Polish. In Poland, a single person reads all parts of the performance, both male and female. However, this is done almost exclusively for the television and home video markets, while theatrical releases are usually subtitled. Recently, however, the number of high-quality, fully dubbed films has increased, especially for children's movies. If a quality dubbed version exists for a film, it is shown in theaters. However, some films, such as Harry Potter or Star Wars, are shown in both dubbed and subtitled versions, varying with the time of the show. Such films are also shown on TV (although some channels drop them and do standard one-narrator translation) and VHS/DVD. In other countries, like Vietnam, the voice-over technique is also used for theatrical releases.

In Russia, the reading of all lines by a single person is referred to as a Gavrilov translation, and is generally found only in illegal copies of films and on cable television. Professional copies always include at least two actors of opposite gender translating the dialogue. Some titles in Poland have been dubbed this way, too, but this method lacks public appeal, so it is very rare now.

On special occasions, such as film festivals, live interpreting is often done by professionals.


As budgets for pornographic films are often small, compared to films made by major studios, and there is an inherent need to film without interrupting filming, it is common for sex scenes to be over-dubbed. The audio for such over-dubbing is generally referred to as the Ms and Gs, or the moans and groans.

Dubbing into dialects

In the case of languages with large communities (such as English, Chinese, Portuguese, German, Spanish, or French), a single translation may sound foreign to native speakers in a given region. Therefore, a film may be translated into a dialect of a certain language. For example, the animated movie The Incredibles was translated to European Spanish, Mexican Spanish, Neutral Spanish (which used the Mexican voice cast), and Rioplatense Spanish (although people from Chile and Uruguay noticed a strong porteño accent from most of the characters of the Rioplatense Spanish translation). In Spanish-speaking regions, most media is dubbed only twice into Spanish (Spain) and Neutral Spanish (which is Mexican Spanish but avoids colloquialisms).

Another example is the French dialect dubbing of The Simpsons, which is entirely different in Quebec and France, the humor being very different for each audience (see Non-English versions of The Simpsons). Audiences in Quebec are generally critical of France's dubbing of The Simpsons, which they often do not find amusing. The French-language Télétoon network once aired the Quebec dub for The Simpsons, as well as Parisian French dubs of Futurama and Family Guy, which were both similar to the Parisian dub for The Simpsons. The two latter shows have since been taken off the network, while The Simpsons continues its run on Télétoon.

The Quebec French dubbing of films, while generally made in accent-free Standard French, may sound peculiar to audiences in France because of the persistence of some regionally neutral expression and because Quebec French performers pronounce Anglo-Saxon names with an American accent, while French performers do not. Occasionally, for reasons of cost, American direct-to-video films, such as the 1995 film When the Bullet Hits the Bone, are released in France with a Quebec French dubbing, sometimes resulting in what some members of French audiences perceive as unintentional humor.

Portugal and Brazil also use different versions of dubbed films and series. Because dubbing has never been very popular in Portugal, for decades, children's films and television series were distributed using the higher-quality Brazilian dub. Only in the 1990s did dubbing begin to gain importance in Portugal, thanks to the popularity of dubbed series like Dragon Ball. The Lion King became the first Disney feature film to be completely dubbed into European Portuguese and, subsequently, all major animation films and series gained European Portuguese versions. In recent DVD releases, most of these Brazilian-dubbed classics were released with new Portuguese dubs, eliminating the predominance of Brazilian Portuguese dubs in Portugal.

Similarly, in the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in Belgium, cartoons are dubbed locally by Flemish artists, rather than using soundtracks produced in the Netherlands.

The German-speaking region, which includes Germany, Austria, the German-speaking part of Switzerland, and Liechtenstein share a common German-dubbed version. Although there are some differences in German dialects, all films, shows, and series are dubbed into a single standard German version that avoids regional variations in the German-speaking audience. Most voice actors are primarily Germans and Austrians, since there has been a long tradition of dubbing films. Switzerland, which has four official languages (German, French, Italian, Romansh), generally uses dubbed versions made in each respective country (except for Romansh). Liechtenstein uses German-dubbed versions only.

Sometimes, films are also dubbed into several German dialects (Berlinerisch, Kölsch, Saxonian, Austro-Bavarian or Swiss German), which especially concerns animated films and Disney films. These are made for amusement and as an additional "special feature" to entice the audience into buying it. Popular animated films dubbed into German dialects include Asterix films (in addition to its standard German version, every film has a particular dialect version), The Little Mermaid, Shrek 2, Cars, (+ Austrian German) and Up[27] (+ Austrian German).

Some live-action films or TV-series have an additional German dialect dubbing: Babe and its sequel, Babe: Pig in the City (Germany German, Austrian German, Swiss German); and Rehearsal for Murder, Framed[28] (+ Austrian German); The Munsters, Serpico, Rumpole (+ Austrian German), and The Thorn Birds[29] (only Austrian German dubbing).

Before German reunification, East Germany also made its own particular German version. For example, Olsen Gang and the Hungarian animated series The Mézga Family were dubbed in West Germany as well as East Germany.


The many martial arts movies from Hong Kong that were imported under the unofficial banner Kung Fu Theater were notorious for seemingly careless dubbing that included poor lip sync and awkward dialogue. Since the results were frequently unintentionally hilarious, this has become one of the hallmarks that endear these films to part of the 1980s culture.

While the voice actors involved usually bear the brunt of criticisms towards poor dubbing, other factors may include inaccurate script translation and poor audio mixing. Dialogue typically contains speech patterns and sentence structure that are natural to the language but would appear awkward if translated literally. English dubs of Japanese animation, for example, must rewrite the dialogue so that it flows smoothly and follows the natural pattern of English speech. Voice actors in a dubbing capacity typically do not have the luxury of viewing the original film with the original voice actor and thus have little idea regarding how to perform the role. On some occasions, voice actors record their dialogue separately, which can lack the dynamics gained from performing as a group.


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  8. ^ a b Special Eurobarometer 243 of the European Commission with the title "Europeans and their Languages", published on February 2006 with research carried out in November and December 2005. Barely 2% of Romanians consider watching original-language versions most effective into learning a new language (Table QA7b).
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