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Dzungar people

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Dzungar people

Dzungar people
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 準噶爾
Simplified Chinese 准噶尔
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Зүүнгар
Mongolian script ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨᠭᠠᠢ
Kazakh name
Kazakh Жоңғар

The name Dzungar people, also Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries. Historically they were one of major tribes of the Four Oirat confederation. They were also known as the Eleuths or Ööled, from the Qing dynasty euphemism for the hated word "Zunghar",[1] and also called "Kalmyks". In 2010, 15,520 people claimed "Ööled" ancestry in Mongolia.[2] An unknown number also live in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan.

Contents

  • Origin 1
  • History 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Origin

The Dzungars were a confederation of several Torghut tribes were forcibly incorporated into the Dzungar military, thus completing the re-unification of the West Mongolian tribes.

According to oral history, the Oöled and Dörbed tribes are the successor tribes to the Olots and Choros became the ruling clans in the 17th century.

History

Clear script on rocks near Almaty
the Öölöds prior to the Qing Dynasty, see Zunghar Empire.

In 1697, two relatives of banners and resettled in modern Bayankhongor Province, Mongolia. In 1731, five hundred households fled back to Zunghar territory while the remaining Oolods were deported to Hulun Buir. After 1761 some of them were resettled in Arkhangai Province.

The Dzungar (or Zunghar), Oirat Mongols who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic empire to threaten China, which they did from the early 17th century through the middle of the 18th century.[3] After a series of inconclusive military conflicts that started in the 1680s, the Dzungars were subjugated by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1911) in the late 1750s. Clarke argued that the Qing campaign in 1757–58 "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."[4] After the Qianlong Emperor led Qing forces to victory over the Zunghar Oirat (Western) Mongols in 1755, he originally was going to split the Zunghar Empire into four tribes headed by four Khans, the Khoit tribe was to have the Zunghar leader Amursana as its Khan. Amursana rejected the Qing arrangement and rebelled since he wanted to be leader of a united Zunghar nation. Qianlong then issued his orders for the genocide and eradication of the entire Zunghar nation and name, Qing Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha (Eastern) Mongols enslaved Zunghar women and children while slaying the other Zunghars.[5]

The Qianlong Emperor then ordered the genocide of the Zunghars, moving the remaining Dzungar people to the mainland and ordering the generals to kill all the men in Barkol or Suzhou, and divided their wives and children to Qing forces, which were made out of Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols.[6][7] Qing scholar Wei Yuan estimated the total population of Dzungars before the fall at 600,000 people, or 200,000 households. Oirat officer Saaral betrayed and battled against the Oirats. In a widely cited[8][9][10] account of the war, Wei Yuan wrote that about 40% of the Dzungar households were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to Russia or Kazakh tribes, and 30% were killed by the Qing army of Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols, leaving no yurts in an area of several thousands li except those of the surrendered.[11] During this war Kazakhs attacked dispersed Oirats and Altays. Based on this account, Wen-Djang Chu wrote that 80% of the 600,000 or more Dzungars (especially Choros, Olot, Khoid, Baatud and Zakhchin) were destroyed by disease and attack[12] which Michael Clarke described as "the complete destruction of not only the Dzungar state but of the Zungars as a people."[13] Historian Peter Perdue attributed the decimation of the Dzungars to an explicit policy of extermination launched by Qianlong, but he also observed signs of a more lenient policy after mid-1757.[9] Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide, has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence."[14] The Zunghar genocide was completed by a combination of a smallpox epidemic and the direct slaughter of Zunghars by Qing forces made out of Manchu Bannermen and (Khalkha) Mongols.[15]

Anti-Zunghar Uyghur rebels from the Turfan and Hami oases had submitted to Qing rule as vassals and requested Qing help for overthrowing Zunghar rule. Uyghur leaders like Emin Khoja were granted titles within the Qing nobility, and these Uyghurs helped supply the Qing military forces during the anti-Zunghar campaign.[16][17][18] The Qing employed Khoja Emin in its campaign against the Zunghars and used him as an intermediary with Muslims from the Tarim Basin to inform them that the Qing were only aiming to kill Oirats (Zunghars) and that they would leave the Muslims alone, and also to convince them to kill the Oirats (Zunghars) themselves and side with the Qing since the Qing noted the Muslims' resentment of their former experience under Zunghar rule at the hands of Tsewang Araptan.[19]

It was not until generations later that Dzungaria rebounded from the destruction and near liquidation of the Zunghars after the mass slayings of nearly a million Zunghars.[20] Historian Peter Perdue has shown that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of extermination launched by Qianlong,[21] Perdue attributed the decimation of the Dzungars to a "deliberate use of massacre" and has described it as an "ethnic genocide".[22] Although this "deliberate use of massacre" has been largely ignored by modern scholars,[21] Dr. Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide,[23] has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence."[24]

The Qing "final solution" of genocide to solve the problem of the Zunghar Mongols, made the Qing sponsored settlement of millions of Han Chinese, Hui, Turkestani Oasis people (Uyghurs) and Manchu Bannermen in Dzungaria possible, since the land was now devoid of Zunghars.[21] The Dzungarian basin, which used to be inhabited by (Zunghar) Mongols, is currently inhabited by Kazakhs.[25] In northern Xinjiang, the Qing brought in Han, Hui, Uyghur, Xibe, and Kazakh colonists after they exterminated the Zunghar Oirat Mongols in the region, with one third of Xinjiang's total population consisting of Hui and Han in the northern are, while around two thirds were Uyghurs in southern Xinjiang's Tarim Basin.[26] In Dzungaria, the Qing established new cities like Urumqi and Yining.[27] The Qing were the ones who unified Xinjiang and changed its demographic situation.[28]

The depopulation of northern Xinjiang after the Buddhist Öölöd Mongols (Zunghars) were slaughtered, led to the Qing settling Manchu, Sibo (Xibe), Daurs, Solons, Han Chinese, Hui Muslims, and Turkic Muslim Taranchis in the north, with Han Chinese and Hui migrants making up the greatest number of settlers. Since it was the crushing of the Buddhist Öölöd (Dzungars) by the Qing which led to promotion of Islam and the empowerment of the Muslim Begs in southern Xinjiang, and migration of Muslim Taranchis to northern Xinjiang, it was proposed by Henry Schwarz that "the Qing victory was, in a certain sense, a victory for Islam".[29] Xinjiang was a unified defined geographic identity was created and developed by the Qing. It was the Qing who led to Turkic Muslim power in the region increasing since the Mongol power was crushed by the Qing while Turkic Muslim culture and identity was tolerated or even promoted by the Qing.[30]

Qianlong explicitly commemorated the Qing conquest of the Zunghars as having added new territory in Xinjiang to "China", defining China as a multi ethnic state, rejecting the idea that China only meant Han areas in "China proper", meaning that according to the Qing, both Han and non-Han peoples were part of "China", which included Xinjiang which the Qing conquered from the Zunghars.[31] After the Qing were done conquering Dzungaria in 1759, they proclaimed that the new land which formerly belonged to the Zunghars, was now absorbed into "China" (Dulimbai Gurun) in a Manchu language memorial.[32][33][34] The Qing expounded on their ideology that they were bringing together the "outer" non-Han Chinese like the Inner Mongols, Eastern Mongols, Oirat Mongols, and Tibetans together with the "inner" Han Chinese, into "one family" united in the Qing state, showing that the diverse subjects of the Qing were all part of one family, the Qing used the phrase "Zhong Wai Yi Jia" 中外一家 or "Nei Wai Yi Jia" 內外一家 ("interior and exterior as one family"), to convey this idea of "unification" of the different peoples.[35] In the Manchu official [36]

The Hulun Buir Oolods formed an administrative banner along the Imin and Shinekhen Rivers. During the Qing dynasty, a body of them resettled in Yakeshi city. In 1764 many Oolods migrated to Khovd Province in Mongolia and supplied corvee services for the Khovd garrison of the Qing. Their number reached 9,100 in 1989.

The Dzungars remaining in Xinjiang were also renamed Oolods. They dominated 30 of the 148 Mongol sums during the Qing dynasty era and numbered 25,000 in 1999.

References

  1. ^ C.P. Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p. 425
  2. ^ National Census 2010 of Mongolia
  3. ^ Chapters 3–7 of Perdue 2005 describe the rise and fall of the Dzungar empire and its relations with other Mongol tribes, the Qing dynasty, and the Russian empire.
  4. ^ Clarke 2004, p. 37.
  5. ^ Millward 2007, p. 95.
  6. ^ 大清高宗純皇帝實錄, 乾隆二十四年
  7. ^ 平定準噶爾方略
  8. ^ Lattimore, Owen (1950). Pivot of Asia; Sinkiang and the inner Asian frontiers of China and Russia. Little, Brown. p. 126. 
  9. ^ a b Perdue 2005, p. 283-287
  10. ^ ed. Starr 2004, p. 54.
  11. ^ Wei Yuan, 聖武記 Military history of the Qing Dynasty, vol.4. "計數十萬戶中,先痘死者十之四,繼竄入俄羅斯哈薩克者十之二,卒殲於大兵者十之三。除婦孺充賞外,至今惟來降受屯之厄鲁特若干戶,編設佐領昂吉,此外數千里間,無瓦剌一氊帳。"
  12. ^ Chu, Wen-Djang (1966). The Moslem Rebellion in Northwest China 1862-1878. Mouton & co. p. 1. 
  13. ^ "Michael Edmund Clarke, ''In the Eye of Power'' (doctoral thesis), Brisbane 2004, p37" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-02-19. 
  14. ^ Levene 2008, p. 188
  15. ^ Lorge 2006, p. 165.
  16. ^ Kim 2008, p. 308
  17. ^ Kim 2008, p. 134
  18. ^ Kim 2008, p. 49
  19. ^ Kim 2008, p. 139.
  20. ^ Tyler 2004, p. 55.
  21. ^ a b c Perdue 2009, p. 285.
  22. ^ Perdue 2005, pp. 283-285.
  23. ^ Dr. Mark Levene, Southampton University, see "Areas where I can offer Postgraduate Supervision". Retrieved 2009-02-09.
  24. ^ Moses 2008, p. 188
  25. ^ Tyler 2004, p. 4.
  26. ^ ed. Starr 2004, p. 243.
  27. ^ Millward 1998, p. 102.
  28. ^ Liu & Faure 1996, p. 71.
  29. ^ Liu & Faure 1996, p. 72.
  30. ^ Liu & Faure 1996, p. 76.
  31. ^ Zhao 2006, pp. 11,12.
  32. ^ Dunnell 2004, p. 77.
  33. ^ Dunnell 2004, p. 83.
  34. ^ Elliott 2001, p. 503.
  35. ^ Dunnell 2004, pp. 76-77.
  36. ^ Perdue 2009, p. 218.
  • Dunnell, Ruth W.; Elliott, Mark C.; Foret, Philippe; Millward, James A (2004). New Qing Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing Chengde. Routledge.  
  • Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press.  
  • Kim, Kwangmin (2008). Saintly Brokers: Uyghur Muslims, Trade, and the Making of Qing Central Asia, 1696--1814. University of California, Berkeley. ProQuest.  
  • Liu, Tao Tao; Faure, David (1996). Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China. Hong Kong University Press.  
  • Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press.  
  • Perdue, Peter C (2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia (reprint ed.). Harvard University Press.  
  • Perdue, Peter C (2005). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press.  
  • Starr (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe.  
  • Theobald, Ulrich (2013). War Finance and Logistics in Late Imperial China: A Study of the Second Jinchuan Campaign (1771–1776). BRILL.  
  • Tyler, Christian (2004). Wild West China: The Taming of Xinjiang (illustrated, reprint ed.). Rutgers University Press.  
  • Zhao, Gang (January 2006). "Reinventing China Imperial Qing Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century" 32 (Number 1). Sage Publications.  

External links

  • «Начальные времена» ойратской истории (Russian)
  • ДНК нации или Исторический психотип ойратов (Russian)
  • Четыре типа ойратской красоты (Russian)
  • Последние данные по локализации и численности ойрат (htm републикация) (Russian)
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