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Eight-thousander

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Title: Eight-thousander  
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Subject: List of climbers and mountaineers, Nanga Parbat, João Garcia, Infobox mountain/testcases2, Cho Oyu
Collection: Eight-Thousanders, Lists of Mountains, Mountaineering, Peak Bagging
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Eight-thousander

Flight over Khumbu-region; six eight-thousanders and some seven-thousanders (three identified) are visible
Graph of the 30 highest peaks with more than 500 m prominence

The eight-thousanders are the 14 independent[1] mountains on Earth that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) high above sea level. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia. They are the mountains whose summits are in the death zone.

The first recorded attempt on an eight-thousander was when Albert F. Mummery and J. Norman Collie tried to climb Pakistan's Nanga Parbat in 1895. The attempt failed when Mummery and two Gurkhas, Ragobir and Goman Singh, were killed by an avalanche.[2]

The first recorded successful ascent of an eight-thousander was by Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, who reached the summit of Annapurna on June 3, 1950.[3]

The first person to climb all 14 eight-thousanders was Reinhold Messner, who completed this task on October 16, 1986. A year later, in 1987, Jerzy Kukuczka became the second climber to accomplish this feat. Messner had summitted each of the 14 peaks without the aid of supplemental oxygen. This feat was not repeated until nine years later by Erhard Loretan in 1995. Phurba Tashi of Nepal has completed the most climbs of the eight-thousanders, with 30 ascents between 1998 and 2011.[4] Juanito Oiarzabal has completed the second most, with a total of 25 times between 1985 and 2011.[5]

The countries with the highest number of climbers that have climbed all 14 eight-thousanders are Italy and South Korea, with five climbers each, followed by Spain, with four climbers. Kazakhstan, Poland have three climbers each that completed the "Crown of the Himalaya". The first woman to have summited all 14 eight-thousanders was Oh Eun-Sun of South Korea, stating she completed the set by summiting Annapurna on April 27, 2010.[6] Doubts about this claim have been raised by Western media and climbers and an inquiry by the Korean Alpine Federation (KAF) declared her summit claim for Kangchenjunga 2009 "unlikely". Their doubts add to those previously brought forward by rival Edurne Pasaban, which moved Himalayan chronicler Elizabeth Hawley in the spring of 2010 to tag the summit as "disputed".[7] Later in 2010, Western media declared Edurne Pasaban as the first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders; no one outside the West supports this claim.[8]

In August 2011, Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to climb the 14 eight-thousanders without the use of supplementary oxygen.[9][10]

Contents

  • List of Eight-thousanders 1
  • Climbers with Verified Ascents of All 14 Eight-thousanders 2
    • Disputed 2.1
  • Gallery 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

List of Eight-thousanders

Peak Height
[11]
Location
[11]
First ascent
[11]
First summiter(s)
[11]
First ascent in winter First summiter(s) in winter Ascents
[12]
Deaths
[12]
Death rate
[12]
Death rate
before 1990[13]
Death rate
1990–2003
[13]
Everest 8848 m (29,029 ft)  Nepal/
 China
29 May 1953 Edmund Hillary
Tenzing Norgay
17 Feb 1980
Krzysztof Wielicki
Leszek Cichy
5656 223 3.9% 37% 4.4%
K2 8611 m (28,251 ft)  Pakistan/ China[14]/
31 Jul 1954 Achille Compagnoni
Lino Lacedelli
306 81 26.5% 41% 19.7%
Kangchenjunga 8586 m (28,169 ft)  Nepal/
 India
25 May 1955 George Band
Joe Brown
11 Jan 1986 Krzysztof Wielicki
Jerzy Kukuczka
283 40 14.1% 21% 22%
Lhotse 8516 m (27,940 ft)  Nepal/
 China
18 May 1956 Fritz Luchsinger
Ernst Reiss
31 Dec 1988 Krzysztof Wielicki 461 13 2.8% 14% 2%
Makalu 8485 m (27,838 ft)  Nepal/
 China
15 May 1955 Jean Couzy
Lionel Terray
09 Feb 2009 Simone Moro
Denis Urubko
361 31 8.6% 16% 8.5%
Cho Oyu 8201 m (26,906 ft)  Nepal/
 China
19 Oct 1954 Joseph Joechler
Pasang Dawa Lama
Herbert Tichy
12 Feb 1985 Maciej Berbeka
Maciej Pawlikowski
3138 44 1.4%
Dhaulagiri I 8167 m (26,795 ft)  Nepal 13 May 1960 Kurt Diemberger
Peter Diener
Nawang Dorje
Nima Dorje
Ernst Forrer
Albin Schelbert
21 Jan 1985 Andrzej Czok
Jerzy Kukuczka
448 69 15.4% 31% 11%
Manaslu 8163 m (26,781 ft)  Nepal 9 May 1956 Toshio Imanishi
Gyalzen Norbu
12 Jan 1984 Maciej Berbeka
Ryszard Gajewski
661 65 9.8% 35.16% 13.42%
Nanga Parbat 8126 m (26,660 ft)  Pakistan 3 Jul 1953 Hermann Buhl 335 68 20.30% 77% 5.5%
Annapurna I 8091 m (26,545 ft)  Nepal 3 Jun 1950 Maurice Herzog
Louis Lachenal
3 Feb 1987 Jerzy Kukuczka
Artur Hajzer
191 61 32% 66% 19.7%
Gasherbrum I
(Hidden Peak)
8080 m (26,444 ft)  Pakistan/
 China
5 Jul 1958 Andrew Kauffman
Pete Schoening
9 Mar 2012 Adam Bielecki
Janusz Gołąb
334 29 8.7% 15.5% 8.75%
Broad Peak 8051 m (26,414 ft)  Pakistan/
 China
09 Jun 1957 Fritz Wintersteller
Marcus Schmuck
Kurt Diemberger
Hermann Buhl
5 Mar 2013 Maciej Berbeka
Adam Bielecki
Tomasz Kowalski
Artur Małek
404 21 5.2% 5% 8.6%
Gasherbrum II 8035 m (26,362 ft)  Pakistan/
 China
7 Jul 1956 Fritz Moravec
Josef Larch
Hans Willenpart
2 Feb 2011 Simone Moro
Denis Urubko
Cory Richards
930 21 2.3% 7.8% 0.44%
Shishapangma 8027 m (26,335 ft)  China 2 May 1964 Hsu Ching
Chang Chun-yen
Wang Fuzhou
Chen San
Cheng Tien-liang
Wu Tsung-yue
Sodnam Doji
Migmar Trashi
Doji
Yonten
14 Jan 2005 Piotr Morawski
Simone Moro
302 25 8.3% 2% 16.8%

Climbers with Verified Ascents of All 14 Eight-thousanders

Field O2 lists people who have climbed all 14 without bottled oxygen.

Order
accomplished [15]
All without
O2 (order)
Name Period Born Age Nationality
1 1 Reinhold Messner 1970–1986 1944 42 Italian
2 Jerzy Kukuczka 1979–1987 (deceased) 1948 39 Polish
3 2 Erhard Loretan 1982–1995 (deceased) 1959 36 Swiss
4 [16] Carlos Carsolio 1985–1996 1962 33 Mexican
5 Krzysztof Wielicki 1980–1996 1950 46 Polish
6 3 Juanito Oiarzabal 1985–1999 1956 43 Spanish
7 Sergio Martini 1983–2000 1949 51 Italian
8 Young-Seok Park 1993–2001 (deceased)[17] 1963 38 Korean
9 Hong-Gil Um 1988–2001 1960[18] 40 Korean
10 4 Alberto Iñurrategi 1991-2002[19] 1968 33 Spanish
11 Wang-Yong Han 1994–2003 1966 37 Korean
12 5[20] Ed Viesturs 1989–2005 1959 46 American
13 6[21][22][23] Silvio Mondinelli 1993–2007 1958 49 Italian
14 7[24] Ivan Vallejo 1997–2008 1959 49 Ecuador
15 8[25] Denis Urubko 2000–2009 1973 35 Kazakhstan
16 Ralf Dujmovits 1990–2009 1961[26] 47 German
17 9 Veikka Gustafsson 1993–2009 1968 41 Finnish
18[27] Andrew Lock 1993–2009 1961[28] 48 Australian
19 10 João Garcia 1993–2010 1967 43 Portuguese
20[29] Piotr Pustelnik 1990–2010 1951 58 Polish
21[30] Edurne Pasaban 2001–2010 1973 36 Spanish
22[31] Abele Blanc 1992–2011[32][33] 1954 56 Italian
23 Mingma Sherpa 2000–2011[32] 1978 33 Nepal
24 11 Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner 1998–2011[32] 1970 40 Austria
25 Vassily Pivtsov 2001–2011[32] 1975 36 Kazakhstan
26 12 Maxut Zhumayev 2001–2011[32] 1977 34 Kazakhstan
27 Jae-Soo Kim 2000–2011[32] 1961 50 Korean
28[34] 13 Mario Panzeri 1988–2012 1964 48 Italian
29[35] Hirotaka Takeuchi 1995–2012[35] 1971 41 Japanese
30 Chhang Dawa Sherpa 2001–2013[32] 1982 30 Nepal
31 14 Kim Chang-Ho 2005–2013[32] 1970 43 Korean
32 Jorge Egocheaga 2002–2014[36] 1968 45 Spanish
33 15 Radek Jaroš 1998–2014[32] 1964 50 Czech

Disputed

Claims in which not enough evidence was provided to verify the ascents of all 14 peaks. The disputed ascent in each claim is shown in parentheses.

Name Period Born Age Nationality
Fausto De Stefani (Lhotse 1997)[37] 1983–1998 1952 46 Italy
Alan Hinkes (Cho Oyu 1990)[38][39] 1987–2005 1954 53 British
Vladislav Terzyul (Shishapangma 2000)[40][41] 1993–2002 (deceased) 1953 49 Ukrainian
Eun-Sun Oh (Kangchenjunga 2009)[42][43][44][45] 1997–2010 1966 44 Korean
Carlos Pauner (Shishapangma 2012)[46] 2001–2013 1963 50 Spanish

Gallery

Comparison of the heights of the Eight-thousanders (red triangles) with the Seven Summits and Seven Second Summits.

See also

References

  1. ^ In making any "highest mountains" list, one needs to use a criterion to exclude subpeaks and only list independent mountains. There is no universally agreed-upon such criterion. However the (generally accepted) list of 14 eight-thousanders is obtained if one uses a topographic prominence cutoff of between 200 and 500 metres (610 and 1524 feet). Some eight-thousand metre subpeaks have been climbed as goals in themselves, for example Lhotse Middle, but this is quite rare.
  2. ^ "Fast Facts About Nanga Parbat". climbing.about.com. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  3. ^  
  4. ^ "Preliminary stats: Himalaya and Everest 2011 spring review". ExplorersWeb. June 8, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-04. (subscription required (help)). 
  5. ^ "Lhotse Summits". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
  6. ^ "Oh Eun-Sun summits Annapurna - becomes the first woman 14x8000er summiteer!". ExplorersWeb. April 27, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-04. (subscription required (help)). 
  7. ^ "Korean Alpine Federation questions Miss Oh's Kangchenjunga 2009 summit". ExplorersWeb. August 30, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-04. (subscription required (help)). 
  8. ^ "Oh Eun-Sun report, final: Edurne Pasaban takes the throne". ExplorersWeb. December 10, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-04. (subscription required (help)). 
  9. ^ "Austrian woman claims Himalayas climbing record". BBC News. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-24. 
  10. ^ "Austrian is first woman to scale 14 peaks without oxygen". AsiaOne. August 30, 2011. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
  11. ^ a b c d
    "General Info". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  12. ^ a b c "Stairway to heaven". The Economist. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 2015-09-07As of March 2012 
  13. ^ a b Chinese National Geography, August 2006, page 77.
  14. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-28500721 K2 lies in Pakistan, near the northern border with China.
  15. ^ "Climbers - First 14". 8000ers.com. 2012-05-26. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  16. ^ Carlos Carsolio required emergency oxygen on his descent from Makalu in 1988.
  17. ^ Coley, Mariah. "Koreans Missing on Annapurna Presumed Dead". Alpinist.com. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  18. ^ EverestNews2004.com, News (age calculated: in 2004 Hong-Gil Um was 44). "Mr. Um Hong Gil has bagged his 15th 8000 meter peak". Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  19. ^ Kukuxumusu, Spanish News. """Alberto Iñurrategi achieves his fourteenth "eight thousand meters. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  20. ^ "Best of ExplorersWeb 2005 Awards: Ed Viesturs and Christian Kuntner". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30. ...the American climber became one of only five men in the world to accomplish the quest entirely without supplementary oxygen. 
  21. ^ Mounteverest.net. "The wolf is back: Gnaro bags Baruntse". Retrieved 2008-11-30. Last year, Silvio 'Gnaro' Mondinelli broke the haunted 13 when he summited the last peak on his list of 14, 8000ers - becoming only the 6th mountaineer in the world to have bagged them all without supplementary oxygen. 
  22. ^ "The day after: Silvio Mondinelli, Broad Peak and all 14 8000m summits". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 13/07 interview with Silvio Mondinelli after the summit of his 14th 8000m peak without supplementary oxygen. 
  23. ^ "The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30. Implied in text: ...Following Italian Silvio "Gnaro" Mondinelli last year and American Ed Viesturs in 2005, Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen. 
  24. ^ "The 14th knight: Ecuadorian Ivan Vallejo is ready to continue". Mounteverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30. ...Ivan also became only the seventh mountaineer in the world to have done them all without supplementary oxygen. 
  25. ^ "Denis Urubko, Cho Oyu and all 14 8000m peaks". PlanetMountain.com. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  26. ^ "Ralf Dujmovits". Ralf-dujmovits.de. Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  27. ^ "Summit 8000 - Andrew Lock's quest to climb all fourteen of the highest mountains in the world". Andrew-lock.com. Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  28. ^ "Australia's Most Accomplished Mountaineer". Andrew Lock. 2009-10-02. Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  29. ^ "Piotr Pustelnik summits Annapurna - bags the 14x8000ers!". Explorersweb.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  30. ^ "Shisha Pangma: Edurne Pasaban summits - completes the 14x800ers". Explorersweb.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  31. ^ "Abele Blanc summits Annapurna and all 8000ers". Planetmountain.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Climbers - First 14, updated table on 8000ers.com". 8000ers.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  33. ^ "Everest - Mount Everest by climbers, news". Mounteverest.net. 2005-05-18. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  34. ^ "Mario Panzeri: sono in cima! E finalmente sono 14 ottomila". Montagna.tv. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  35. ^ a b "日本人初の快挙、8000m峰14座登頂 竹内洋岳". Nikkei.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  36. ^ "Climbers - First 14". 8000ers.com. 2014-08-13. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  37. ^ "Fausto de Stefani back for Lhotse – changes ahead on the 14x8,000ers summiteers’ list?". MountEverest.net. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  38. ^ AdventureStats.net, Official records. "Climbers that have summited 10 to 13 of the 14 Main-8000ers". Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  39. ^ MountEverest.net, News, under heading No Proof: Alan himself said later that he continued alone for one hour into the fog to find the true summit. He said that he "has no proof to have not been to the summit" and so he counts it a done deal. The statistician's didn't buy it, and Alan was deleted on all of the Cho Oyu lists.. "Alan Hinkes Kangchenjunga - 13 or 14?". Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  40. ^ Russianclimb.com, Mountaineering World of Russia & CIS. "Vladislav Terzyul, List of ascents". Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  41. ^ "Sad results on Makalu and Unanswered Questions: 1 missing climber and 1 passed away on Makalu". Everestnews2004.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  42. ^ "AFP: Winds delay S. Korean climber's record attempt". Google.com. 2010-04-24. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  43. ^ "Everest K2 News ExplorersWeb - More dark clouds mounting on Anna summit push; Miss Oh's Kanchen summit "disputed" after renewed accusations". Explorersweb.com. 2010-04-26. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  44. ^ "New doubts over Korean Oh Eun-Sun's climbing record". BBC News. 2010-08-27. 
  45. ^ "Seasonal Stories for the Nepalese Himalaya 2010" (PDF). Himalayandatabase.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  46. ^ "Desnivel; Carlos Pauner consigue la cima del Everest". Desnivel.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 

External links

  • Site dedicated to the 8000m peaks and mountaineers
  • Pictures of 8'000 meter peaks
  • showing the locations of the main summitsGeoFinder.chMap in
  • The Eight-Thousanders
  • Map in MapsCamp showing the locations of the main summits
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