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Equality feminism

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Equality feminism

Equality feminism is a subset of the overall feminism movement that focuses on the basic similarities between men and women, and whose ultimate goal is the equality of the sexes in all domains. This includes economic and political equality, equal access within the workplace, freedom from oppressive gender stereotyping, and an androgynous worldview.[1]

Feminist theory seeks to promote the legal status of women as equal and undifferentiated from that of men. While equality feminists largely agree that men and women have basic biological differences in anatomy and frame, they argue that on a psychological level, the use of ration or reason is androgynous. For equality feminists, men and women are equal in terms of their ability to reason, achieve goals, and prosper in both the work and home front.

Equality feminism was the dominant version of feminism following Mary Wollstonecraft’s “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” (1792). Wollstonecraft made the case that women’s equality to men manifests itself in education, worker's rights, and further produced a proverbial roadmap in order for future women to follow in terms of activism and feminist theorizing.[2] Since then, active equality feminist include Simone de Beauvoir, the Seneca Falls Convention Leaders, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Coffin Mott, Susan B. Anthony, Betty Friedan, and Gloria Steinem.

While equality feminism was the dominant perspective of feminism during the 19th and 20th century, the 1980s and 1990s brought about a new focus in popular feminism on difference feminism, or the essential differences between men and women.[3] In opposition to equality feminism, this view advocates for the celebration of the “feminine” by focusing on traditionally viewed female traits, such as empathy, nurturing, and care. While equality feminists view human nature as essentially androgynous, difference feminists claim that this viewpoint aligns the “good” with male-dominated stereotypes, thus sticking within the patriarchic framework of society.[4]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Equality Feminist Theory 2
  • Important Figures 3
    • Mary Wollstonecraft 3.1
    • John Stuart Mill 3.2
    • Simone de Beauvoir 3.3
    • Eva Vermeulen 3.4
    • Betty Friedan 3.5
  • Objections 4
  • References 5
  • See also 6

History

In both law and in theology women were portrayed as both physically and intellectually inferior. One of the first feminist documents that set the stage for feministic movements occurred when Mary Wollstonecraft wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Woman" in 1792. While this literature was seen as rebellious at the time it echoed the feelings of women throughout France as women’s republican clubs demanded that liberty, equality and fraternity should be applied to both men and women. While this movement gained notoriety it was eventually extinguished by Napoleon Bonaparte’s Code Napoleon that established that the husband had complete control over the family and regressed equality feminism.[5] While much of the equality feminism movements that occurred in France weren’t successful they influenced much of the movements that occurred in North America in the 1800s. Both Abigail Adams and Mercy Otis Warren fought for woman’s emancipation to be included in the constitution of 1776 to no avail. However, Elizabeth Cade Stanton, Lucretia Coffin Mott, along with thousands of other women changed the dynamics of equality feminism forever with the women’s convention at Seneca Falls N.Y. in 1848. Here along with independence they demanded full legal equality in all aspects of life (education, commercial opportunities, compensation, voting rights, etc.). With the influence of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan Brownell Anthony, this movement evolved into Europe. In 1869 John Stuart Mill published The Subjection of Women in which he argued that equality between the sexes would translate to more moral and intellectual advancement which in turn would result in more human happiness to everyone.[6]

After the expansion into Europe, the movement stifled its growth until 1920 where the Bella Abzug, Betty Friedan, and Gloria Steinem pushed the Equal Rights Amendment through Congress however it fell short of ratification by 1982.[8]

Equality Feminist Theory

Equality feminist theory is the extension of the equality of the male and female into theoretical and philosophical fields of thought. At its core, equality feminist theory advocates for the equal standing of both men and women in terms of desires, wants, goals, and achievement. Thus, from this viewpoint, the basis of human nature outside of culture is androgynous, neutral, and equal.[9]

Much of equality feminism focuses on the relation of reason as the central tenet of both men and women equally. Mary Wollstonecraft in "A Vindication on the Rights of Women" (1792) claimed that women should enjoy the same legal and political rights as men on the grounds that they are human beings. Specifically, Wollstonecraft argues for "[a]sserting the rights which women in common with men ought to contend for".[10] In this way, both men and women should have equal access to rights because they have an equal access to the capacity to reason. Similarly, The Subjection of Women (1869), John Stuart Mills advocated that society ought to be arranged according to reason and that ‘accidents of birth’ is irrelevant. Thus, because both men and women are governed by principles of reason, then the biological elements such as sex, gender, and race aren’t contributing factors to the essence of the individual. Mill notes that within a patriarchic society, “Men hold women in subjection by representing to them meekness, submissiveness resignation of all individual will into the hands of a man as an essential part of sexual attractiveness”.[11] In this way, to say that women have essential characteristics of submission by nature of their sex is an oppressive measure that contradicts the basic principle of reason that governs all human nature.

Important Figures

Mary Wollstonecraft

In 1792 Wollstonecraft wrote one of the earliest works in feminist philosophy and though she doesn’t explicitly state that men and women are equal she does call for equality in various realms of life which set the stage for future equality feminist works. In her piece A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects, Wollstonecraft argues that women should have an education comparable to their position in society. She articulates her argument by claiming that since women were the primary care givers they could be able to better educate their own children and be seen as “companions" to the husband rather than wives if they were given this opportunity. Instead of being considered “property” that were exchanged through marriage, Wollstonecraft maintains that women are human being and therefore deserve equal fundamental rights as men.[12]

John Stuart Mill

In 1869, John Stuart Mill with the help of his wife Harriet Taylor Mill published The Subjection of Women, in it he argued for equality between the sexes. John Stuart Mill was able to draw off of some of the arguments his wife made in her essay The Enfranchisement of Women, in which she opened the door of favoring equality for both men and women. Mill believe that the moral and intellectual advancement from giving women the opportunity to be considered equal would translate to greater happiness for everyone involved. He believed that all humans had the capability of being educated and civilized, with which he argued women should be given the right to vote. Throughout the book Mill continues to argue that both men and women should be able to vote to defend their rights and be able to have the opportunity to stand on their own two feet morally and intellectually, and constantly used his position in Parliament to advocate for Women’s suffrage.[13] Mill attacks many of the arguments that women are inferior at certain activities and therefore be forbidden from doing them by saying that women aren’t given the opportunities and therefore we don’t know what women are capable of. He claims that males are making an authoritative statement without evidence, an argument solely based on speculation. Mill claims that by giving women this opportunity to figure out exactly what they were capable of would double the mass of mental faculties to serve humanity, and could produce a great impact on human development.[14]

Simone de Beauvoir

Simone de Beauvoir played a large role in equality feminism with the publishing of her book The Second Sex that’s broken into 3 parts. In the first part “Destiny” de Beauvoir discusses the relationship of male to female in a variety of creatures before comparing human beings. This physiological data along with psychoanalytical data help her come to the conclusion that there wasn’t a historical defeat of the female sex. Part two “History” outlines the two factors in the evolution of women’s condition: participation in production and freedom from reproductive slavery. In these chapters, de Beauvoir compares being a women to being like an animal, similar to the way male animals dominated a female. Finally in part three “Myths”, de Beauvoir discusses the perceived “everlasting disappointment” of women from a male heterosexual point of view. She then comes back and discusses full reality of the situation to show the discrepancies between perception and reality.[15] Throughout her literary career, de Beauvoir helped unravel some of the “myths” associated with perceptions in gender and set forth a strong message that men and women should be treated equal with equal rights.

Eva Vermeulen

Eva Vermeulen played a large role in equality feminism by arguing with other Society Commissioners. Became one of the most recognized equality feminists of society 'De Kroeg'.

Betty Friedan

See also

  1. ^ [Stanford University. Gendered Innovations. http://genderedinnovations.stanford.edu/terms/feminism.html Accessed 3 October 2014]
  2. ^ [Wollstonecraft,Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, https://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext02/vorow10.txt Accessed 4 October 2014]
  3. ^ [The University of Alabama. Kinds of Feminism http://www.uah.edu/woolf/feminism_kinds.htm Accessed 3 October 2014]
  4. ^ [Ethics of Care (International Encyclopedia of Philosophy). http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/ Accessed 2 October 2014]
  5. ^ [Landes, Joan B. Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1988. Print.Accessed 1 October 2014]
  6. ^ [Mills,John Stuart and Susan Moller Okin. The Subjection of Women. Hacking Publishing, 1998. (pg 87-89). http://books.google.com/books/about/The_subjection_of_women.html?id=PK_BGGCU_dsC Accessed 1 October 2014]
  7. ^ [Friedan, Betty. "The Feminine Mystique." The Essential Feminist Reader. Ed. Estelle B. Freedman. New York: Random House Group, 2007. N. pag. Print. Accessed 2 October 2014]
  8. ^ [Castro, Ginette. American Feminism: A Contemporary History. Trans. Elizabeth Loverde-Bagwell. New York: New York UP, 1990. Print. Accessed 1 October 2014]
  9. ^ [Stanford University. Gendered Innovations. http://genderedinnovations.stanford.edu/terms/feminism.html Accessed 3 October 2014]
  10. ^ [Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Women, pg 8. https://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext02/vorow10.txt Accessed 4 October 2014]
  11. ^ [Mills, John Stuart and Susan Moller Okin. The Subjection of Women. Hacking Publishing, 1998. (pg 1-127). http://books.google.com/books/about/The_subjection_of_women.html?id=PK_BGGCU_dsC Accessed 4 October 2014]
  12. ^ [Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Women, (pg 74-88). https://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext02/vorow10.txt Accessed 4 October 2014]
  13. ^ [John Stuart Mills (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 30 September 2014]
  14. ^ [Mills, John Stuart and Susan Moller Okin. The Subjection of Women. Hacking Publishing, 1998. (pg 56-79). http://books.google.com/books/about/The_subjection_of_women.html?id=PK_BGGCU_dsC Accessed 4 October 2014]
  15. ^ [Beauvoir, Simone De. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1949. Print.]
  16. ^ [Friedan, Betty. "The Feminine Mystique." The Essential Feminist Reader. Ed. Estelle B. Freedman. New York: Random House Group, 2007. N. pag. Print. Accessed 2 October 2014]
  17. ^ [Bromley,Victoria L. . (2012). Feminisms Matter: Debates. Theories. Activism. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press Inc. ISBN 978-1-4426-0500-8]

References

The main objection raised to equality feminism comes in the form of difference feminism, the belief that emphasizes the differences between men and women. This viewpoint, as championed by such feminists such as Carol Gilligan, Joan Tronto, Eva Feder Kittay, Genevieve Lloyd, Alison Jaggar, and Ynestra King, developed out of the rejection of the androgynous view of human nature as emphasized in equality feminism. Begun largely in the 1980s, this viewpoint makes the case that equality feminism fails to account for the uniquely female experience, and thus creates the male perspective as the dominant aspiration.[17]

Objections

It was through the impact of this piece of literature that women were finally given a voice to say it was okay to not want to conform to societal expectations and fight for equality of opportunities, choices, marriage, education, and voting. [16]

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