World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Estonian Sovereignty Declaration

Article Id: WHEBN0020248072
Reproduction Date:

Title: Estonian Sovereignty Declaration  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: History of Estonia, Independence Day (Estonia), Public holidays in Estonia, Estonia, 1988 in Estonia
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Estonian Sovereignty Declaration

The Estonian Sovereignty Declaration (Estonian: suveräänsusdeklaratsioon), fully: Declaration on the Sovereignty of the Estonian SSR (Deklaratsioon Eesti NSV suveräänsusest) was issued on November 16, 1988 [1] during the Singing Revolution in Estonia. The declaration asserted Estonia's sovereignty and the supremacy of the Estonian laws over the laws of the Soviet Union.[2] Estonia's parliament also laid claim to the republic's natural resources: land, inland waters, forests, mineral deposits and to the means of industrial production, agriculture, construction, state banks, transportation, municipal services, etc. in the territory of Estonia's borders.[2] November 16 is now celebrated annually as the "Day of Declaration of Sovereignty".

Estonia had gained independence in the aftermath of World War I and Estonian War of Independence (1918–1920). In 1940 as a consequence of the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact and its Secret Additional Protocol of August 1939 Estonia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.

The majority of Western nations refused to recognize the incorporation of the Estonia de jure by the Soviet Union and only recognized the government of Estonian SSR de facto or not at all.[3][4] Such countries recognized Estonian/Latvian/Lithuanian diplomats and consuls who still functioned in the name of their former governments. These aging diplomats persisted in this anomalous situation until the ultimate restoration of Baltic independence.[5]

In the 1980s new policies Perestroika and Glasnost were introduced and political repression in the Soviet Union came to an end. As the result during the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt the 20 August 1991 declaration proclaimed the reestablishment of the independent Estonian republic.[6] On September 6, 1991 the USSR recognized the independence of Estonia and the country was admitted to the UN on September 17.[7]

After more than 3 years of negotiations, on August 31, 1994, the armed forces of Russia withdrew from Estonia. The Russian Federation officially ended its military presence in Estonia after it relinquished control of the nuclear reactor facilities in Paldiski in September 1995. Estonia joined European Union in 2004, shortly after it became a member of NATO.

References

  1. ^ Frankowski, Stanisław; Paul B. Stephan (1995). Legal reform in post-communist Europe. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 84.  
  2. ^ a b Walker, Edward (2003). Dissolution. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 63.  
  3. ^ Talmon, Stefan (2001). Recognition of Governments in International Law. Oxford University Press. p. 103.  
  4. ^ Aust, Anthony (2005). Handbook of International Law. Cambridge University Press,. p. 26.  
  5. ^ Diplomats Without a Country: Baltic Diplomacy, International Law, and the Cold War by James T. McHugh , James S. Pacy, Page 2. ISBN 0-313-31878-6
  6. ^ Miljan, Toivo (2004). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Scarecrow Press.  
  7. ^ Europa Publications Limited (1999). Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States 1999. p. 333.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.