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Cited Eurosphere;
Dark blue: European Union
Light blue: Current enlargement agenda, including all Turkey (97% of the Turkish territory lies in Asia)[note 1] and North American territory Greenland, Autonomous area of Denmark.
Turquoise: European Neighbourhood: the rest of Europe, including all Russia (25% of Russia lies within Europe, occupying 40% of Europe's landmass; 78% of all Russians live in European Russia) and the countries outside Europe closely related to the European Union
Brown: ACP countries

The concept of the ‘Eurosphere’ or ‘European Empire[1]’ has grown in popularity in the early years of the 21st century, and is associated with the public intellectual Mark Leonard,[2] the academic at the University of Oxford, Jan Zielonka,[1] the strategist and European Union Director-General for Politico-Military Affairs, Robert Cooper;[3] and the President of the European Commission, José Manuel Barroso.[4]

Over the past 50 years, the European Union has expanded from the 6 founding members to 28, there are 8 candidate and potential candidate countries waiting to join. A number of western European countries are integrated economically, as part of the Union's single market or using its single currency. Through its High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy it has a capability to speak with one voice in the world and has association and free trade agreements with a large number of states, through the European Neighbourhood Policy and Union for the Mediterranean (developed from the Barcelona process) it is creating closer ties with those countries on its borders, while developed ties with former colonies, now the ACP countries.

Membership in particular has seen a great deal of reform in countries seeking to join; for example the huge reforms seen in Turkey such as the abolition of capital punishment.[5] The development of the Union's influence, and the draw of membership, has been the subject of a number of academic writings. For example Mark Leonard describes the area of EU influence as the Eurosphere.


  • Countries within the Eurosphere 1
  • Quotes 2
  • See also 3
  • Notes and References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6

Countries within the Eurosphere

According to Mark Leonard, the Eurosphere includes (what were in 2004) 109 countries. In Europe, these were the then-25 members, applicant countries, western Balkan countries and European CIS countries (including transcontinental countries such as Kazakhstan). Curiously he does not mention western European countries such as Norway who are integrated into the EU's single market. Outside Europe, he gives a blanket list of every African country and every Middle Eastern country, that is so the countries forming the eastern border of the Eurosphere are Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia and Kazakhstan.[6]

Other countries that could be said to be within the Eurosphere might include western European countries, such as those in the European Economic Area or using the euro, or the Union's overseas territories. Both these groups have strong economic links, through the afore mentioned relationships.


See also

Notes and References

  1. ^ Geographically, Turkey is only partly in Europe with 3 percent of its territory; it has 97 percent of its territory in Asia. Geography of Turkey
  1. ^ a b Zielonka, J. (2006), Europe as Empire, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
  2. ^ Leonard, M. (2005), Why Europe will run the 21st century, Fourth Estate: London.
  3. ^ Cooper, R. (2003), The Breaking of Nations, Atlantic Books: London.
  4. ^
  5. ^ EU-Turkey relations
  6. ^ Leonard, M. Why Europe will run the 21st century (2004, Fourth Estate). Appendix: p.145-146.

Further reading

External links

  • "The EU as a Regional Normative Hegemon: The Case of European Neighbourhood Policy"
  • Mahony, Honor (2007-07-11) Barroso says EU is an 'empire' EU Observer.
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