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Foreign relations of Peru

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Foreign relations of Peru

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Peru
Constitution

Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Fujimori’s tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru's relations with the United States and with many Latin American and European countries, but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001 after free and fair elections.

Peru is planning full integration into the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

Latin America

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina
 Chile See Chile–Peru relations

In November 1999, Peru and Chile signed three agreements which put to rest the remaining obstacles holding up implementation of the 1929 Treaty of Lima, which officially ended the 1879 War of the Pacific. In December 1999, President Alberto Fujimori made the first visit ever to Chile by a Peruvian head of state.

Relations between the two nations have since mostly recovered. In 2005, the Peruvian Congress unilaterally approved a law which increased the stated sea limit with Chile. This law superseded the Peruvian supreme decree 781 for same purpose from 1947, which had autolimited its maritime border to geographical parallels only. Peru's position was that the border has never been fully demarcated, but Chile disagreed reminding on treaties in 1952 and 1954 between the countries, which supposedly defined seaborder. The border problem has still not been solved. However, Chile's Michelle Bachelet and Peru's Alan García have established a positive diplomatic relationship, and it is very unlikely any hostilities will break out because of the dispute. Nevertheless, in early April 2007, Peruvian nationalistic sectors, mainly represented by left wing ex-presidential candidate Ollanta Humala decided to congregate at 'hito uno' right at the border with Chile, in a symbolic attempt to claim sovereignty over a maritime area known in Peru as Mar de Grau (Grau's Sea) just west of the Chilean city of Arica. Peruvian police stopped a group of nearly 2,000 people just 10 km from the border, preventing them from reaching their intended destination. Despite these incidents, the presidents of both Chile and Peru have confirmed their intentions to improve the relationships between the two countries, mainly fueled by the huge amount of commercial exchange between both countries' private sectors.

 Ecuador
  • In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed a peace accord which definitively resolved border differences which had, over the years, resulted in armed conflict. Peru and Ecuador are now jointly coordinating an internationally sponsored border integration project. The United States Government, as one of four guarantor states, was actively involved in facilitating the 1998 peace accord between Peru and Ecuador and remains committed to its implementation. The United States has pledged $40 million to the Peru-Ecuador border integration project and another $4 million to support Peruvian and Ecuadorian demining efforts along their common border.
  • In November 2009, Peru made an agreement with Ecuador in which Peru would export between 40 and 50 megawatts of electricity until April 2010 in order to help Ecuador with its energy crisis.[3] Rafael Correa, Ecuador's president, expressed his gratitude to Peru for its generous aid during Ecuador's energy crisis.[4]
 Mexico 1823

Peru and

 Paraguay
  • Paraguay has an embassy in Lima.[7]
  • Peru has an embassy in Asuncion.
  • Both countries are full members of the Union of South American Nations.[8]
  • Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about the relation with Paraguay (in Spanish only)
 Uruguay
  • Peru has an embassy in Montevideo.[9]
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Lima and an honorary consulate in Arequipa.
  • Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about relations with Uruguay (in Spanish only)

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bulgaria 1969 See Bulgaria–Peru relations
  • Peru closed its embassy in Sofia for economic reasons in 2003.
  • Peru is represented in Bulgaria through its embassy in Athens (Greece).
  • Bulgaria is represented in Peru through its embassy in Brasília (Brazil).[10]
  • Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about relations with Bulgaria (in Spanish only)
 Croatia 1993-01-12
  • Croatia is represented in Peru through its embassy in Santiago (Chile) and through an honorary consulate in Lima.
  • Peru is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and through an honorary consulate in Zagreb.
  • There are around 6,500 people of Croatian descent living in Peru. Most Croats arrived in Peru between the Interwar period.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Peru
 Denmark
 Finland 1963-01-25
  • Peru recognized Finland on June 23, 1919.
  • Peru has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Finland has an embassy in Lima and two honorary consulate in Arequipa and Cusco.
  • Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland about Peru
 Italy 1874-12-23 See Italy–Peru relations
 Russia
 Serbia 1967
  • Diplomatic relations between then Yugoslavia and Peru existed before the Second World War. They were renewed in 1967.
  • Peru has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Lima.[15]
  • Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about the relation with Serbia (in Spanish only)
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Peru
 Spain
 Sweden
  • Peru has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden is represented in Peru, through its embassy in Santiago, Chile. Sweden has a consulate in Lima.

Rest of World

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia

Australia is represented in Peru through its embassy in Lima. Peru has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney. Both countries have an expanding relationship in all areas. Australia is Peru's APEC ally. Relations are growing in not only trade but friendly relations between the people's of Australia and Peru. In 2004 Peruvian congress signed a Peru Australia friendship league. There are few memorandums of understanding signed between the two countries. Many Australian tourists visit Peru averaging 25,000 tourists a year from Australia. There are about 15,000 Peruvians in Australia.

 Canada
 Israel
  • Israel has an embassy in Lima.[21]
  • Peru has an embassy in Tel Aviv.[22]
  • Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about relations with Israel (in Spanish only)
 Palestine 2011-01-24
  • Peru recognized Palestine on 24 January 2011.[23]
 United States
  • The U.S. maintains an embassy in Lima, Peru. There is a U.S. Consular Agency in Cuzco, and the USAID building is located in Lima.

Illicit drugs

Until recently the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru has reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 24% to 387 km² at the end of 1999; most of cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia, Bolivia, and Brazil for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing by maritime conveyance to Mexico, US, and Europe.

See also

References

  1. ^ Embassy of Argentina in Lima (in Spanish)
  2. ^ Embassy of Peru in Buenos Aires (in Spanish)
  3. ^ http://www.peru.com/noticias/portada20091117/66697/Peru-exportara-energia-electrica-a-Ecuador-hasta-abril-de-2010
  4. ^ http://www.peru.com/economiayfinanzas/noticias20091114/66081/Presidente-de-Ecuador-Rafael-Correa-agradece-cooperacion-de-Peru-en-crisis-energetica-
  5. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Lima (in Spanish)
  6. ^ Embassy of Peru in Mexico City (in Spanish)
  7. ^ Paraguayan embassy in Lima (in Spanish only)
  8. ^ Peruvian embassy in Asuncion (in Spanish only)
  9. ^ Peruvian embassy in Montevideo (in Spanish only)
  10. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Brasilia (also accredited to Peru)
  11. ^ http://pe.embassyinformation.com/list.php
  12. ^ http://www.um.dk/da/menu/OmOs/Organisation/AmbassaderMv/Sydamerika/Peru.htm
  13. ^ Embassy of Italy in Lima (in Italian and Spanish)
  14. ^ Embassy of Peru in Rome (in Italian and Spanish)
  15. ^ Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: directions of Serbian embassy in Lima
  16. ^ Embassy of Peru in Madrid (in Spanish)
  17. ^ Embassy of Spain in Lima (in Spanish)
  18. ^ Canadian embassy in Lima
  19. ^ Peruvian embassy in Ottawa
  20. ^ Alexander Panetta, "Canada limits main foreign aid recipients to 20 countries", Canada East website (accessed 3 March2009)
  21. ^ Israeli embassy in Lima (in Hebrew and Spanish only)
  22. ^ Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations: direction of the Peruvian embassy in Tel Aviv
  23. ^ Government of Peru (24 January 2011). "Perú reconoce al Estado Palestino" (in Español). Ministry of Foreign Relations. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
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