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Fort Simpson

Fort Simpson
Liidli Kue
Village
Coat of arms of Fort Simpson
Coat of arms
Fort Simpson is located in Northwest Territories
Fort Simpson
Coordinates:
Country Canada
Territory Northwest Territories
Region Dehcho Region
Constituency Nahendeh
Census division Region 4
Settled 1803
Village 1822
Village (incorporated) 1 January 1973
Government
 • Mayor Sean Whelly
 • Senior Administrative Officer Dean Pickering
 • MLA Kevin Menicoche
Area[1]
 • Land 78.32 km2 (30.24 sq mi)
Elevation 169 m (554 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 1,238
 • Density 15.8/km2 (41/sq mi)
Time zone Mountain (MST) (UTC-7)
 • Summer (DST) MDT (UTC-6)
Canadian Postal code X0E 0N0
Area code(s) 867
Telephone exchange 695
- Living cost 137.5
- Food price index 125.1
Website www.fortsimpson.com
Sources:
Department of Municipal and Community Affairs,[2]
Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre,[3]
Canada Flight Supplement[4]
^A 2009 figure based on Edmonton = 100[5]
^B 2010 figure based on Yellowknife = 100[5]

Fort Simpson (Slavey language: Liidli Kue "place where rivers come together") is a village, the only one in the entire territory, in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The community is located on an island at the confluence of the Mackenzie and Liard Rivers. It is approximately 500 km (310 mi) west of Yellowknife. [6] Both rivers were traditionally trade routes for the Hudson's Bay Company and the native Dene people of the area.

Fort Simpson is the regional centre of the Dehcho and is the gateway to the scenic South Nahanni River and the Nahanni National Park Reserve. Fort Simpson can be reached by air, water and road and has full secondary and elementary school service. The Mackenzie Highway was extended to Fort Simpson in 1970-71.

The central section of the community is on an island near the south bank of the Mackenzie River, but industrial areas and rural residential areas are located along the highway as far as the Fort Simpson Airport, just beyond which is the Liard River ferry crossing.

Contents

  • Demographics 1
  • History 2
  • Culture 3
  • Climate 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Demographics

Population is 1,238 according to the 2011 Census, an increase of 1.8% over 2006.[1] According to the 2006 Census there were 1,216 people and 820 were Aboriginal. Of these the majority, 715, of the residents are First Nations and the main languages are South Slavey and English.[7] In 2012 the Government of the Northwest Territories reported that the population was 1,251 with an average yearly growth rate of 0.1% from 2001.[5]

History

Fort Simpson was first started as a fur trading site in 1803 then named Fort of the Forks. The Village of Fort Simpson was a permanent settlement in July 1822 when the Governor of Rupert's Land. Until 1910 Fort Simpson was "a company town", with some participation by the Anglican and Roman Catholic Missions. The Dene know it as Liidli Kue, meaning The place where the rivers come together.[8] It was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1969.[9]

Pope John Paul II attempted to visit the community in September 1984 as part of his Canadian tour, but was prevented from landing due to fog; in an address over the radio from Yellowknife, he promised to visit in the future. He did so in September 1987 near the end of the tour of the United States, making a side trip to Fort Simpson.

Culture

There are two main annual festivals which occur in Fort Simpson.

The first which is held in March is known as the "Beavertail Jamboree". This is a winter carnival which includes traditional games, snowmobile races, and talent shows.[10]

The other festival is the "Open Sky Festival" which is held annually on or around the July 1 long weekend ("Canada Day"). The Open Sky Festival is a multi-disciplinary arts festival which has occurred annually since 2001. Festival events include musical, theatrical, and other performances as well as traditional Dehcho Dene Crafts, visual arts, new media exhibitions, workshops, and demonstrations. The Open Sky festival is hosted by the Open Sky Creative Society, a multi-disciplinary arts organization serving artists working in the Dehcho region.[11]

The Dene of the community are represented by the Liidli Kue First Nation[12] and the Métis by Fort Simpson Métis Local 52.[13] Both groups belong to the Dehcho First Nations.[14]

Climate

Fort Simpson has a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) with long, cold winters and warm but short summers. July temperatures are unusually warm for such northerly areas, which demonstrates the extreme continental nature of the area's climate. However, the heat quickly turns into long and harsh winters when daylight hours turn drastically shorter. Transition seasons are extremely short, and the year is on average dominated by the winter and to a lesser extent, summer. The average monthly temperatures range from −24.2 °C (−11.6 °F) in January to 17.4 °C (63.3 °F) in July. Most of the precipitation falls during the summer months.

Climate data for Fort Simpson Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 12.0 13.9 15.0 26.4 31.8 35.8 41.3 39.7 32.2 24.0 11.3 14.0 41.3
Record high °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
14.4
(57.9)
16.1
(61)
25.5
(77.9)
32.8
(91)
33.9
(93)
36.6
(97.9)
35.4
(95.7)
30.0
(86)
24.9
(76.8)
12.2
(54)
14.5
(58.1)
36.6
(97.9)
Average high °C (°F) −19.8
(−3.6)
−15.3
(4.5)
−6.4
(20.5)
5.8
(42.4)
15.0
(59)
21.8
(71.2)
23.7
(74.7)
20.9
(69.6)
13.7
(56.7)
1.8
(35.2)
−11.5
(11.3)
−17.5
(0.5)
2.7
(36.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −24.2
(−11.6)
−20.6
(−5.1)
−13.0
(8.6)
−0.4
(31.3)
8.7
(47.7)
15.3
(59.5)
17.4
(63.3)
14.7
(58.5)
8.2
(46.8)
−2.0
(28.4)
−15.5
(4.1)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−2.8
(27)
Average low °C (°F) −28.5
(−19.3)
−25.9
(−14.6)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−6.7
(19.9)
2.2
(36)
8.8
(47.8)
11.2
(52.2)
8.5
(47.3)
2.6
(36.7)
−5.9
(21.4)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−25.9
(−14.6)
−8.2
(17.2)
Record low °C (°F) −50.0
(−58)
−53.3
(−63.9)
−42.2
(−44)
−38.3
(−36.9)
−17.5
(0.5)
−2.2
(28)
−1.1
(30)
−3.7
(25.3)
−20.6
(−5.1)
−27.7
(−17.9)
−41.7
(−43.1)
−50.6
(−59.1)
−53.3
(−63.9)
Record low wind chill −58.9 −54.8 −48.5 −44.3 −24.7 −5.5 −2.7 −4.9 −23.7 −35.5 −53.2 −59.6 −59.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.9
(0.744)
17.6
(0.693)
15.4
(0.606)
17.0
(0.669)
29.4
(1.157)
51.3
(2.02)
61.1
(2.406)
61.4
(2.417)
32.2
(1.268)
39.4
(1.551)
24.8
(0.976)
19.1
(0.752)
387.6
(15.26)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.2
(0.008)
0.0
(0)
0.1
(0.004)
2.5
(0.098)
21.0
(0.827)
51.2
(2.016)
61.1
(2.406)
60.9
(2.398)
28.5
(1.122)
12.9
(0.508)
0.1
(0.004)
0.0
(0)
238.6
(9.394)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 27.4
(10.79)
24.2
(9.53)
19.0
(7.48)
17.4
(6.85)
7.6
(2.99)
0.1
(0.04)
0.0
(0)
0.5
(0.2)
4.2
(1.65)
29.0
(11.42)
33.4
(13.15)
24.3
(9.57)
187.0
(73.62)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 10.9 10.6 9.4 5.6 8.8 11.3 12.1 11.0 10.6 11.8 12.0 10.7 124.7
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.2 0.1 0.2 1.0 7.1 11.3 12.1 11.0 9.8 4.2 0.2 0.0 57.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.1 2.7 3.5 3.2 1.3 0.8 0.0 0.0 12.8
Average relative humidity (%) 78.8 77.2 69.3 52.5 43.6 44.8 50.5 53.7 59.2 76.7 83.2 81.1 64.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.7 95.1 180.6 248.6 293.4 313.0 307.1 263.8 163.9 77.8 49.4 30.0 2,078.3
Percent possible sunshine 28.5 38.0 49.6 56.3 53.8 53.7 53.3 53.4 42.0 25.0 22.8 17.7 41.2
Source: Environment Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Fort Simpson, VL Northwest Territories (Census subdivision)
  2. ^ "NWT Communities - Fort Simpson".  
  3. ^ Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre - official names
  4. ^ Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 24 July 2014 to 0901Z 18 September 2014
  5. ^ a b c d Fort Simpson - Statistical Profile at the GNWT
  6. ^ "Harper announces expansion of N.W.T. park".  
  7. ^ 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile
  8. ^ Fort Simpson Historical Society
  9. ^ Fort Simpson National Historic Site of Canada. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  10. ^ Explore NWT - Beavertail Jamboree
  11. ^ Open Sky Creative Society
  12. ^ Liidli Kue First Nation
  13. ^ Fort Simpson Métis
  14. ^ Dehcho First Nations
  15. ^ "Fort Simpson A" (CSV (3069 KB)). Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010.  

External links

  • Official site
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