World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Freebase (chemistry)

Article Id: WHEBN0025532599
Reproduction Date:

Title: Freebase (chemistry)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Dimethyltryptamine, Nucleotide, Richard Pryor, History of Saturday Night Live (1975–80), Benzylpiperazine, Cryogenine, Manganism, Anadenanthera colubrina, Mitragynine, Evolution/Revolution
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Freebase (chemistry)

This article is about chemistry. For the free online database, see Freebase. For the music group, see Freebass.

Freebase or free base refers to the pure basic form of an amine, as opposed to its salt form. The amine is usually an alkaloid natural product. Free base is commonly used in organic chemistry and pharmaceuticals to describe the deprotonated amine form of a compound.

Most alkaloids are unstable in their pure form and exist in ionic salt form. The salts usually exhibit greater water solubility. Common counterions include chloride, bromide, acetate and oxalate. Because of the ubiquity of chloride salts, formed from the reaction of the amine with hydrochloric acid, these amine derivatives are known as the hydrochlorides. For example, compare the free base hydroxylamine (NH2OH) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH3OH+ Cl-).

The term "freebasing" means converting an ionic form into free base. It can refer to deprotonating the hydrochloride salt form of cocaine to free base form. The process provides for some merits of acid-base extraction. The free base is preferred for smoking because the evaporation point of the free base is further apart from the burning point compared to the hydrochloride salt, making the salt form more prone to destruction by pyrolysis. Some of the active drug is lost in the deprotonation process.

Freebasing can also refer to the consumption by smoking of free base cocaine (crack cocaine) or heroin. Freebasing became popular in the United States during the 1980s, mainly because of the fear of diseases such as HIV and viral hepatitis, since users did not have to share hypodermic needles.[1]

References

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.