World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Fusel alcohol

Article Id: WHEBN0000666105
Reproduction Date:

Title: Fusel alcohol  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of UN numbers 1201 to 1300, Amyl alcohol, Tafia, Lars Olsson Smith, Malt liquor
Collection: Alcohols, Flavors
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Fusel alcohol

Fusel alcohols, also sometimes called fusel oils or potato oil in Europe, are a mixture of several alcohols (chiefly amyl alcohol) produced as a by-product of alcoholic fermentation.[1] The word fusel is German for "bad liquor".[2]

Whether fusel alcohol contributes or not to hangover symptoms is a matter of scientific debate. A Japanese study in 2003 concluded, "The fusel oil in whisky had no effect on the ethanol-induced emetic response" in Suncus murinus. Additionally, consumption of fusel oils with ethanol suppressed subjects' subsequent taste aversion to alcohol, which suggested subjects' hangover symptoms were lessened, according to the journal.[3]

Contents

  • Classification 1
    • Hazardous alcohols 1.1
    • Alcohol faults 1.2
    • Aroma alcohols 1.3
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Classification

Hazardous alcohols

  • Methanol (methyl alcohol), while poisonous (LD50 5628 mg/kg, oral, rat[4]), has a much weaker sedative effect than ethanol.
  • Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol), oxidized to form acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver, has occasionally been abused by alcoholics, leading to a range of adverse health effects.[5][6]

Alcohol faults

Aroma alcohols

Excessive concentrations of some alcohols other than ethanol may cause off-flavors, sometimes described as "spicy", "hot", or "solvent-like". Some beverages, such as rum, whisky (especially Bourbon), incompletely rectified vodka (e.g. Siwucha), and traditional ales and ciders, are expected to have relatively high concentrations of non-hazardous alcohols as part of their flavor profile. However, in other beverages, such as Korn, vodka, and lagers, the presence of other alcohols than ethanol is considered a fault.[7]

The compounds involved are chiefly:[8]

During distillation, fusel alcohols are concentrated in the feints or "tails" at the end of the distillation run. They have an oily consistency, which is noticeable to the distiller, hence the other name "fusel oil". If desired, these heavier alcohols can be almost completely separated in a reflux still. Freeze distillation, on the other hand, does not remove fusel alcohols.

Fusel alcohols are formed when fermentation occurs:

  • at higher temperatures
  • at lower pH
  • when yeast activity is limited by low nitrogen content

See also

References

  1. ^ http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/fusel%2Boil
  2. ^ Hazelwood, Lucie A.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Pronk, Jack T.; Dickinson, J. Richard (2008). metabolism"Saccharomyces cerevisiae"The Ehrlich pathway for fusel alcohol production: a century of research on . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74 (8): 2259–66.  .
  3. ^ Hori H, Fujii W, Hatanaka Y, Suwa Y. (Aug 27, 2003). "Effects of fusel oil on animal hangover models.". Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 27 (8 Suppl): 37S–41S.  
  4. ^ http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/
  5. ^ Wiernikowski A, Piekoszewski W, Krzyzanowska-Kierepka E, Gomułka E (1997). "Acute oral poisoning with isopropyl alcohol in alcoholics". Przeglad lekarski 54 (6): 459–63.  
  6. ^ Mańkowski W, Klimaszyk D, Krupiński B (2000). "How to differentiate acute isopropanol poisoning from ethanol intoxication? -- a case report". Przeglad lekarski 57 (10): 588–90.  
  7. ^ Aroma of Beer, Wine and Distilled Alcoholic Beverages
  8. ^ MERCK INDEX (10th ed.). 1983. 

External links

  •  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.