World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0043475198
Reproduction Date:

Title: Gaccha  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Tristutik Gaccha, WikiProject Missing encyclopedic articles/Hot/G, Jain sects, Mundra, Nandavarta
Collection: Jain Sects
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Gaccha, alternatively spelled as Gachchha, is a monastic order, along with lay followers, of image worshipping Murtipujaka Svetambara sect of Jainism. The term is also used in the Digambara sect.


  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Former 84 Gacchas 2.1
    • Present Gacchas 2.2
  • References 3


Gaccha literally means "who travel together".[1]


According to Jain tradition, in the first century, Vajrasensuri established four Kulas, subdivisions within Swetambara Murtipujaka Jain community, to divide the community during time of drought to disperse them. They were: Chandra, Nirvriti, Vidyadhar and Nagendra. During 1000 to 1300 CE, the Gaccha replaced these Kula as basic divisions of community.

Although some 84 separate gacchas have appeared since the 7th–8th century, only a few have survived, such as the Kharatara (located mainly in Rajasthan), the Tapa, the Achala, the Paichand or Pashwachandra, the Vimal and the Tristutik Gaccha. While the gacchas do not differ from one another in matters of doctrine, they do differ on issues of practice, in particular those practices relating to the sacred calendar and to ritual. The various gacchas also trace their descent through different lineages.

Former 84 Gacchas

The number of 84 Gacchas is still spoken of by the Jains, but the lists that have been hitherto published are very discordant. The following was obtained from a member of the sect as being their recognized list,--and allowing for differences of spelling, nearly every name may be recognised in those previously published by Mr. H. G. Briggs or Colonel Miles.[2]

The eighty four Gacchas of the Jains:[3]

  1. ? *†
  2. Osvâla*†
  3. Âṅchala*
  4. Jirâvalâ*†
  5. Khaḍatara or Kharatara
  6. Lonkâ or Richmati*†
  7. Tapâ*†
  8. Gaṁgeśvara*†
  9. Koraṇṭavâla†
  10. Ânandapura†
  11. Bharavalî
  12. Uḍhavîyâ*†
  13. Gudâvâ*†
  14. Dekâüpâ or Dekâwâ*†
  15. Bh nmâlâ†
  16. Mahuḍîyâ*†
  17. Gachhapâla*†
  18. Goshavâla†
  19. Magatragagadâ†
  20. Vṛihmânîyâ†
  21. Tâlârâ*†
  22. Vîkaḍîyâ*†
  23. Muñjhîyâ*†
  24. Chitroḍâ†
  25. Sâchorâ*†
  26. Jachaṇḍîyâ†
  27. Sîdhâlavâ*†
  28. Mîyâṇṇîyâ
  29. Âgamîyâ†
  30. Maladhârî*†
  31. Bhâvarîyâ†
  32. Palîvâla*†
  33. Nâgadîgeśvara†
  34. Dharmaghosha†
  35. Nâgapurâ*†
  36. Uchatavâla†
  37. Nâṇṇâvâla*†
  38. Sâḍerâ*†
  39. Maṇḍovarâ*†
  40. Śurâṇî*†
  41. Khaṁbhâvatî*†
  42. Pâëchaṁda
  43. Sopârîyâ*†
  44. Mâṇḍalîyâ*†
  45. Kochhîpanâ*†
  46. Jâgaṁna*†
  47. Lâparavâla*†
  48. Vosaraḍâ*†
  49. Düîvaṅdanîyâ*†
  50. Chitrâvâla*†
  51. Vegaḍâ
  52. Vâpaḍâ
  53. Vîjaharâ, Vîjharâ*†
  54. Kâüpurî†
  55. Kâchala
  56. Haṁdalîyâ†
  57. Mahukarâ†
  58. Putaliyâ*†
  59. Kaṁnarîsey†
  60. Revarḍi̐yâ*†
  61. Dhandhukâ†
  62. Thaṁbhanîpaṇâ*
  63. Paṁchîvâla†
  64. Pâlaṇpurâ*
  65. Gaṁdhârîyâ*†
  66. Velîyâ†
  67. Sâḍhapunamîyâ
  68. Nagarakoṭîyâ*†
  69. Hâsorâ*†
  70. Bhaṭanerâ*†
  71. Jaṇaharâ*†
  72. Jagâyana*
  73. Bhîmasena*†
  74. Takaḍîyâ†
  75. Kaṁboja*†
  76. Senatâ†
  77. Vagherâ*†
  78. Vaheḍîyâ*
  79. Siddhapura*†
  80. Ghogharî*†
  81. Nîgamîyâ
  82. Punamîyâ
  83. Varhaḍîyâ†
  84. Nâmîlâ.†

Present Gacchas

Tapa Gaccha was founded by Jagatchandrasuri in Vikram Samvat 1285 (1229 CE). He was given the title of "Tapa" (i.e., the meditative one) by the ruler of Mewar. It was a branch of the Brihad Gaccha founded by Udyotan Suri. Vijaydevsuri (1600–1657 AD) is considered one of major leader of lineage. They reformed monastic order of Svetambara Jainism. As a result of this reform, most Svetambara Jain monks today belong to Tapa Gaccha.[1]

Kharatara Gaccha was founded by Vardhamana Suri[4] (till 1031). His teacher was a temple-dwelling monk. He rejected him because of not following texts.[5][4] His pupil, Jineshvara, got honorary title 'Kharatara' (Sharp witted or Fierce) because he defeated Suracharya, leader of Chaityavasis in public debate in 1023 at Anahilvada Patan. So the Gaccha got his title. Another tradition regards Jinadatta Suri (1075-1154) as a founder of Gaccha.[4]

Tristutik Gaccha was founded by Acharya Rajendrasuri in 1194 AD ( Vikram Samvat 1250.)


  1. ^ a b John E. Cort (22 March 2001). Jains in the World : Religious Values and Ideology in India: Religious Values and Ideology in India. Oxford University Press. pp. 42–44.  
  2. ^ "On the Indian Sect of the Jainas by Georg Bühler (Public Domain text)". Project Gutenberg. April 2004. Retrieved 16 June 2015. 
  3. ^ Those names marked * are found in Col. Miles's list Tr. R. A. S. vol. III, pp. 358 f. 363, 365, 370. Those marked † are included in H. G. Brigg's list,--Cities of Gujarashtra, p. 339.
  4. ^ a b c Glasenapp, Helmuth (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 389.  
  5. ^ "Overview of world religions-Jainism-Kharatara Gaccha". Division of Religion and Philosophy, University of Cumbria. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.