World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Geography of Myanmar

Article Id: WHEBN0000020388
Reproduction Date:

Title: Geography of Myanmar  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Internal conflict in Myanmar, LGBT history in Myanmar, List of volcanoes in Myanmar, Geography of Asia, Outline of Asia
Collection: Geography of Myanmar
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Geography of Myanmar

Geography of Burma
Continent Asia
Region Southeast Asia
Area Ranked 39th
 • Total 676,578 km2 (261,228 sq mi)
 • Land 96.94%
 • Water 3.06%
Coastline 1,930 km (1,200 mi)
Borders Total land borders:
5876 km (3651.18 miles)
193 km (120 mi)
People's Republic of China:
2,185 km (1,358 mi)
1,463 km (909 mi)
235 km (146 mi)
1,800 km (1,100 mi)
Highest point Hkakabo Razi
5881 m (19,294.62 ft)
Lowest point Andaman Sea
0 m (0 ft)
(sea level)
Longest river Ayeyarwady River
Largest lake Indawgyi Lake
Hundreds of active fires burning across the hills and valleys of Myanmar Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam (labelled with red dots).

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (also known as Burma) is the northwestern-most country on the mainland of southeast Asia. It is strategically located near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes.


  • Climate 1
  • Mountains 2
    • Main peaks 2.1
  • Rivers 3
  • Maritime claims 4
    • Islands 4.1
  • Land use and natural resources 5
  • Natural hazards 6
  • Environment 7
    • Environment - international agreements 7.1
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10


Tropical monsoon in the lowlands below 2,000 m (6,562 ft); cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April). Climate varies in the highlands depending on elevation; subtropical temperate climate at around 2,500 m (8,202 ft), temperate at 3,000 m (9,843 ft), cool, alpine at 3,500 m (11,483 ft) and above the alpine zone, cold, harsh tundra and Arctic climate. The higher elevations are subject to heavy snowfall and bad weather.


Burma is characterized by its central lowlands with the Sittaung Valley and Chindwin Valley and the small mountain ranges of Zeebyu Taungdan, Min-wun Taungdan, Hman-kin Taungdan and Gangaw Taungdan as well as the Bago Yoma.[1] The Central Valley Region is ringed by steep, rugged highlands, with the country's highest point at the 5,881 m (19,295 ft) Hkakabo Razi located in the northern end of the country. This mountain is part of a series of parallel ranges that run from the foothills of the Himalaya through the border areas with Assam, Nagaland and Mizoram. The Arakan Mountains in the west run from Manipur into western Burma southwards through Rakhine State almost to Cape Negrais in the shores of the Bay of Bengal. The Arakan Range includes the Naga Hills, the Chin Hills, and the Patkai range which includes the Lushai Hills.[2] Mountain ranges in the southern end of the Hengduan System form the border between Burma and China.

The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) as priorities for conservation.[5] Southern Burma consists largely of the western slopes of the Bilauktaung, the highest part of the Tenasserim Range, which extends southwards forming the central range of the Malay Peninsula.[6]

Main peaks


The Irrawaddy, the main river of Burma, flows from north to south through the Central Burma Basin and ends in a wide delta. The Mekong runs from the Tibetan Plateau through China's Yunnan province entering Northeastern Burma into Laos.

In the east the Salween and the Sittaung River run along the western side of the Shan Hills and the northern end of the Dawna Range. In the narrow southeastern part of Burma, the Ye, Heinze, Dawei (Tavoy), Great Tenasserim (Tanintharyi) and the Lenya rivers are relatively short and flow into the Andaman Sea. Further south the Kraburi River forms the southern border between Thailand and Burma.[7]

Maritime claims

contiguous zone: 24 nmi (27.6 mi; 44.4 km)
continental shelf: 200 nmi (230.2 mi; 370.4 km) or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi (230.2 mi; 370.4 km)


Land use and natural resources

Burma has petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, and hydropower.
Arable land 14.92%
Permanent crops 1.31%
Other land 83.77% (2005)
Irrigated land 18,700 km² (2003)
Total renewable water resources: 1,045.6 km3 (251 cu mi) (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal, total (domestic/industrial/agricultural) total: 33.23 km3/a (7.97 cu mi/a) (1%/1%/98%)
Freshwater withdrawal, per capita 658 km3/a (158 cu mi/a) (2000)

Natural hazards

Destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts


Deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

See also


  1. ^ Myanmar in brief
  2. ^ "Rakhine Mountains" Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ Loi Pangnao (mountain) - Region: Shan State, Myanmar
  4. ^ Kayah Karen Tenasserim Ecoregion
  5. ^ "Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. 
  6. ^ An Introduction to Burma (Myanmar)
  7. ^ Avijit Gupta, The Physical Geography of Southeast Asia, Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-924802-5

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.

External links

  • Ramsar - Burma
  • Burma - Geography
  • The Geology of Burma (Myanmar)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.