World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Geology of Indonesia

 

Geology of Indonesia

Geologic map

This is a brief summary of the 'geology of Indonesia' .

Contents

  • Tectonics 1
  • Structural Geology 2
  • Stratigraphy 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Tectonics

The tectonics of Indonesia are very complex, as it is a meeting point of several tectonic plates. Indonesia is located between two continental plates: the Eurasian Plate (Sunda Plate) and Australian Plate (Sahul Shelf); and between two oceanic plates: the Philippine Sea Plate and Pacific Plate. The subduction of the Indian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate formed the volcanic arc in western Indonesia, one of the most seismically active areas on the planet with a long history of powerful eruptions and earthquakes. This chain of active volcanoes formed Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Nusa Tenggara islands, most of which, particularly Java and Bali, emerged within the last 2-3 million years. The Pacific and Australian plate movements controlled the tectonics of the eastern portion of Indonesia.

A simplified map of the geological structures of Indonesia

Structural Geology

The tectonics processes in Indonesia formed major structures in Indonesia. The most prominent fault in the west of Indonesia is the Semangko Fault or the Great Sumatran Fault, a dextral strike-slip fault along Sumatra Island (about 1900 km). The formation of this fault zone is related to the subduction zone in the west of Sumatra.

Palu-Koro fault is another major structural feature formed in the central part of Indonesia. This fault runs across the central part of Sulawesi Island and extends offshore to the west across Makassar Strait and ends in the Mangkalihat Peninsula in Borneo. The fault is named after the capital city of Central Sulawesi, Palu, on the west coast of Sulawesi and the Koro River, which is formed by the fault zone.

Sorong fault is a significant left lateral fault in the eastern part of Indonesia, named after Sorong City. It has east-west orientation and extends from the northern part of West Papua to East Sulawesi for about 2000 km.

Stratigraphy

The stratigraphy of the western part of Indonesia is dominated by Cenozoic age formations, ranging from Paleogene to Quaternary. Minor Mesozoic and Paleozoic formations were found in places. Devonian limestones were found in Telen River, East Kalimantan, as fragments within Paleogene clastic sediments.

Eastern Indonesia has generally older stratigraphy compared to the western part. The stratigraphy ranges from Permian to Tertiary. Ichthyosaur fossils were found in the mud volcanoes in Kai Island, indicating Mesozoic deposition in the subsurface (Charlton, 1992). Mesozoic macro fossils were studied in Misool Island by Fauzie Hasibuan (1996)

Summary map of the distribution of key Paleozoic and Mesozoic outcrops in Indonesia

References

  • Bemmelen, R. W. van (Reinout Willem van) The Geology of Indonesia The Hague : Govt. Printing Office, 1949. 2 volumes.
  • Charlton, T., 2004, The petroleum potential of inversion anticlines in the Banda Arc, AAPG Bulletin, V. 88, No. 5 (May 2004), P. 565-585.
  • Darman, H. & Sidi, H. (eds.), 2000, An Outline of the Geology of Indonesia, Indonesian Geologists Association publication.
  • Hasibuan F., 2012, Mesozoic Geology and Paleontology of Misool Archipelago, Eastern Indonesia, Geological Agency, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Republic of Indonesia.

External links

  • Seismic Atlas of SE Asia Basins
  • The Geology of Indonesia: Wikibook Edition (online)
  • IAGI, Ikatan Ahli Geologi Indonesia (the Indonesian Association of Geologists)
  • FOSI, Forum Sedimentologiwan Indonesia (the Indonesian Sedimentologists Forum)
  • Badan Geologi (Geological Survey) Indonesia
  • Indonesian Geology - Bibliography
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.