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Title: Hmgb2  
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Subject: Transcription factors, NeuroD, EMX homeogene, HOXC8, HOXD8
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High mobility group box 2

PDB rendering based on 1ckt.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols  ; HMG2
External IDs GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

High-mobility group protein B2 also known as high-mobility group protein 2 (HMG-2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMGB2 gene.[1][2]


  • Function 1
  • References 2
  • Further reading 3
  • External links 4


This gene encodes a member of the non-histone chromosomal high-mobility group protein family. The proteins of this family are chromatin-associated and ubiquitously distributed in the nucleus of higher eukaryotic cells. In vitro studies have demonstrated that this protein is able to efficiently bend DNA and form DNA circles. These studies suggest a role in facilitating cooperative interactions between cis-acting proteins by promoting DNA flexibility. This protein was also reported to be involved in the final ligation step in DNA end-joining processes of DNA double-strand breaks repair and V(D)J recombination.[2]


  1. ^ Majumdar A, Brown D, Kerby S, Rudzinski I, Polte T, Randhawa Z, Seidman MM (Jan 1992). "Sequence of human HMG2 cDNA". Nucleic Acids Res 19 (23): 6643.  
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: HMGB2 high-mobility group box 2". 

Further reading

  • Alexandre S, Li WW, Lee AS (1993). "A human HMG2 cDNA with a novel 3'-untranslated region.". Nucleic Acids Res. 20 (23): 6413.  
  • Shirakawa H, Yoshida M (1992). "Structure of a gene coding for human HMG2 protein.". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (10): 6641–5.  
  • Bernués J, Espel E, Querol E (1986). "Identification of the core-histone-binding domains of HMG1 and HMG2.". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 866 (4): 242–51.  
  • Zwilling S, König H, Wirth T (1995). "High mobility group protein 2 functionally interacts with the POU domains of octamer transcription factors.". EMBO J. 14 (6): 1198–208.  
  • Shykind BM, Kim J, Sharp PA (1995). "Activation of the TFIID-TFIIA complex with HMG-2.". Genes Dev. 9 (11): 1354–65.  
  • Paull TT, Haykinson MJ, Johnson RC (1993). "The nonspecific DNA-binding and -bending proteins HMG1 and HMG2 promote the assembly of complex nucleoprotein structures.". Genes Dev. 7 (8): 1521–34.  
  • Wanschura S, Schoenmakers EF, Huysmans C, et al. (1997). "Mapping of the human HMG2 gene to 4q31.". Genomics 31 (2): 264–5.  
  • Nagaki S, Yamamoto M, Yumoto Y, et al. (1998). "Non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and 2 enhance ligation reaction of DNA double-strand breaks.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 246 (1): 137–41.  
  • Boonyaratanakornkit V, Melvin V, Prendergast P, et al. (1998). "High-mobility group chromatin proteins 1 and 2 functionally interact with steroid hormone receptors to enhance their DNA binding in vitro and transcriptional activity in mammalian cells.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (8): 4471–87.  
  • Yumoto Y, Shirakawa H, Yoshida M, et al. (1998). "High mobility group proteins 1 and 2 can function as DNA-binding regulatory components for DNA-dependent protein kinase in vitro.". J. Biochem. 124 (3): 519–27.  
  • Aidinis V, Bonaldi T, Beltrame M, et al. (2000). "The RAG1 homeodomain recruits HMG1 and HMG2 to facilitate recombination signal sequence binding and to enhance the intrinsic DNA-bending activity of RAG1-RAG2.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (10): 6532–42.  
  • Butteroni C, De Felici M, Schöler HR, Pesce M (2001). "Phage display screening reveals an association between germline-specific transcription factor Oct-4 and multiple cellular proteins.". J. Mol. Biol. 304 (4): 529–40.  
  • Stros M, Ozaki T, Bacikova A, et al. (2002). "HMGB1 and HMGB2 cell-specifically down-regulate the p53- and p73-dependent sequence-specific transactivation from the human Bax gene promoter.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (9): 7157–64.  
  • Fan Z, Beresford PJ, Zhang D, Lieberman J (2002). "HMG2 interacts with the nucleosome assembly protein SET and is a target of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protease granzyme A.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (8): 2810–20.  
  • Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A (2002). "Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners.". FEBS Lett. 517 (1-3): 167–71.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903.  
  • Fan Z, Beresford PJ, Zhang D, et al. (2003). "Cleaving the oxidative repair protein Ape1 enhances cell death mediated by granzyme A.". Nat. Immunol. 4 (2): 145–53.  
  • Lv X, Xu DD, Liu DP, et al. (2003). "High-mobility group protein 2 may be involved in the locus control region regulation of the beta-globin gene cluster.". Biochem. Cell Biol. 80 (6): 765–70.  
  • Pallier C, Scaffidi P, Chopineau-Proust S, et al. (2004). "Association of chromatin proteins high mobility group box (HMGB) 1 and HMGB2 with mitotic chromosomes.". Mol. Biol. Cell 14 (8): 3414–26.  

External links

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