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HMS Resolution (1771)

Resolution and Adventure with fishing craft in Matavai Bay by William Hodges, painted 1776, shows the two ships at anchor in Tahiti in August 1773.
History
Great Britain
Name: HMS Resolution
Builder: Fishburn, Whitby
Launched: 1770
Acquired: November 1771 as Marquis of Granby[1]
Renamed:
  • Renamed HMS Drake in November 1771
  • Renamed HMS Resolution on 25 December 1771
Captured: By the French on 10 June 1782
Fate: contradictory sources
General characteristics
Class & type: ex-mercantile collier
Tons burthen: 462 tons
Length:
  • 110 ft 8 in (33.73 m) overall
  • 93 ft 6 in (28.50 m) keel
Beam: 30 ft 6 in (9.30 m)
Draught: 13 ft 1 in (3.99 m)
Propulsion: Sails
Complement: 112, including 20 marines[2]
Armament:
  • 12 × 6pdrs
  • 12 × ½pdr swivels

HMS Resolution was a sloop of the Royal Navy, a converted merchant collier purchased by the Navy and adapted, in which Captain James Cook made his second and third voyages of exploration in the Pacific. She impressed him enough that he called her "the ship of my choice", and "the fittest for service of any I have seen."

Contents

  • Purchase and refitting 1
  • Cook's Second voyage 2
  • Cook's Third voyage 3
  • Later service and loss 4
  • See also 5
  • Notes 6
    • Citations 6.1
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8

Purchase and refitting

Resolution began her career as the George.

Cook's Second voyage

Resolution departed Sheerness on 21 June 1772, carrying 118 people, including 20 volunteers who had sailed on Cook's first voyage in HMS Endeavour in 1768–1771,[4] and two years of provisions.[5] She joined HMS Adventure at Plymouth and the two ships departed English waters on 13 July 1772.

Resolution's first port of call was at Funchal in the Madeira Islands, which she reached on August 1. Cook gave high praise to her sailing qualities in a report to the Admiralty from Funchal Roads, writing that she "steers, works, sails well and is remarkably stiff and seems to promise to be a dry and very easy ship in the sea."[6] The ship was reprovisioned with fresh water, beef, fruit and onions, and after a further provisioning stop in the Cape Verde Islands two weeks later, set sail due south toward the Cape of Good Hope. Several of the crew had brought monkeys aboard as pets, but Cook had them thrown overboard to prevent their droppings from fouling the ship.[6]

On his first voyage Cook had calculated longitude by the usual method of lunars but on her second voyage the Board of Longitude sent a highly qualified astronomer, William Wales, with Cook and entrusted him with a new marine chronometer, the K1, recently completed by Larcum Kendall, together with three chronometers made by John Arnold. Kendall's K1 was remarkably accurate and was to prove to be most efficient in determining longitude on board Resolution.

On 17 January 1773, Resolution was the first ship to cross the Antarctic Circle and crossed twice more on the voyage. The third crossing, on 3 February 1774, was the most southerly penetration, reaching latitude 71°10′ South at longitude 106°54′ West. Resolution thus proved Alexander Dalrymple's Terra Australis Incognita to be a myth.[7] She returned to Britain in 1775 and was then paid off.

Cook's Third voyage

She was recommissioned in February 1776 for Cook's third voyage, which began on 12 July 1776, departing from Plymouth, England, during which Resolution crossed the Arctic Circle on 17 August 1778, and again crossed it on 19 July 1779, under the command of Charles Clerke after Cook's death. She arrived back in Britain on 4 October 1780.

Later service and loss

In 1780, Resolution was converted into an armed transport and sailed for the East Indies in March 1781. She was captured by the Sphinx and Annibal of de Suffren's (French) squadron on 9 June 1782. After the action at Negapatam on 6 July 1782, Resolution was sent to Manila for wood, biscuit and rigging, and to press any seaman she found there. She sailed on 22 July 1782 and was never seen again.

On 5 June 1783 de Suffren wrote that Resolution had last been seen in the Viscount Galway, a Governor-General of New Zealand, owned a ship's figurehead described as that of Resolution, but a photograph of it does not agree with the figurehead depicted in Holman's famous watercolour of her.

Alternatively, in 1789 she may have been renamed Général Conway, in November 1790 Amis Réunis, and in 1792 Liberté.[8] Martin Dugard's biography of Cook, Farther Than Any Man, published in 2001, states: "Her fate, by some cruel twist of historical irony, is as incredible as Endeavour‍ '​s – she [Resolution] was sold to the French, rechristened La Liberte, and transformed into a whaler, then ended her days rotting in Newport Harbor. She settled to the bottom just a mile from Endeavour." (p. 281, Epilogue)

However, there is a report from 1881, that the British Consul in Alexandria looking from the Ras el-Tin Palace pointed out the Resolution in the harbour to William N. Armstrong who attended the Hawaiian King David Kalākaua during his trip around the world.[9]

See also

Notes

^[a] Provisions loaded at the outset of the voyage included 60,000 pounds of hardtack, 7,637 pieces of salted beef and 14,200 pieces of pork, 1,900 pounds of suet, 3,102 pounds of raisins, 300 gallons of oatmeal, 210 gallons of olive oil and 2,000 pounds of sugar. Antiscorbutic supplies comprised 640 gallons of malt, 20,000 pounds of sauerkraut, 4000 pounds of salted cabbage, 400 pounds of mustard and 30 gallons of carrot marmalade. Alcohol supplies included 19 tons of beer and 642 gallons of wine.[4][10]

Citations

  1. ^ Hough 1995, p. 219
  2. ^ Beaglehole 1959, pp. 3–5
  3. ^ "'"Log book of HMS 'Resolution. Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Hough 1995, pp. 235–236
  5. ^ Beaglehole 1959, p. 15
  6. ^ a b Hough 1995, p. 239
  7. ^ Wales, William. "'"Log book of HMS 'Resolution. Cambridge Digital Library. Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  8. ^ Demerliac (1996), p.104, #725.
  9. ^ William N Armstrong: Around the world with a king. New York 1904, pp. 193, 194, 196
  10. ^ Beaglehole 1959, p.13

Bibliography

  •  
  •  
  • Dugard, Martin (2001) Farther Than Any Man The Rise and Fall of Captain James Cook, Washington Square Press. ISBN 978-0-7434-0069-5
  • Hough, Richard (1995). Captain James Cook. Hodder and Stoughton.  
  • Paine, Lincoln P (1997) Ships of the World: an Historical Encyclopedia, Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-71556-7
  • Winfield, Rif, British Warships of the Age of Sail 1714–1792: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates, pub Seaforth, 2007, ISBN 1-86176-295-X

External links

  • Digitised copies of the original logs of HMS Resolution, British Atmospheric Data Centre/The National Archives as part of the CORRAL project
  • Digitised logbook kept by William Wales, an astronomer, during the 1772–1775 voyage
  • ResolutionThe (Captain Cook Society)

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