World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Half tower

Article Id: WHEBN0045076474
Reproduction Date:

Title: Half tower  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Fortified towers by type, Breastwork (fortification), Ricetto, Stockade, Hornwork
Collection: Castle Architecture, City Walls, Fortified Towers by Type, Types of Gates
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Half tower

Half tower in the town walls of Freiburg im Üechtland
The Porte d'Orange in Carpentras, a town gate built as a half tower

A half tower (sometimes half-tower) or open tower[1] (German: Schalenturm, Halbschalenturm or Schanzturm) is a fortified stone tower in an external wall or castle enceinte that is open, or only lightly constructed, at the rear. Towers of this type were used, for example, in city walls. City gates can also be incorporated into a type of half tower.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Examples 2
  • References 3
  • Literature 4
  • External links 5

Description

Unlike closed towers, which were fully enclosed by walls, half towers were open on the inside, typically the side facing the city or the inner bailey of a castle. On this side a wooden railing was constructed on the individual floors in order to stop people or objects from falling off. Sometimes the open side was sealed with wooden planking or weaker timber framed walls. Towers that are fully open at the top and rear may be called open towers, whilst those which are only open on the lower floors (i.e. the top floor is walled and roofed) may be described as "partially open towers".[1]

The majority of half towers were semi-circular in plan, but there were also some with a rectangular plan.

Examples

Semi-circular half towers

City or town wall towers

Rectangular half towers

Town wall towers in

References

  1. ^ a b Kaufmann, J.E. and Kaufmann, H.W. (2001). The Medieval Fortress. Castles, Forts and Walled Cities of the Middle Ages, Da Capo, Cambridge, MA, p. 27. ISBN 978-0-306-81358-0.

Literature

  • Carl Rhoen (1894) (in German), Die Befestigungswerke der freien Reichsstadt Aachen, Aachen: Verlag von Anton Creutzer, pp. 18f  (Online version, pdf, 6.61MB)

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.