World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Hard-paste porcelain

Article Id: WHEBN0001862953
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hard-paste porcelain  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: French porcelain, Porcelain, Ceramic art, Double Peacock Dinner Service, Meissen porcelain
Collection: Ceramic Materials, German Pottery, History of Ceramics, Porcelain
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Hard-paste porcelain

Porcelain dish, Chinese Qing, 1644 - 1911, Hard-paste decorated in underglaze cobalt blue V&A Museum no. 491-1931[1] Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Hard-paste porcelain is a ceramic material that was originally made from a compound of the feldspathic rock petuntse and kaolin fired at very high temperature. It was first made in China around the 7th or 8th century.[2]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Characteristics 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

History

Chinese porcelain began to be exported to Europe by the Portuguese and later by the Dutch from the middle of the 16th century, creating vast demand for the material. The discovery in Europe of the secret of its manufacture has conventionally been credited to Johann Friedrich Böttger of Meissen, Germany in 1708,[3] but it has also been claimed that English manufacturers[4] or Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus produced porcelain first.[5][6] Certainly, the Meissen factory, established 1710, was the first to produce porcelain in Europe in large quantities and since the recipe was kept a trade secret by Böttger for his company, experiments continued elsewhere throughout Europe.

Section of the letter of François Xavier d'Entrecolles about Chinese porcelain manufacturing techniques, 1712, published by Jean-Baptiste du Halde in 1735.
French porcelain factory, 1771.
Comte de Milly's L'art de la porcelaine, 1771.

In 1712, the French Jesuit François Xavier d'Entrecolles described the Chinese process of manufacturing porcelain in his letters to Europe. In 1771, the comte de Milly published L'art de la porcelaine, a detailed account of the processes of creating hard-paste porcelain, ending its prestige as a rare and valuable material.[7]

Hard-paste, or just hard porcelain, now chiefly refers to formulations prepared from mixtures of kaolin, feldspar and quartz. Other raw materials can also be used and these include pottery stones, which historically were known as petunse although this name has long fallen out of use.[8]

Characteristics

Hard-paste porcelain is now differentiated from soft-paste porcelain mainly by the firing temperature, with the former being higher, to around 1400°C, and the latter to around 1200°C.[9][10] Depending on the raw materials and firing methods used, hard-paste porcelain can also resemble stoneware or earthenware. Hard-paste porcelain can also be used for bisque porcelain. It is a translucent and bright, white ceramic. As it is almost impermeable to water, it is unnecessary to glaze the body. Manufactures include Lladro, Hummel and Royal Worcester.

Hard-paste has the advantage over soft-paste that it is less likely to crack when exposed to hot liquids, but the higher firing temperature of hard-paste may restrict the decorative options available.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Porcelain dish". Ceramics.  
  2. ^ Fleming, John & Hugh Honour. (1977) The Penguin Dictionary of Decorative Arts. London: Allen Lane, p. 622. ISBN 0713909412
  3. ^ Hildyard, Robin. (1999) European Ceramics. London: V&A Publications, p.46. ISBN 1851772596
  4. ^ Pots of fame economist.com, 31 March 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2013. Archived here.
  5. ^ Biography of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus Tschirnhaus Society, 9 February 2006. Retrieved 28 November 2013. Archived here.
  6. ^ "The Discovery of European Porcelain Technology" by C.M. Queiroz & S. Agathopoulos, 2005.
  7. ^ Coutts, Howard (2001). The art of ceramics : European ceramic design 1500-1830. New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press. p. 194.  
  8. ^ ‘Chinese Porcelain’. N.Wood. Pottery Q. 12, (47), 101, 1977
  9. ^ Singer, F. and Singer, S.S., Industrial Ceramics (Chapman Hall, 1963).
  10. ^ Rado, Paul, An Introduction To The Technology Of Pottery (Pergamon Press, 1988).

External links

  • Teapots.net. "The Invention of Hard-Paste Porcelain". History of Teapots. http://www.teapots.net/porcelain.html
  • ThePotteries.org. "Hard paste porcelain". Types and Examples of Pottery. http://www.thepotteries.org/types/hardpaste.htm
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.