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Harzburg

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Subject: Battle of Bouvines, Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Philip II of France, Harz, Duke of Swabia, Georg Ludwig Hartig, Battle of Langensalza (1075), Magnus, Duke of Saxony, Bad Harzburg, Kaiserpfalz
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Harzburg

For the spa town, see Bad Harzburg.

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The Harzburg, also called Große Harzburg, is a former imperial castle on the edge of the Harz mountains directly above the spa resort of Bad Harzburg in Goslar district in the German state of Lower Saxony.

The castle has almost completely disappeared; only fragments of the foundation walls and the towers together with the well have survived.

Location

The ruins of the Große Harzburg ("Great Harz Castle") are located above the town in the Radau valley on the hill of the Großer Burgberg (482.8 m above sea level). It may be reached by the Burgberg Cable Car and has an outstanding view past the neighbouring summit of Kleiner Burgberg (436.5 m above NN) northwest over the northern Harz Foreland and, southwards, over the densely forested Harz.

The remains of the castle on the Großer Burgberg are open to the public. In addition to a cafe its other points of interest are the 19-metre high Canossa Column of 1877 and the Bismarck Elm in the castle grounds. It has two different keeps; the square one has been partially rebuilt in modern times (see photo). The layout of the castle and the remnants of the walls are explained on information boards at the site. One interesting feature is the wide ditch driven through the rock that separates the castle into an east and a west wings.

To the north on the nearby hill of Kleiner Burgberg are the remains of the so-called Kleine Harzburg ("Little Harz Castle") and to the east on the nearby Sachsenberg are the traces of a rampart, possibly constructed by the rebellious Saxons to besiege the Große Harzburg (see below).

The castle drew drinking water from the Sachsenbrunnen, a medieval spring in the woods. The water was piped over several hundred metres in wooden pipes.

History

Under Henry IV

The Große Harzburg (Hartesburg) was erected during the castle building programme in Saxony from 1065 to 1068 and was strategically sited by King Henry IV. Henry's architect was later the Bishop of Osnabrück, Benno II. The castle provided protection for the nearby Imperial Palace of Goslar. Its walls extend right up to the steep face of the conical mountain top. At the time it was built the castle was impregnable. Despite its defensive strength, the castle was also especially palatial. For example, it contained, amongst other things, unusually large, three-roomed great hall and collegiate church, to which Henry had many relics transferred. He even had a sort of family vault built, in which he laid the bones of his brother, Conrad and his son, Henry, both of whom died young.

At the start of the Saxon Rebellion in 1073, Henry IV had to flee along with the imperial insignia from the Imperial Palace of Goslar into the Harzburg. The besieging force allegedly numbered 60,000 whilst his garrison only had 300 men. The king finally fled, according to legend, through the well of the besieged castle and a secret passage. In the Treaty of Gerstungen of 2 February 1074, Henry was forced to agreed to slight his castles, including the Harzburg. He hesitated, however, and only had the walls and towers demolished, whilst the buildings themselves remained. But in the spring of 1074 the Harzburg was plundered by angry farmers in the area and completely destroyed. The collegiate church was not spared and the royal family tomb was desecrated. This gave Henry cause to advance with all his might against the rebellious Saxons again and so, on 9 June 1075, the Saxons rebels were defeated at the First Battle of Langensalza.

Under the Hohenstaufens and Welfs

Under Emperor Frederick I, the rebuilding work on the castle continued until 1180 and was completed by Emperor Otto IV, who died in 1218 at the castle itself. The Harzburg lost its immediate function as an imperial castle because Emperor Otto IV had to surrender the imperial regalia to the Hohenstaufens. However, in 1222 the Harzburg was awarded the title of castrum imperiale again, and the character of the castle as an imperial fortress remained largely intact up to the time it was pledged (1269) using the existing imperial enfeoffment of the Harzburg seat.

Later history

This was followed by frequent changes of ownership. In the 15th century it was pledged as a fief to three brothers from Schwicheldt who turned it into a robber baron castle. The importance of the fort decreased steadily, resulting in its slow decline. A rebuilding of the castle in the 16th century was never carried out due to the high cost. During the Thirty Years' War, the castle changed hands several times, although its complement remained intact. Since this type of fortification had become insignificant due to the changed nature of warfare, demolition of the remaining elements of the ruin began in 1650. Since then the castle has amounted to little more than its foundation ruins and well. The urban settlement of Neustadt at the foot of the Großer Burgberg adopted the castle's name.

Gallery

Sources

  • Ernst Andreas Friedrich (1992) (in German), Wenn Steine reden könnten, 2, Hannover: Landbuch-Verlag, ISBN 3-7842-0479-1
  • Jan Habermann (2008) (in German), Die Grafen von Wernigerode (1. ed.), Norderstedt: Books on Demand, ISBN 978-3-8370-2820-1
  • E. J. G. Leonhard (1825) (in German), Die Harzburg und ihre Geschichte, Helmstedt: Fleckeisensche Buchhandlung
  • Wolfgang Petke (1971) (in German), Die Grafen von Wöltingerode-Wohldenberg, Hildesheim: Lax
  • Wolf-Dieter Steinmetz (2001) (in German), Geschichte und Archäologie der Harzburg unter Saliern, Staufern und Welfen 1065–1254, Bad Harzburg
  • Friedrich Stolberg (1968) (in German), Befestigungsanlagen im und am Harz von der Frühgeschichte bis zur Neuzeit, Hildesheim: Lax
  • Heinrich Spier (1985) (in German), Die Geschichte der Harzburg, Bad Harzburg: Harzburger Altertums- und Geschichtsverein
  • Joachim Lehrmann (2007) (in German), Raubritter zwischen Heide, Harz und Weser, Lehrte

External links

  • Henry, the Harz and the Harzburg (German)
  • The Harzburg at burgenwelt.de (German)
  • Diagram of the castle as it looked in medieval times (German)
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