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Havre, Montana

Havre, Montana
City
The Havre railroad station -  the sculpture is
The Havre railroad station -
the sculpture is "U.S. − Canada Friendship"
Location of Havre, Montana
Location of Havre, Montana
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Montana
County Hill
Area[1]
 • Total 3.28 sq mi (8.50 km2)
 • Land 3.28 sq mi (8.50 km2)
 • Water 0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation 2,536 ft (773 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 9,310
 • Estimate (2013[3]) 9,771
 • Density 2,838.4/sq mi (1,095.9/km2)
Time zone Mountain (MST) (UTC-7)
 • Summer (DST) MDT (UTC-6)
ZIP code 59501
Area code(s) 406
FIPS code 30-35050
GNIS feature ID 0772203
Website http://www.ci.havre.mt.us/

Havre ( ) (Assiniboine: Bahásaba [4]) is a city in, and the county seat of, Hill County, Montana, United States.[5] It is said to be named after the city of Le Havre in France.[6][7] The population was 9,310 at the 2010 census.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Geography 2
    • Climate 2.1
  • Demographics 3
    • 2010 census 3.1
    • 2000 census 3.2
  • Local media 4
  • Education 5
  • Points of interest 6
  • Notable people 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

History

Located in north central Montana, Havre was incorporated in 1893. It was founded primarily to serve as a major railroad service center for the Great Northern Railway (built by James J. Hill) with its location midway between Seattle and Minneapolis-St. Paul. A statue of Hill stands near the Havre Amtrak station to commemorate the key contributions his railroad has made to Havre's and Montana's history.

Originally named Bullhook Bottoms, the town met in a series of meetings to determine a new name. The original settlers were given the final decision, and due to a strong French influence, the town was renamed Havre.[7]

Simon Pepin (1840–1914), the "Father of Havre," was a typical Montana entrepreneur. Born in Quebec, Canada, he emigrated to Montana in 1863, and became a contractor, furnishing supplies for the construction of Forts Custer, Assinniboine, and Maginnis. Pepin purchased ranch lands near Fort Assinniboine. When James J. Hill built the Great Northern Railway across northern Montana, Pepin convinced him to build his locomotive shops at Havre, on property owned by Pepin. In the ensuing years, Pepin was a major contributor to Havre's economic growth through his cattle, real estate, and banking enterprises.[8]

Havre is the eighth-largest city in Montana, and the largest city in the Montana section of the Hi-Line. With the nearest major city, Great Falls, about 120 miles (190 km) to the south, Havre serves as a medical and business center for the Montana section of the Hi-Line. U.S. Highway 87 has its northern terminus at Havre. U.S. Highway 2, running east-west, is the city's main street. The largest employers are Northern Montana Hospital, Montana State University – Northern, and the BNSF Railway. Throughout much of the twentieth century, BNSF was the most prominent employer in the city, but the company scaled back its workforce in Havre in the 1990s. The Milk River (tributary of the Missouri River) runs through the town, and the Bear's Paw Mountains can be seen to the south.

Small grids of purple colored squares can be seen in some of the sidewalks in the downtown area (on the north side of the city). These are skylights for a sort of underground "mall" built in the city at least a hundred years ago. Throughout its history, this underground area has been host to a brothel, a Chinese laundromat, a saloon, a drugstore, at least three opium dens, and rooms used for smuggling alcohol during Prohibition. When fire destroyed Havre's business district in 1904, legitimate above-ground businesses joined the illicit businesses operating in the underground while the new brick buildings were built in the streets above. The underground area, now designated "Havre Beneath the Streets", currently operates as a small tourist attraction.[9]

The Wahkpa Chu'gn buffalo jump, or bison kill, is located behind the Holiday Village Shopping Center near the northwest corner of Havre. Over 2,000 years old, it is one of the largest and best preserved buffalo jumps anywhere. In prehistoric times, Native Americans would drive bison over the edge of the cliff, killing or severely injuring the animals. Afterwards, the Native Americans skinned the animals and preserved the meat. The buffalo jump is now an archaeological site and a small tourist attraction.

The buffalo jump is located at the southern edge of the Havre Badlands, a badlands formation that runs alongside the Milk River to the west of the city. Small fossils, including seashells and petrified wood, can be found in the limestone sediment in this area.

Hill County Courthouse in downtown Havre

Six miles southwest of Havre is Fort Assinniboine, which served as one of Montana's principal military posts from 1879 through the Prohibition era. The fort was one of many used by the United States to protect against potential attacks from Native Americans and to block incursions from Canada. At its peak, the fort housed and employed 489 soldiers in 104 buildings.

Also near Havre is the Bear's Paw Battlefield site of the Battle of Bear Paw, where the Nez Perce were attacked and defeated by the U.S. Cavalry. Chief Joseph surrendered to the Cavalry and made a famous speech ending with the line, "From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever."

Geography

Havre is located at (48.5454, -109.6775).[10]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.28 square miles (8.50 km2), all of it land.[1]

Climate

Havre experiences a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with long, cold, dry winters and hot summers with cool nights. Winter weather can vary greatly from brutal cold when Arctic air moves in from Canada, to temperatures far above 32 °F or 0 °C due to chinook winds – for instance the coldest month (and only one to never top freezing) of January 1916 averaged −13.3 °F or −25.2 °C and February 1936 during a notorious cold wave −12.8 °F or −24.9 °C, but February 1954 averaged as high as 37.1 °F or 2.8 °C and January 1919, 34.1 °F or 1.2 °C.[11] The hottest temperature recorded in Havre is 111 °F or 43.9 °C on August 5, 1961, and the coldest −57 °F or −49.4 °C on January 27, 1916.

Climate data for Havre
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 68
(20)
74
(23)
79
(26)
95
(35)
98
(37)
108
(42)
108
(42)
111
(44)
101
(38)
91
(33)
78
(26)
71
(22)
111
(44)
Average high °F (°C) 25.5
(−3.6)
33.4
(0.8)
44.9
(7.2)
58.5
(14.7)
68.8
(20.4)
77.4
(25.2)
84.6
(29.2)
83.9
(28.8)
71.9
(22.2)
59.4
(15.2)
40.8
(4.9)
30.1
(−1.1)
56.6
(13.66)
Daily mean °F (°C) 14.6
(−9.7)
21.9
(−5.6)
32.5
(0.3)
44.3
(6.8)
54.5
(12.5)
62.7
(17.1)
68.3
(20.2)
67.6
(19.8)
56.3
(13.5)
44.6
(7)
29.1
(−1.6)
19.0
(−7.2)
42.95
(6.09)
Average low °F (°C) 3.7
(−15.7)
10.4
(−12)
20.0
(−6.7)
30.0
(−1.1)
40.2
(4.6)
48.0
(8.9)
52.0
(11.1)
51.3
(10.7)
40.7
(4.8)
29.8
(−1.2)
17.3
(−8.2)
7.8
(−13.4)
29.27
(−1.52)
Record low °F (°C) −57
(−49)
−55
(−48)
−41
(−41)
−14
(−26)
9
(−13)
29
(−2)
31
(−1)
27
(−3)
18
(−8)
−21
(−29)
−33
(−36)
−50
(−46)
−57
(−49)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.47
(11.9)
0.36
(9.1)
0.70
(17.8)
0.87
(22.1)
1.84
(46.7)
1.90
(48.3)
1.51
(38.4)
1.20
(30.5)
1.03
(26.2)
0.62
(15.7)
0.45
(11.4)
0.51
(13)
11.46
(291.1)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 8.6
(21.8)
6.5
(16.5)
7.9
(20.1)
4.8
(12.2)
1.5
(3.8)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.3
(0.8)
2.4
(6.1)
5.5
(14)
7.7
(19.6)
45.2
(114.9)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch) 7.4 5.8 7.9 7.5 9.7 10.4 7.9 7.8 7.0 5.4 6.1 7.0 89.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 inch) 7.7 6.3 6.2 3.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.8 5.2 7.7 38.5
Source #1: NOAA (normals, 1971–2000) [12]
Source #2: The Weather Channel (Records) [13]

Demographics

2010 census

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 9,310 people, 3,900 households, and 2,293 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,838.4 inhabitants per square mile (1,095.9/km2). There were 4,285 housing units at an average density of 1,306.4 per square mile (504.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 81.6% White, 0.4% African American, 13.0% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, and 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.5% of the population.

There were 3,900 households of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.3% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 41.2% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.98.

The median age in the city was 33.9 years. 25.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 12.8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 23.5% were from 25 to 44; 25.2% were from 45 to 64; and 13.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.8% male and 50.2% female.

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 9,621 people, 4,015 households, and 2,449 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,778.2 people per square mile (1,073.6/km²). There were 4,400 housing units at an average density of 1,270.6 per square mile (491.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 87.08% White, 0.11% African American, 9.01% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, and 2.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.48% of the population.

There were 4,015 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.0% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 13.6% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,944, and the median income for a family was $38,870. Males had a median income of $30,401 versus $19,189 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,847. About 14.8% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.

Local media

Radio
Television

Stations available from the Great Falls market:

Satellite television providers are available to the entire area, and cable service comes from Charter Cable.

Newspapers

The Havre Daily News serves the entire region. Its circulation is 4,000 papers daily, published Monday through Friday. It has a full online edition by subscription, as well as a free website and a Facebook page. The Great Falls Tribune is also available.

Education

The city is served by Havre Public Schools,[18] which operates Havre High School, S.U.N.S. Alternative High School, Havre Middle School, and three elementary schools.

Higher education is provided at the Montana State University-Northern campus.

Points of interest

Notable people

Remarks by FDR on a balanced budget on 1937 visit to Havre

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010".  
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder".  
  3. ^ "Population Estimates".  
  4. ^ """AISRI Dictionary Database Search--prototype version. Assiniboine. "Montana. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  6. ^ Kari Gorder, Havre History on the Web
  7. ^ a b "The History of Havre, Montana". Havre Chamber of Commerce. 
  8. ^ Dave Walter, "Simon Pepin, A Quiet Capitalist," Montana March 1989, Vol. 39 Issue 1, pp 34–38
  9. ^ "Montana's Russell Country – Havre Beneath the Streets". 
  10. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990".  
  11. ^ National Weather Service, Great Falls
  12. ^ "Climatography of the United States NO.81" (PDF).  
  13. ^ "Monthly Averages for Havre, MT".  
  14. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  15. ^ Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 131.
  16. ^  
  17. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  18. ^ Havre Public Schools

External links

  • City of Havre Montana
  • Havre Chamber of Commerce
  • History of Havre on the Web
  • Wahkpa Chu'gn Bison Kill
  • The Havre Daily News
  • Montana State University Northern
  • State of Montana's Havre Profile
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