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Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.

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Subject: Ngô Đình Nhu, Nguyễn Khánh, Reaction to the 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Nguyễn Ngọc Thơ, United States presidential election, 1964
Collection: 1902 Births, 1985 Deaths, 20Th-Century American Writers, Ambassadors of the United States to Germany, Ambassadors of the United States to South Vietnam, American Journalists, American Male Journalists, American Military Personnel of World War II, American People of the Vietnam War, Boston Evening Transcript People, Burials at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cabot Family, Cold War Diplomats, Gardiner Family, Harvard University Alumni, Massachusetts Republicans, Members of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, People from Beverly, Massachusetts, People from Nahant, Massachusetts, Permanent Representatives of the United States to the United Nations, Recipients of the Legion of Merit, Republican Party (United States) Vice Presidential Nominees, Republican Party United States Senators, United States Army Officers, United States Presidential Candidates, 1964, United States Senators from Massachusetts, United States Vice-Presidential Candidates, 1960
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Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.

Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
United States Senator
from Massachusetts
In office
January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1953
Preceded by David I. Walsh
Succeeded by John F. Kennedy
In office
January 3, 1937 – February 3, 1944
Preceded by Marcus A. Coolidge
Succeeded by C. Sinclair Weeks
United States Ambassador to West Germany
In office
May 27, 1968 – January 14, 1969
President Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded by George C. McGhee
Succeeded by Kenneth Rush
United States Ambassador to South Vietnam
In office
August 25, 1965 – April 25, 1967
President Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded by Maxwell D. Taylor
Succeeded by Ellsworth Bunker
In office
August 26, 1963 – June 28, 1964
President John F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded by Frederick E. Nolting, Jr.
Succeeded by Maxwell D. Taylor
3rd United States Ambassador to the United Nations
In office
January 12, 1953 – September 2, 1960
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded by Warren R. Austin
Succeeded by James J. Wadsworth
Personal details
Born (1902-07-05)July 5, 1902
Nahant, Massachusetts
Died February 27, 1985(1985-02-27) (aged 82)
Beverly, Massachusetts
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Emily Esther Sears (m. 1926)
Children George Cabot Lodge II
Henry Sears Lodge
Parents George Cabot Lodge
Mathilda Elizabeth Frelinghuysen Davis
Alma mater Harvard University (A.B.)
Religion Episcopalian
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
Rank Lieutenant colonel
Battles/wars World War II

Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (July 5, 1902 – February 27, 1985), sometimes referred to as Henry Cabot Lodge II,[1] was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts and a U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, South Vietnam, West Germany, and the Holy See (as Representative). He was the Republican nominee for Vice President in the 1960 Presidential election.


  • Early life 1
  • Career 2
    • Senator 2.1
    • World War II 2.2
    • Return to Senate and the drafting of Eisenhower 2.3
    • Ambassador to United Nations 2.4
    • 1960 Vice Presidential campaign 2.5
    • Ambassador to South Vietnam 2.6
    • "Walking for President" 2.7
    • Later career 2.8
  • Personal life 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Early life

Lodge was born in John Davis. He had two siblings: John Davis Lodge (1903–1985), also a politician, and Helena Lodge de Streel (b. 1905).[2][3]

Lodge attended St. Albans School and graduated from Middlesex School. In 1924, he graduated cum laude from Harvard University, where he was a member of the Hasty Pudding and the Fox Club.[4]


Lodge worked in the newspaper business, before being elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1933.


In November 1936, Lodge was elected to the United States Senate as a Republican. He defeated James Michael Curley in an open Senate contest.

World War II

Lodge served with distinction during the war, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel. During the war he saw two tours of duty: The first in 1942, while also serving as a U.S. Senator, and the second in 1944–5 after resigning from the Senate.

The first period was a continuation of Lodge's longtime service as an Army Reserve Officer. Lodge was a major in the 1st Armored Division. That tour ended in July 1942, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered congressmen serving in the military to resign one of the two positions, and Lodge, who chose to remain in the Senate, was ordered by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to return to Washington.[5]

After returning to Washington and winning re-election in November 1942, Lodge went to observe allied troops serving in Egypt and Libya,[6] and in that position was on hand for the British retreat from Tobruk.[5]

Lodge served the first year of his new Senate term, but then resigned his Senate seat on February 3, 1944 in order to return to active duty,[7] the first U.S. Senator to do so since the Civil War[8] He saw action in Italy and France. Promoted to lieutenant colonel, in the fall of 1944 Lodge single-handedly captured a four-man German patrol.[9] By March 1945 he was decorated with the French Legion of Honor and Croix de Guerre with palm.[10] His American decorations included the Legion of Merit and the Bronze Star Medal. At the end of the war in 1945 he served as a liaison and interpreter to U.S. Sixth Army Group commander General Jacob Devers in Devers' surrender negotiations with the German forces in western Austria.

After the war Lodge returned to Massachusetts and resumed his political career. He continued his status as an Army Reserve officer and rose to the rank of major general.

Return to Senate and the drafting of Eisenhower

In 1946 Lodge defeated Democratic Senator David I. Walsh and returned to the U.S. Senate. He soon emerged as a spokesman for the moderate, internationalist wing of the Republican Party. In late 1951, Lodge helped persuade General Dwight D. Eisenhower to run for the Republican presidential nomination. When Eisenhower finally consented, Lodge served as his campaign manager and played a key role in helping Eisenhower to win the nomination over Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio, the candidate of the party's conservative faction.

In fall 1952, Lodge found himself fighting in a tight race for re-election with Ted in the 1962 election for John F. Kennedy's unexpired term.

Ambassador to United Nations

Lodge was named [12] Since that time, no one has even approached his record of seven years as ambassador to the UN. During his time as UN Ambassador, Lodge supported the Cold War policies of the Eisenhower Administration, and often engaged in debates with the UN representatives of the Soviet Union. During the CIA sponsored overthrowing of the legitimate Guatemalan Government, when Britain and France became concerned about the US being involved in the aggression, Lodge (as US Ambassador to the United Nations) threatened to withdraw US support to Great Britain on Egypt and Cyprus and France on Tunisia and Morocco unless they backed the US in their action.[13] When the Government was overthrown, The United Fruit Company re-established itself in Guatemala. These episodes tainted an otherwise distinguished career and painted Lodge as a face of US Imperialism and exceptionalism.

In 1959, he escorted Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev on a highly publicized tour of the United States.

1960 Vice Presidential campaign

Lodge left the ambassadorship during the election of 1960 to run for Vice President on the Republican ticket headed by Richard Nixon, against Lodge's old foe, John F. Kennedy. Before choosing Lodge, Nixon had also considered Philip Willkie of Indiana, son of Wendell L. Willkie; U.S. Representative Gerald Ford of Michigan; and U.S. Senator Thruston B. Morton of Kentucky. Nixon finally settled on Lodge in the mistaken hope that Lodge's presence on the ticket would force Kennedy to divert time and resources to securing his Massachusetts base, but Kennedy won his home state handily. Nixon also felt that the name Lodge had made for himself in the United Nations as a foreign-policy expert would prove useful against the relatively inexperienced Kennedy. Nixon and Lodge lost the election in a razor-thin vote. The choice of Lodge proved to be questionable. He could not carry his home state for Nixon, and some conservative Republicans charged that Lodge had cost the ticket votes, particularly in the South, by his pledge (made without Nixon's approval) that if elected, Nixon would name at least one African American to a Cabinet post. He suggested Ralph Bunche as a "wonderful idea".[14]

President John F. Kennedy meets with Director General of the Atlantic Institute, Henry Cabot Lodge, in the Oval Office, White House, Washington, D.C., 1961.

Between 1961 and 1962, Lodge was the first director-general of the Atlantic Institute.[15]

Ambassador to South Vietnam

Kennedy appointed Lodge to the position of Ambassador to South Vietnam, which he held from 1963 to 1964. The new ambassador quickly determined that Ngo Dinh Diem, President of the Republic of Vietnam, was both inept and corrupt, and that South Vietnam was headed for disaster unless Diem either reformed his administration or was replaced.[16] While the coup toppled the Diem government, it sparked a rapid succession of leaders in Vietnam, each unable to rally and unify their people, and each in turn overthrown by someone new. Removal of Diem caused more political instability in the South, since no strong, centralized and permanent government was in place to govern the nation, not to mention an increase in Viet Minh infiltration into the Southern populace and more attacks in the South. After supporting the coup of President Diem, Lodge then realized that the situation in the region deteriorated, and he suggested to the State Department that South Vietnam be made to relinquish its independence, and it be made a protectorate of the United States (like the former status of the Philippines) so as to bring governmental stability. The alternatives, he warned, were either increased military involvement by the U.S., or else total abandonment of South Vietnam by America.[17]

"Walking for President"

Republican primaries results by state Lodge won three primaries as a "write-in" candidate without making any public appearances

In 1964, Lodge, while still Ambassador to South Vietnam, was the surprise Robert A. Taft, then leader of the Republican Party's conservative faction. However, Lodge (who refused to become an open candidate) did not fare as well in later primaries, and Goldwater ultimately won the presidential nomination.

Later career

He was re-appointed ambassador to South Vietnam by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965, and served thereafter as Ambassador at Large (1967–1968) and Ambassador to West Germany (1968–1969). In 1969, when his former running mate Richard M. Nixon finally became President, he was appointed by President Nixon to serve as head of the American delegation at the Paris peace negotiations, and he served occasionally as personal representative of the President to the Holy See from 1970 to 1977.[19]

Personal life

Henry Cabot Lodge and family

In 1926, Lodge married Emily Esther Sears. They had two children: federal civil service and is now a well-published professor emeritus at Harvard Business School. Henry married Elenita Ziegler of New York City and is a former sales executive.[21]

In 1966 he was elected an honorary member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati.[22]

Lodge died in 1985 and was interred in the Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[23] Two years after his death, Sears remarried Forrester A. Clark. She died in 1992 of lung cancer and is interred near her first husband in the Cabot Lodge family columbarium.[24]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b "For Services Rendered," Time Magazine, 1942-07-20.
  6. ^ "Into the Funnel," Time Magazine, 1942-07-42.
  7. ^ "Lodge in the Field," Time Magazine, 1944-02-14.
  8. ^
  9. ^ "People," Time Magazine, 1944-10-09.
  10. ^ "Reservations," Time Magazine, 1945-03-19.
  11. ^
  12. ^ Bartleby, Simpson’s Contemporary Quotations, compiled by James B. Simpson, 1988, news summaries January 28, 1954
  13. ^ ["Great Britain's Latin American Dilemma: The Foreign Office and the Overthrow of 'Communist Guatemala, June 1954" by John W Young, page 584]
  14. ^ The New York Times, October 14, 1960
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ Moyar, Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954–1965 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 273.
  18. ^ Union-Leader: Lodge's write-in victory
  19. ^
  20. ^ MHS Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Photographs II
  21. ^
  22. ^ Roster of the Society of the Cincinnati. 1974 edition. pg. 17.
  23. ^ Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr at Find a Grave
  24. ^

External links

  • Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  • The Papers of Henry Cabot Lodge, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
  • The short film U.S. Warns Russia to Keep Hands off in Guatemala Crisis (1955) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
  • The short film STAFF FILM REPORT 66-27A (1966) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
  • A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (May 2, 1952)" is available for free download at the Internet Archive
United States Senate
Preceded by
Marcus A. Coolidge
Senator from Massachusetts (Class 2)
Served alongside: David I. Walsh
Succeeded by
Sinclair Weeks
Preceded by
David I. Walsh
Senator from Massachusetts (Class 1)
Served alongside: Leverett Saltonstall
Succeeded by
John F. Kennedy
Party political offices
Preceded by
Richard M. Nixon
Republican vice presidential nominee
Succeeded by
William E. Miller
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Warren R. Austin
U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations
Succeeded by
James J. Wadsworth
Preceded by
Frederick Nolting
U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam
Succeeded by
Maxwell D. Taylor
Preceded by
Maxwell D. Taylor
U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam
Succeeded by
Ellsworth Bunker
Preceded by
George C. McGhee
U.S. Ambassador to West Germany
Succeeded by
Kenneth Rush
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
John Foster Dulles
Sylvanus Thayer Award recipient
Succeeded by
Dwight D. Eisenhower
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