World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Herodian dynasty

Article Id: WHEBN0008786572
Reproduction Date:

Title: Herodian dynasty  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Herod the Great, Herodian coinage, Philip the Tetrarch, Robert Eisenman, Tigranes V of Armenia
Collection: Ancient Jewish Greek History, Herodian Dynasty, Royal Families
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Herodian dynasty

The Herodian Dynasty was a Judean dynasty of Idumaean/Edomite descent. The Herodian dynasty began with Herod the Great, who assumed the throne of Judea, with Roman support, bringing down the century long Hasmonean Kingdom. His kingdom lasted until his death in 4 BCE, when it was divided between his sons as a Tetrarchy, which lasted for about 10 years. Most of those kingdoms, including Judea proper, were incorporated into Judaea Province in 6 CE, though limited Herodian kingship continued in Northern Levant until 92, when the last Herodian monarch, Agrippa II, died and Rome assumed full power over his domain.

Coin of Herod the Great

Contents

  • Origin 1
  • Rise to power 2
  • Herodian dynasty in later culture 3
    • Literature 3.1
      • Novels 3.1.1
      • Plays 3.1.2
      • Poetry 3.1.3
    • Figurative arts 3.2
      • Painting 3.2.1
    • Performing arts 3.3
      • Music 3.3.1
      • Ballet 3.3.2
      • Opera 3.3.3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Bibliography 6
  • External links 7

Origin

During the time of the Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus (134–104 BCE), Judea conquered Edom (Idumea) and forced the Edomites to convert to Judaism.

The Edomites were gradually integrated into the Judean nation, and some of them reached high ranking positions. In the days of Alexander Jannaeus, Edomite Antipas, was appointed governor of Edom. His son Antipater, father of Herod the Great, was the chief adviser to Hasmonean Hyrcanus II and managed to establish a good relationship with the Roman Republic, who at that time (63 BCE) extended their influence over the region, following conquest of Syria and intervention in a civil war in Judea.

Julius Caesar appointed Antipater to be procurator of Judea in 47 BCE and he appointed his sons Phasael and Herod to be governors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively. Antipater was murdered in 43 BCE; however, his sons managed to hold the reins of power and were elevated to the rank of tetrarchs in 41 BCE by Mark Anthony.

Rise to power

In 40 BCE, the Parthians invaded the eastern Roman provinces and managed to drive the Romans out of many areas. In Judea, the Hasmonean dynasty was restored under king Antigonus as a pro-Parthian monarch. Herod the Great, the son of Antipater the Idumean and Cypros (possibly of Nabataean descent), managed to escape to Rome. After convincing the Roman Senate of his sincere intentions in favor of Romans he eventually was announced as king of the Jews by the Roman Senate.[1] Despite his announcement as king of the whole of Judea, Herod did not fully conquer it until 37 BCE. He subsequently ruled the Herodian kingdom as a vassal king for 34 years, crushing the opposition while also initiating huge building projects, including the Caesarea harbor, the Temple Mount, the Masada and the Herodium, among other things. Herod ruled Judea until 4 BCE; at his death his kingdom was divided among his three sons as a tetrarchy.

Herod Archelaus, son of Herod and Malthace the Samaritan, was given the main part of the kingdom: Judea proper, Edom and Samaria. He ruled for ten years until 6 CE, when he was "banished to Vienne in Gaul, where—according to Dion Cassius Cocceianus, "Hist. Roma," lv. 27—he lived for the remainder of his days."[2] See also Census of Quirinius.

Herod Philip I, son of Herod and his fifth wife Cleopatra of Jerusalem, was given jurisdiction over the northeast part of his father's kingdom; he ruled there until his death in 34 CE.

Herod Antipas, another son of Herod and Malthace, was made ruler of the Galilee and Perea; he ruled there until he was exiled to Spain by emperor Caligula in 39 CE. Herod Antipas is probably the person referenced in the Christian New Testament Gospels, playing a role in the death of John the Baptist and the trial of Jesus.

Agrippa I was the grandson of Herod; thanks to his friendship with Emperor Caligula he was appointed by him as ruler of the territories of Herod Philip I after his death in 34 CE, and in 39 CE was given the territories of Herod Antipas. In 41 CE, emperor Claudius added to his territory the parts of Iudea province, that previously belonged to Herod Archelaus. Thus Agrippa I practically re-united his grandfather's kingdom under his rule. Agrippa died in 44 CE.

Agrippa I's son Agrippa II was appointed King and ruler of the northern parts of his father's kingdom. He was the last of the Herodians, and with his death in 92 CE the dynasty was extinct, becoming fully incorporated into the Roman province of Judaea.

In addition, Aristobulus of Chalcis of the Herodian dynasty was king of Chalcis and Armenia Minor. His father, Herod of Chalcis ruled as tetrarch of Chalcis earlier.

Herodian dynasty in later culture

Literature

Novels

Plays

Poetry

Figurative arts

Painting

Performing arts

Music

  • Herod’s Lament for Mariamne (1815), an English song by George Byron (libr.)
  • Herodes und Mariamne (1922), incidental music by Karol Rathaus
  • Lied der Mariamne (ohne Worte) (1927), incidental music by Mikhail Gnesin

Ballet

Opera

See also

References

  1. ^ Jewish War 1.14.4: Mark Antony " …then resolved to get him made king of the Jews… told them that it was for their advantage in the Parthian war that Herod should be king; so they all gave their votes for it. And when the senate was separated, Antony and Caesar went out, with Herod between them; while the consul and the rest of the magistrates went before them, in order to offer sacrifices [to the Roman gods], and to lay the decree in the Capitol. Antony also made a feast for Herod on the first day of his reign."
  2. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Archelaus: Banishment and Death

Bibliography

  • Julia Wilker, Für Rom und Jerusalem. Die herodianische Dynastie im 1. Jahrhundert n.Chr. (Berlin, Verlag Antike, 2007) (Studien zur Alten Geschichte, 5).

External links

  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Herodians
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.