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Heydar Aliyev's cult of personality

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Heydar Aliyev's cult of personality

Aliyev in 1997

Heydar Aliyev's cult of personality, also known as Heydarism[1][2] (Azerbaijani: heydərizm),[3] became a significant part of Azerbaijani politics and society after he came to power in 1993 and continuing after his death in 2003, when his son Ilham Aliyev succeeded him.[4][5] Aliyev, a former Soviet politburo member and the leader of Soviet Azerbaijan from 1969 to 1987, became the President of Azerbaijan in 1993. He then began to carefully design an autocratic system, with heavy reliance on family and clan members, oil revenues and patronage.[6]

In Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev is presented as "Father of the Azeri nation".[7] Aliyev's cult of personality has been compared to Atatürk's cult of personality in Turkey.[8]

Heydar Aliyev's image in Azerbaijan

A school in Qusar with Aliyev's image on the wall

Aliyev has long been accused of violating human rights and forming an autocratic system in Azerbaijan, with many critics even characterizing the regime as totalitarian.[9][10] His personality cult has been compared to that of the Soviet Union, characterized by an atmosphere of fear in Azerbaijan and censorship of the press.[11] This continued following his death. According to Azeri analyst Zafar Guliyev, the 2003 appointment of Ilham Aliyev as his father's successor instigated a process of asserting the personality cult of his predecessor and rewriting recent Azerbaijani history.[12]

In his 2003 book The New Great Game: Blood and Oil in Central Asia, German journalist Lutz Kleveman described the situation:

Opposition analyst Zardusht Alizade has said that Aliyev "was the last representative of the political heritage of Stalin and Beria. [He] personified the most terrible experiences in the fate of the Azerbaijani people."[14] The 2006 US Congressional Record Proceedings and Debates also expressed concern about how Ilham Aliyev's government maintains a "distinct Soviet-era state television network and has elevated Heydar Aliyev to the status of a minor personality cult figure."[15]

American journalist and specialist on the Caucasus, Thomas Goltz wrote in 1998: Julie Hill described the cult in her 2005 book, The Silk Road revisited: markets, merchants and minarets, as follows:

Heydar Aliyev's reaction

In 2001, when journalists from CIS countries asked Heydar Aliyev about his cult of personality, he responded:

Places named after Heydar Aliyev

Heydar Aliyev Park in Tbilisi, Georgia

Every city and town in Azerbaijan has a street named after Heydar Aliyev,[19] including one of the central avenues of capital Baku.[20] According to official information, there are 60 museums and centers of Heydar Aliyev in Azerbaijan.[19]

Other places named after him include:

Outside of Azerbaijan

On June 14, 2005 a commemorative plaque was opened in Saint Petersburg, Russia on 6 Gorokovaya Street on the house where Aliyev lived from 1949 to 1950.[37]

Other

The Heydar Aliyev Order, founded in 2004, is the supreme order of the Azerbaijan Republic.[38]

Gül bayramı

Annually, since 2000, a festival is held in Baku in honor of Heydar Aliyev, called Gül bayramı, which translates to "Flower Feast". It starts on May 10 and lasts a few days. Traditionally, it is held in Heydar Aliyev Park, in front of the Central Bank of Azerbaijan, where unique flowers from around the world are gathered.[39] According to the opposition Yeni Musavat newspaper, over $76 million were spent in 2013 on this festival.[40]

Films

Two films were shot in 2003 commemorating Aliyev's 80th birthday. Black Label (Qara nişanə) was directed by Vagif Mustafayev with Polish actor Tadeusz Huk (pl) playing Aliyev's role. The Moment of Truth was directed by Ramiz Fataliyev (ru) with Russian actor Aleksandr Baluyev (ru) playing the lead role.

Post stamps

Statues and monuments

Heydar Aliyev's cult of personality is located in Azerbaijan
Baku
Baku
Ağcabədi
Ağcabədi
Agsu
Agsu
Astara
Astara
Ganja
Ganja
Goranboy
Goranboy
İmişli
İmişli
Horadiz
Horadiz
Naftalan
Naftalan
Nəbiağalı
Nəbiağalı
Nakhchivan city
Nakhchivan city
Qabala
Qabala
Qıvraq
Qıvraq
Quzanlı
Quzanlı
Saatlı
Saatlı
Sabirabad
Sabirabad
Şabran
Şabran
Şamaxı
Şamaxı
Şəmkir
Şəmkir
Şirvan
Şirvan
Siyəzən
Siyəzən
Sumqayit
Sumqayit
Xırdalan
Xırdalan
Tovuz
Tovuz
Xızı
Xızı
Quba
Quba
Şəki
Şəki
Lankaran
Lankaran
Lerik
Lerik
Yardımlı
Yardımlı
Qazax
Qazax
Qax
Qax
İvanovka
İvanovka
Salyan
Salyan
Qusar
Qusar
Ucar
Ucar
Qobustan
Qobustan
Oğuz
Oğuz
Ağdaş
Ağdaş
Biləsuvar
Biləsuvar
Cəlilabad
Cəlilabad
Daşkəsən
Daşkəsən
Xaçmaz
Xaçmaz
Masallı
Masallı
Incomplete map of settlements in Azerbaijan with statues of Heydar Aliyev

In Azerbaijan

In Azerbaijan, almost every major city has at least one monument of Heydar Aliyev. With his death in 2003, many more were erected in Azerbaijan, other countries, especially in Post-Soviet states.

In the capital Baku, there are at least three statues of Aliyev father: in the Heydar Aliyev International Airport, in the Alley of Honor and in Heydar Aliyev Park on Rashid Behbudov Street.

Settlements in Azerbaijan with statues and monuments of Heydar Aliyev include:

Outside of Azerbaijan

Aliyev's statue in Belgrade

Since Aliyev's death in 2003, many statues have been erected outside of Azerbaijan as well.

The first statue of Aliyev outside Azerbaijan was inaugurated in Kiev (2004).[78][79] In the same year Aliyev's bust was inaugurated in Bucharest, in a park named after him in 2007.[26] Later statues were erected in Comrat, Gagauzia, Moldova (2007),[80][81] Tbilisi (2007)[82] Qalyub, a suburb of Cairo (2008)[83] Belgrade's Tašmajdan Park (2011)[84] and Mexico City (2012).[85]

In only two years, three statues of Aliyev were erected in Russia: in Ulyanovsk (2009),[86] Dzhemikent village, Derbentsky District, Dagestan (2010)[87] and Astrakhan (2010).[88]

Also, statues of Aliyev were installed in three Turkish cities: Kars (2007),[89] Ankara,[90] and Istanbul's Haydar Aliyev Park.[91]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Implementation of Resolution 1358 (2004) on the functioning of democratic institutuions in Azerbaijan".  
  2. ^ Muradova, Mina (12 October 2008). "Islam Not an Issue in Azerbaijan's Presidential Campaign". eurasianet.org ( 
  3. ^ Bahadir, Xaliq (13 May 2013). "Tanınmışların heydərizm dartışması". azadliq.info (in Azərbaycanca). 
  4. ^ "Heidar Aliev, maestro of the Caucasus".  
  5. ^ Kucera, Joshua (May 20, 2008). "Travels in the Former Soviet Union. Entry 2: The Cult of Heydar Aliyev".  
  6. ^ "Azerbaijan: Turning Over a New Leaf?". Baku/Brussels: International Crisis Group. April 13, 2004. Retrieved September 30, 2012. 
  7. ^ Day, [edited by] Alan J.; East, Roger; Thomas, Richard (2002). A political and economic dictionary of Eastern Europe (1. ed. ed.). London: Europa Publications. p. 16.  
  8. ^ Boland, Vincent (June 4, 2005). "Azerbaijan looks to Turkey as model for cult of dead leader".  
  9. ^ Karatnycky, Freedom House Survey Team; Adrian; editor; coordinator, survey (1999). Freedom in the world: the annual survey of political rights & civil liberties, 1998-1999. New Brunswick: Transaction Pub. p. 77.  
  10. ^ Sedat Laciner, Mehmet Ozcan, Ihsan Bal and Halil Ibrahim Bahar (eds.) (2009). USAK Yearbook of International Politics and Law Vol. 2. International Strategic Research Organization. p. 364.  
  11. ^ Minahan, James (1998). Miniature empires: a historical dictionary of the newly independent states (1. edition ed.). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. p. 29.  
  12. ^ 6 July 2007 (2007). "Зафар Гулиев: Азербайджан в тисках клана и культа личности [Zafar Guliyev: Azerbaijan is in the grip of clans and personality cults]" (in Русский).  
  13. ^ Kleveman, Lutz (2003). "Pipeline Poker: Baku's Oil Boom". The New Great Game: Blood and Oil in Central Asia.  
  14. ^ de Waal, Thomas (5 February 2005). "Heidar Aliev: A Political Colossus". Institute for War & Peace Reporting. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  15. ^ United States of America Congressional Record Proceedings and Debates of 109th Congress Second Session. 7 April – 5 May 2006. p. 6398. 
  16. ^ Goltz, Thomas (1998). Azerbaijan Diary: A Rogue Reporter's Adventures in an Oil-Rich, War-Torn, Post-Soviet Republic. M.E. Sharpe,. p. xxv.  
  17. ^ Hill, Julie (2006). The Silk Road revisited: markets, merchants and minarets. Bloomington, Ind.: AuthorHouse. pp. 220–221.  
  18. ^ Aliyeva, Ayten (19 December 2003). Культ личности" или "народная любовь"?['Cult of personality' or 'love of the nation'?]""" (in Русский). BBC Russian. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  19. ^ a b c "Имени Гейдара Алиева [Named after Heydar Aliyev]" (in Русский). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  20. ^ "Heydar Aliyev Ave".  
  21. ^ "About the airport". Azerbaijan Airlines. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  22. ^ "Ряд улиц Астаны получил новые названия [Number of streets of Astana were renamed]" (in Русский). kazakh.ru. 12 July 2004. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  23. ^ "Heydar Aliyev Park opened in Istanbul". Today.az. 13 July 2006. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  24. ^ "В Тбилиси открылся памятник Гейдару Алиеву и сквер его имени [A statue and a square f Heydar Aliyev were opened in Tbilisi]" (in Русский).  
  25. ^ "Азербайджанские парламентарии участвуют в церемонии открытия парка имени Гейдара Алиева в Анкаре [Azeri parliamentaries participated in the opening ceremony of Heydar Aliyev Park in Anakara]" (in Русский).  
  26. ^ a b Открытие в Бухаресте "парка Тей - Аллеи Гейдара Алиева" [Park of Heydar Aliyev is opeben in Bucharest] (in Русский). Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Romania. September 24, 2007. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 
  27. ^ "По итогам визита Ильхама Алиева в Иорданию подписаны четыре документа [Azerbaijan and Jordan signed four documents on cooperation]" (in Русский).  
  28. ^ "В Анкаре открыта улица Гейдара Алиева [Heydar Aliyev street opened in Ankara]" (in Русский).  
  29. ^ "Avenue named after Heydar Aliyev opened in Hadera, Israel". APA. 7 May 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  30. ^ Meyta, Alena (28 October 2010). "В Киеве появился сквер имени Гейдара Алиева [A square named after Heydar Aliyev appeared in Kiev]" (in Русский).  
  31. ^ "В турецкой провинции Коджаэли открыт парк имени Гейдара Алиева [Heydar Aliyev park was opened in Turkey's Kocaeli province]" (in Русский). Trend.az. 27 December 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  32. ^ "В Турции открыли мост имени Гейдара Алиева [Bridge named after Heydar Aliyev opened in Turkey]" (in Русский). Aze.az. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  33. ^ "В школе имени Гейдара Алиева в Анкаре отметили турецкий национальный праздник [Trukish national holiday celebrated in Heydar Aliyev school in Ankara]" (in Русский). Trend.az. 23 April 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  34. ^ "В турецком городе Игдыр открылся лицей имени общенационального лидера Гейдара Алиева [A lycee is opened in Turkish Igdir named after Heydar Aliyev]" (in Русский).  
  35. ^ "Улица в одном из российских городов названа именем общенационального лидера Гейдара Алиева [Street named after Heydal Aliyev opened in a Russian city]" (in Русский). Trend.az. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  36. ^ "В Астрахани открылась школа имени Гейдара Алиева [School named after Heydar Aliyev opened in Astrakhan]" (in Русский). Trend.az. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  37. ^ В Петербурге открыли памятную доску Гейдару Алиеву // Информационное агентство Росбалт. — 14 июня 2005
  38. ^ "Закон Азербайджанской Республики Об учреждении орденов и медалей Азербайджанской Республики Об учреждении орденов и медалей Азербайджанской Республики [Azerbaijani law on medals and orders]". Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  39. ^ В Баку привезли 116 тонн цветов из Голландии, Италии, Франции и Германии (in Русский). Aze.az. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  40. ^ "Radio Liberty: Tens of millions of dollars, which could provide thousands of people with housing, are spent on ‘‘Flower Festival". Panorama.am. 10 May 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2013. 
  41. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в Агджабеди [Ilham Aliyev visited the monument to Heydar Aliyev in Agjabedi]". 1News.az (in Русский). 6 May 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  42. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник великому лидеру Гейдару Алиеву в Агдаше [Ilham Aliyev visited the monument to national leader Heydar Aliyev in Agdash]" (in Русский). Official website of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 30 October 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  43. ^ "Ilham Aliyev visited the monument to national leader Heydar Aliyev in Astara". Official website of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  44. ^ "В лицее имени Мубариза Ибрагимова в Билясуваре прошло мероприятие, посвященное Дню знаний [An event on the Day of Knowledge was held in the Mubariz Ibragimov Lyceum Bilasuvar]" (in Русский). 1News.az. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  45. ^ "Ilham Aliyev visited the statue of nationwide leader Heydar Aliyev in Jalilabad". Official website of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  46. ^ "Monument of Heydar Aliyev". The Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  47. ^ "Памятник Гейдара Алиева и музей памяти - Гянджа [Statue and memorial of Heydar Aliyev in Ganja]" (in Русский). Navigator.az. 
  48. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в Геранбое - ФОТО" (in Русский). 18 October 2014. 
  49. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник общенациональному лидеру Гейдару Алиеву в Горадизе". president.az (in Русский). 28 August 2014. 
  50. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в Имишли [Ilham Aliyev visited the statue of Heydar Aliyev in Imishli]". Kavkaz-News. 6 May 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  51. ^ "Президент Ильхам Алиев Побывал в селе Ивановка Исмаиллинского района [President Ilham Aliyev visited village Ivanovka of Ismail rayon]" (in Русский). Official site of Permanent Spiritual Christian Molokans in Russia. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  52. ^ "Ilham Aliyev visited the statue of nationwide leader Heydar Aliyev in Masalli". Official website of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 13 March 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  53. ^ "Ilham Aliyev visited the monument to national leader Heydar Aliyev in Naftalan". Official website of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  54. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в Самухе [Ilham Aliyev visited Heydar Aliyev's statue in Samux]" (in Русский). 1News.az. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  55. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в Огузе [Ilham Aliyev visited Heydar Aliyev's statue in Oguz]" (in Русский). 1News.az. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  56. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в Габале [Ilham Aliyev visited Heydar Aliyev's statue in Gabala]" (in Русский). 1News.az. 18 November 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  57. ^ "Президент Ильхам Алиев совершил поездку в Газах [Ilham Aliyev visited Gazakh]" (in Русский). ANS-Press. 12 April 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  58. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник общенациональному лидеру Гейдару Алиеву в Гахе [Ilham Aliyev visited national leader Heydar Aliyev's statue in Gakh]" (in Русский). Trend.az. 17 November 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  59. ^ "Открытие памятника общенациональному лидеру Гейдару Алиеву в Кенгерлинском районе [Ilham Aliyev opened the statue of national leader Heydar Aliyev in Kengerli rayon]" (in Русский). Xalq Qazeti. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  60. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в Гобустане [Ilham Aliyev visited the Heydar Aliyev statue in Gobustan]" (in Русский). Səs İnformasiya Agentliyi. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  61. ^ "Ильхам Алиев: "Губа располагает очень большим туристическим потенциалом" [Ilham Aliyev: "Guba has great tourist attraction potential"]" (in Русский). 1News.az. 25 September 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  62. ^ "Визит президента И. Алиева в Кусары [Visit of President Alitev to Kusary]" (in Русский). Kusari.com. 13 August 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  63. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в Агдаме [Ilham Aliyev visited Heydar Aliyev's statue in Agdam]" (in Русский). 1News.az. 11 November 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  64. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в городе Саатлы [llham Aliyev visited Heydar Aliyev's statue in Saatly]" (in Русский). 1News.az. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  65. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в Сабирабаде [Ilham Aliyev visited the monument of Heydar Aliyev in Sabirabad]" (in Русский). 1News.az. 1 November 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  66. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Общенациональному лидеру Гейдару Алиеву в Сальяне [Ilham Aliyev visited the monument of national leader Heydar Aliyev in Salyan]" (in Русский). 1News.az. 14 March 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  67. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник общенациональному лидеру Гейдару Алиеву в Шабране [Ilham Aliyev visited the monument of national leader Heydar Aliyev in Shabran]" (in Русский). 1News.az. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  68. ^ Image of the statue in Şamaxı
  69. ^ "Президент Азербайджана посетил памятник общенациональному лидеру Гейдару Алиеву в Шеки [Azerbaijani President visits monument to national leader Heydar Aliyev in Shaki]" (in Русский). Trend.az. 9 September 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  70. ^ Image of the statue in Şəmkir
  71. ^ "Поездка Президента Азербайджана Ильхама Алиева в Сиязаньский и Шабранский районы. В Сиязани открылся Центр Гейдара Алиева [Visit of President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev and Siyazan Shabran areas. In Siyazan opening of Heydar Aliyev Center]" (in Русский). Xalq Qazerti. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  72. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в Сумгайыте [Ilham Aliyev visited the monument to Heydar Aliyev in Sumgayit]" (in Русский). 1News.az. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  73. ^ "Президент Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник общенациональному лидеру Гейдару Алиеву в Товузе [President Ilham Aliyev visited the monument to national leader Heydar Aliyev in Tovuz]" (in Русский). AzTV. 9 February 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  74. ^ "Президент Азербайджана принял участие в открытии Центра Гейдара Алиева в Уджаре [Azerbaijani President attends opening of Heydar Aliyev Center in Ujar]" (in Русский). Trend.az. 30 October 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  75. ^ "Monument to Heydar Aliyev". The Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  76. ^ "Поездка Президента Азербайджана Ильхама Алиева в Хызинский район. Открытие Центра Гейдара Алиева [Visit of President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev in Khizi region. Opening of Heydar Aliyev]" (in Русский). Xalq Qazeti. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  77. ^ "Ильхам Алиев посетил памятник Гейдару Алиеву в Хырдалане - ФОТО". 1news.az (in Русский). 3 October 2014. 
  78. ^ В Киеве открыт памятник Гейдару Алиеву (in Русский). Корреспондент.net. June 4, 2004. Retrieved August 10, 2012. 
  79. ^ Photo of Aliyev's state in Kiyev
  80. ^ Эксперты: Установка в Гагаузии бюста Гейдара Алиева - "признание его заслуг перед всем тюркским миром" [Experts say installation of Aliyev's bust is "recognition of his achievements for the Turkic people"] (in Русский).  
  81. ^ Photo of the statue in Comrat, Moldova
  82. ^ Iashvili, Aleksandr (May 14, 2007). Саакашвили отдал должное ветерану КГБ [Saakashvili paid tribute to the veteran of KGB] (in Русский).  
  83. ^ Farid Arifoglu, Anrey Shary (June 8, 2011). Памятник президенту как экспортный товар [President's statue a export product] (in Русский).  
  84. ^ "Belgrade erects statue to former Azerbaijani President".  
  85. ^ В Мехико открылись Парк мексикано-азербайджанской дружбы и установленный в нем памятник общенациональному лидеру Гейдару Алиеву [A park of Mexican-Azerbaijani friendship and a state of national leader Heydar Aliyev were opened in Mexico] (in Русский). Azerbaijan State Telegraph Agency. August 24, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 
  86. ^ Aleksandr Narodetsky (November 27, 2009). Ильхам Алиев штампует памятники отцу Гейдару, в Казахстане неистребим дух Ленина [Ilham Aliyev is stamping states of his father Heydar and spirit of Lenin in invincible in Kazakhstan] (in Русский).  
  87. ^ В Дагестане открыт памятник Общенациональному лидеру Азербайджана Гейдару Алиеву [A statue was opened to the national leader of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev in Dagestan].  
  88. ^ Открытие памятника Гейдару Алиеву в Астрахани - еще одно свидетельство дружбы между Азербайджаном и Россией - Президент Ильхам Алиев [Ilhan Aliyev: "The opening of Heydat Aliyev's statue in Astrakhan proves the strength of the friendship between Azerbaijan and Russia]. Trend.az (in Русский). October 27, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 
  89. ^ "Haydar Aliyev, ölümünün 4. yılında Kars'ta anıldı" [Heydar Aliyev's 4th anniversary of death was commemorated in Kars] (in Türkçe). Cihan Haber Ajansı. December 11, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2012. 
  90. ^ Photo of the statue in Ankara
  91. ^ Photo of the statue in Istanbul
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