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Highways in Croatia

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Highways in Croatia

Map of the Croatian motorway network
A6 interchange in Orehovica near Rijeka
Dynamics of the development of the Croatian motorway network: the length of the motorway network in Croatia 1993-2009

Highways in Croatia are the main transport network in Croatia. The Croatian classification includes several classes of highways:[1]

Other than these, the national road classification includes the following categories which may also be referred to as highways in a general sense, with decreasing order of priority (and applicability of the term highway):[2]

  • State roads, which are marked by letter D (državna cesta) and a single, double or triple digit number.
  • County roads always are marked by letter Ž (županijska cesta) and a four digit number.
  • The lowest classification comprises local roads, marked by letter L (lokalna cesta) and a five digit number.

Road operators differ according to the classification system: The designated motorways are operated by four different concessionaires. The state roads are maintained almost exclusively by Hrvatske ceste, while the county and local roads are managed by various county authorities. The road maintenance agencies are governed by various laws issued by the Parliament as well as bylaws issued by the Ministry of Transport.[1][3]

Motorways

The road sign informing the motorists they are travelling on an autocesta

The primary high-speed motorways are called autoceste (Croatian pronunciation: ; singular: autocesta), and they are defined as roads with at least three lanes in each direction (including hard shoulder) and a speed limit of not less than 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph). They are marked with a special road sign, similar to the road sign depicting a motorway/autoroute/autobahn in other parts of Europe.[4] In Croatia this sign has green background. The national speed limit on an autocesta, effective in case no other speed limits are present, is 130 kilometres per hour (81 mph), with a legal tolerance of 10% on speeds over 100 km/h (as of 2009). The term autocesta is sometimes translated by Croatians simply as highway, which can be confusing because a highway can be any main road, and the terms motorway (British English) and freeway (American English) would be more precise. As of 2014, the Croatian motorway network is 1,288.5 kilometres (800.6 mi) long.[5]

Motorways in Croatia are defined by the Ministry of Sea, Transport and Infrastructure.[3][6][7] The same applies to names of the motorway interchanges and rest areas.[8] Likewise, the same legislation defines the origin of motorway chainages - at the northern or the western terminus of the motorway - and the motorway markings themselves. The markings are defined as consisting of letter "A" and the motorway number assigned by the legislation, except if a specific motorway is executed in construction stages and considered an expressway, in which case the applicable motorway number is preceded by letter "B" instead.

Generally, the motorways in Croatia are developed and maintained by the state-owned company Hrvatske autoceste (Croatian Motorways Ltd). There are several exceptions to this, namely Zagreb (Lučko) - Bosiljevo 2 section of the A1 motorway, the A6 and the A7 motorways which are managed by Autocesta Rijeka - Zagreb (Rijeka - Zagreb Motorway), the A2 motorway, managed by Autocesta Zagreb - Macelj (Zagreb - Macelj Motorway) and the A8 and the A9 motorways which are managed by BINA Istra.

History

A major reason for the motorway construction "mania" of the 2000s is a previous political halt of the major Croatian highway project, today's A1, in the 1970s and 1980s under former Yugoslavia. When Croatia declared independence in 1991, the only true motorways in the country were ZagrebKarlovac (the northernmost part of today's A1) and Zagreb-Slavonski Brod (the central part of today's A3), the latter being part of the highway "Bratstvo i jedinstvo". The dream to connect the two largest Croatian cities Zagreb and Split with a motorway (autocesta) went back to the times of the Croatian Spring. However, the construction of this project had been blocked by the ruling Communist Party.

In 2005, the Zagreb-Split route was constructed. In addition, the A1 was extended towards Dubrovnik (currently at Ploče), and the A3 was extended so it connects Zagreb to Croatian borders with both Serbia (near Lipovac) and Slovenia (near Bregana). There is also a motorway from Zagreb to Rijeka, the A6, as well as the A4 motorway from Zagreb to the northeast (Hungarian border) as well as the A2 motorway from Zagreb to the northwest (Slovenian border). The A9 between Pula and the Slovenian border is also largely completed.

The construction of additional motorways has noticeably slowed in the 2010s, but it continues. As of 2014, the A8–Kanfanar-Rijeka, the remaining part of the Istrian Y–is being upgraded from semi-highway status. The other motorways are in various early stages of development, coming up to a total of 13 motorway routes. The A1 is considered unfinished as it is planned to be extended from Ploče to Dubrovnik, but the status is unclear because of the Neum enclave of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The initial A1 setup was made under the first HDZ government which contracted Bechtel Corporation; this was later replaced by the effort of the SDP-led government effort led by Radimir Čačić; and then continued by the HDZ government under Ivo Sanader. The Zagreb-Split motorway construction enjoyed a constant support from Croatian public and its on-schedule completion was marked with joy and pride throughout the country.

As development has accelerated, so did environmental concerns, and concerns relating to the use and abuse of eminent domain by institutions involved in them. Especially criticized was the A11 Zagreb-Sisak, suspected of being politically motivated and inefficiently built.

List of completed motorways

Motorway County Length Description Notes
A1 Zagreb, Karlovac, Lika-Senj, Zadar, Šibenik-Knin, Split-Dalmatia, Dubrovnik-Neretva and the City of Zagreb 480.7 km (298.6 mi) The A1 starts in Lučko interchange, a part of Zagreb bypass where the A3 motorway junction is found. The motorway proceeds south from Zagreb to Karlovac and further on to Bosiljevo 2 interchange where the A6 motorway branches off towards Rijeka. The route continues south to Gospić, Zadar, Šibenik, Split. The southernmost sector of the motorway proceeds from Split to Ploče and Metković.[maps 1] Additional sections planned.
A2 Zagreb, Krapina-Zagorje and the City of Zagreb 59.0 km (36.6 mi) The A2 starts on the border of Slovenia near Macelj. The motorway passes west of Krapina and proceeds south towards Zagreb. The southernmost section of the motorway forms a part of Zagreb bypass and it terminates in Jankomir interchange with the A3 motorway.[maps 2] 3.75 km (2.33 mi) as a semi-motorway.
A3 Zagreb, Sisak-Moslavina, Brod-Posavina, Vukovar-Syrmia and the City of Zagreb 306.5 km (190.5 mi) The A3 starts on the border of Slovenia near Bregana. The motorway passes north of Samobor and proceeds west towards Zagreb, passing to the south of the city and forming a part of Zagreb bypass, where the route contains junctions with the A2, A1 and A4 motorways. It continues east to Kutina, Slavonski Brod, Sredanci interchange with the A5 motorway and further east to Županja and terminating on the border of Serbia near Lipovac[maps 3] Entire route completed.
A4 Međimurje, Varaždin and Zagreb and the City of Zagreb 96.4 km (59.9 mi) The A4 starts on the border of Hungary near Goričan. The motorway passes near Čakovec and Varaždin south towards Zagreb and the southernmost part of the route is a part of Zagreb bypass, where the motorway terminates in Ivanja Reka interchange, where the traffic defaults to the westbound A3 motorway.[maps 4] Entire route completed.
A5 Osijek-Baranja and Brod-Posavina 58.0 km (36.2 mi) The A5 starts near Osijek and proceeds south bypassing Đakovo to Zoljani interchange near the A3 motorway.[maps 5] Additional sections planned.
A6 Primorje-Gorski Kotar 81.2 km (50.5 mi) The A6 starts in Bosiljevo 2 interchange, branching off from the A1 motorway and proceeds west bypassing Delnice to Rijeka and Orehovica interchange with the A7 motorway.[maps 6] Entire route completed.
A7 Primorje-Gorski Kotar 41 km (25.5 mi) The A7 starts at the border of Slovenia and heads south to Rijeka, passes the city as Rijeka bypass. The Rijeka bypass section comprises an interchange with the A6 motorway and proceeds east terminating near Šmrika where the traffic defaults to the D8 state road.[maps 7] Additional sections planned.
A8 Istria and Primorje-Gorski Kotar 64.0 km (39.8 mi) The A8 spans between Kanfanar and Matulji, i.e. the A9 and A7 motorways. As of November 2011, the Kanfanar–Rogovići section is brought to the motorway standards, and the rest is a limited access two-lane route.[maps 8] 45.9 km (28.5 mi) as a semi-motorway
A9 Istria 76.79 km (47.72 mi) The A9 starts near Umag and the Slovenian border, meets the A8 expressway at Kanfanar interchange, and proceeds south to Pula, forming the western arm of Istrian Y.[maps 9] 2 km (1.24 mi) as a semi-motorway.
A10 Dubrovnik-Neretva 3.9 km (2.4 mi) The A10 starts at Metković interchange and runs to border crossing–Metković.[maps 10] Entire route completed.
A11 Zagreb 20.2 km (12.5 mi) The A11 starts at Velika Gorica interchange and runs south to Lekenik interchange. As of September 2010, the A11 was not directly connected to any other motorway.[maps 11] Additional sections under construction.

Motorway sections under construction

Motorway County Length Section Description Scheduled completion
A5 Osijek-Baranja 2.5 km (1.55 mi) Drava Bridge This is the longest bridge on the motorway A5 2016[9]
A11 Zagreb and the City of Zagreb 8.7 km (5.4 mi) JakuševecVelika Gorica jug (south) The section represents a northward extension of the existing A11 motorway route and comprises one major viaduct and a cloverleaf interchange at the junction with the A3 motorway. 2015[9]

Planned motorway sections

Motorway County Length Section Notes
A1 Dubrovnik-Neretva 39.7 km (24.7 mi) MetkovićDoli The section is not planned in detail yet as no funding is available as of September 2010.[10]
29.6 km (18.4 mi) DoliOsojnik (Dubrovnik) Funding was planned for development of detailed designs for this section.[10][11]
A5 Osijek-Baranja 29.5 km (18.3 mi) Duboševica border crossing–Osijek The sections are included applicable legislation, however no funding has been approved towards any design development or construction works in the 2009–2012 national road construction plans.[7][10]
Brod-Posavina 0.6 km (0.4 mi) Sava Bridge This is a border bridge between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
A7 Primorje-Gorski Kotar 24.0 km (14.9 mi) KrižišćePovile (Novi Vinodolski) The sections are included applicable legislation, and funding was approved for development of designs for the section.[10][12]
Primorje-Gorski Kotar and Lika-Senj 32.0 km (19.9 mi) PovileŽuta Lokva The sections are included applicable legislation, however no funding has been approved towards any design development or construction works in the 2009–2012 national road construction plans.[7][10][12]
A8 Istria 45.9 km (28.5 mi) RogovićiMatulji An upgrade of the existing two lane expressway is planned along the A8 route except for the easternmost section of the expressway where an entirely new route to the A7 motorway.[13] The works were tentatively planned for 2011–2014.[14] As of June 2010, the section is scheduled for completion of the motorway upgrade by the end of 2014 or at the beginning of 2015.[15]
A11 Zagreb, Sisak-Moslavina 22.2 km (13.8 mi) LekenikSisak Planning documents specify development of design documents for the A11 motorway section and outline funds approved for the task. The planning documents pertain to 2009–2012 period.[7][10]
Sisak-Moslavina 6.2 km (3.9 mi) SisakMošćenica Planning documents specify the A11 motorway section but no funds are approved for the section as of September 2010.[7][10]

Expressways

Roads designated for motor vehicles are marked with this kind of a sign in Croatia

There is a wide variety of types of expressways in Croatia, in terms of number of lanes, accessibility and types of intersections comprised. They range from four lane expressways with grade-separated intersections and limited access - distinguished from the motorways by lack of emergency lanes only - to four or six lane urban expressways with numerous at-grade intersections and traffic lights or two lane limited access roads with grade separated intersections. The expressways include both incomplete motorways, built in stages,[8] and some state roads (with either limited access, more than two traffic lanes, grade-separated intersections or any combination thereof). There are even some instances of county roads which may be regarded expressways such as Jadranska Avenue (Ž1040).

As a rule, the expressways are not tolled, however major bridges and tunnels on the expressways that are or were part of the Istrian Y are tolled.

List of completed expressways

Number Control cities (or other appropriate route description)
D1 sections through Karlovac[16] (four lane expressway, with at-grade intersections)
D1 Dugopolje interchange (A1) - Split[17] (three/four lane expressway, with grade separated intersections)
D2 Osijek southern bypass[17] (two lane expressway, with grade separated intersections)
D8 sections through and near Split[18] (four lane expressway, with at-grade intersections)
D10
B12
Sveta Helena interchange (A4) - Vrbovec (four lane expressway, with grade separated intersections)
The road is currently physically marked D10, however pursuant to applicable legislation and an agreement between Hrvatske autoceste and Hrvatske ceste made in 2009, the expressway management is transferred to the former, the road is designated as A12 (the legislation stipulates that it shall be marked B12 until it is upgraded to motorway standards).
D33 Šibenik (Tromilja) interchange (A1) - Šibenik[19] (two lane expressway, with grade separated intersections)
D220 Bisko interchange (A1) - Čaporice (two lane expressway, with grade separated intersections)
D424 Zadar 2 interchange (A1) - Zadar[20] (four lane expressway, with grade separated intersections)
D425 Karamatići - Ploče[21] (four/two lane expressway, with grade separated intersections)
D532 Zagvozd (Biokovo toll station) - Baška voda (two lanes inside and north of the Sveti Ilija Tunnel and four lanes with grade separated intersections on the southern side)
D533 Gornja Ploča interchange (A1) - Udbina[22] (two lane expressway, with grade separated intersections)

State roads

State roads are defined by legislation[2] as important routes for road traffic between various parts of the country. Classification of a road as a state road does not describe actual conditions of the road itself.

State roads in Croatia are assigned one, two or three digit numbers which generally comply with the following pattern (although there are some exceptions to the rules):

  • Single digit numbers (1-9) are assigned to trunk roads, normally of considerable length, spanning between borders of various neighboring countries. An obvious exception to this is the D9 state road however it spans from Bosnia and Herzegovina border and the Adriatic Sea, along the southernmost portion of Pan-European Corridor Vc.
  • Double digit numbers (10-70) are assigned to arterial roads on the mainland.
  • 100s are assigned to island roads
  • 200s are assigned to border crossing access roads.
  • 300s are assigned to junction roads, connecting towns or cities (but not other state roads) to motorways or other major roads. Notable exceptions to this are D307 and D310 state roads, although the D307 originally did not connect to the D29, but only to the A2 motorway.
  • 400s are assigned to mainland port and airport access roads.
  • 500s are assigned to connecting roads, connecting two different state roads. Notable exceptions to this rule are the D503 which connects to a port and the D516 which connects to a border crossing checkpoint.

At the moment the state roads in Croatia have a combined length of 6,867.7 kilometres (4,267.4 mi).

D1 - D9

Number Control cities (or other appropriate route description)[2] Length
D1 Macelj border checkpoint (Slovenia) - Krapina - Zagreb - Karlovac - Gračac - Knin - Brnaze - Split (D8) 421.2 km
D2 Dubrava Križovljanska border checkpoint (Slovenia) - Varaždin - Koprivnica - Virovitica - Našice - Osijek - Vukovar - Ilok border checkpoint (Serbia) 347.9 km
D3 Goričan border checkpoint (Hungary) - Čakovec - Varaždin - Zagreb - Karlovac - Rijeka (D8) 218.4 km
D5 Terezino Polje border checkpoint (Hungary) - Virovitica - Veliki Zdenci - Daruvar - Okučani - Stara Gradiška border checkpoint (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 123.1 km
D6 Jurovski Brod border checkpoint (Slovenia) - Ribnik - Karlovac - Brezova Glava - Vojnić - Glina - Dvor - Bosnian border 134.5 km
D7 Duboševica border checkpoint (Hungary) - Beli Manastir - Osijek - Đakovo - Slavonski Šamac border checkpoint (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 115.2 km
D8 Pasjak border checkpoint (Slovenia)- Šapjane - Rijeka - Zadar - Split - Klek border checkpoint - (Bosnia and Herzegovina) - Zaton Doli border checkpoint - Dubrovnik - Karasovići border checkpoint (Montenegro) 643.8 km
D9 Metković border checkpoint (Bosnia and Herzegovina) - Opuzen - (D8) 10.9 km

D10 - D75

Number Control cities (or other appropriate route description)[2] Length
D10 Sveta Helena interchange (A4) - Dubrava - Gradec - Križevci - Koprivnica - Gola border checkpoint 86,4 km
D12 Vrbovec 2 interchange (D10) - Bjelovar - Virovitica - Terezino Polje 86,5 km
D20 Čakovec (D3) – PrelogDonja DubravaĐelekovecKoprivnica (D2) 50.4 km
D22 D3 - Novi MarofKriževciSveti Ivan Žabno 42.7 km
D23 Duga Resa (D3) – JosipdolŽuta LokvaSenj (D8) 103,9 km
D24 Zabok (D1) – Zlatar BistricaDonja KonjšćinaBudinšćinaNovi MarofVaraždinske ToplicePoljanec (D2) 72.4 km
D25 Korenica (D1) – BunićLički OsikGospićKarlobag (D8) 83.6 km
D26 Dubrava (D10) - Čazma - Garešnica - Dežanovac - Daruvar (D5) 88.5 km
D27 Gračac (D1) - Obrovac - Benkovac - Stankovci - D8 96,9 km
D28 Gradec (D10) - Bjelovar - Veliki Zdenci (D5) 70,7 km
D29 Novi Golubovec (D35) - Zlatar Bistrica - Marija Bistrica - Soblinec (D3) 49.8 km
D30 Buzin interchange (A3) - Velika Gorica - Petrinja - Hrvatska Kostajnica border checkpoint (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 83.1 km
D31 Velika Gorica (D30) - Gornji Viduševac - D6 56.1 km
D32 Prezid border checkpoint (Slovenia) - Delnice (D3) 49.7 km
D33 Strmica border checkpoint (Bosnia and Herzegovina) - Knin - Drniš - Vidici (D8) 73.3 km
D34 Slatina (D2) - Donji Miholjac - Josipovac (D2) 79.0 km
D35 Varaždin (D2) - Lepoglava - Sveti Križ Začretje (D1) 46.0 km
D36 Karlovac (D1) - Pokupsko - Sisak - Popovača interchange (A3) 107.8 km
D37 Sisak (D36) - Petrinja - Glina (D6) 34.4 km
D38 Pakrac (D5) - Požega - Pleternica - Đakovo (D7) 120.7 km
D39 Bosnian Border - Aržano - Cista Provo - Šestanovac roundabout - Dubci (D8) 37.3 km
D40 Sveti Kuzam interchange (A7) - D8 - Port of Bakar (West) 3.1 km
D41 Gola border checkpoint - Koprivnica - Križevci - Vrbovec 1 (D10) 82.9 km
D42 Vrbovsko (D3) - Ogulin - Josipdol - Plaški - Grabovac (D1) 90,3 km
D43 Đurđevac (D2) - Bjelovar - Čazma - Ivanić Grad interchange (A3) 78.1 km
D44 Nova Vas interchange (A9) - Ponte Porton - Buzet - Lupoglav interchange (A8) 50.5 km
D45 Veliki Zdenci - (D5) - Garešnica - Kutina interchange A3 43.6 km
D46 Đakovo D7 -Vinkovci - Tovarnik border checkpoint (Serbia) 73,0 km
D47 Lipik (D5) - Novska - Hrvatska Dubica - Hrvatska Kostajnica - Dvor (D6) 94.5 km
D48 Baderna interchange (A9) - Pazin - Rogovići interchange (A8) 20.8 km
D49 Pleternica - Lužani interchange (A3) 19.2 km
D50 Žuta Lokva (D23) - Otočac - Gospić - Gračac (D40) 104.2 km
D51 Gradište (D53) - Požega - Nova Gradiška interchange (A3) 50.3 km
D52 Špilnik (D50) - Korenica (D1) 41.1 km
D53 Donji Miholjac border checkpoint (Hungary) - Našice - Slavonski Brod border checkpoint (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 91.6 km
D54 Maslenica (D8) - Zaton Obrovački D27 13.5 km
D55 Borovo (D2) - Vinkovci - Županja border checkpoint (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 48.6 km
D56 Drniš (D50) - Muć - Klis-Grlo (D1) 53.1 km
D57 Vukovar (D2) - Orolik - Nijemci - Lipovac interchange A3 36.1 km
D58 Šibenik (port) - Boraja - Trogir (D8) 43.0 km
D59 Knin (D8) - Kistanje - Bribirske Mostine - Putičanje - Kapela (D8) 53.9 km
D60 Brnaze (D1) - Trilj - Cista Provo - Imotski - Vinjani Donji border checkpoint (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 66.1 km
D62 Šestanovac (D39) - Zagvozd - Vrgorac - Kula Norinska - Metković (D9) 89.5 km
D64 Pazin (D48) - Potpićan - Vozilići (D66) 26.9 km
D66 Pula (D400) - Labin - Opatija - Matulji (D8) 90.1 km
D69 Slatina (D2) - Čeralije - Voćin - Novo Zvečevo - Kamenska (D38) 53.4 km
D70 Omiš (D8) - Naklice - Gata - Blato na Cetini interchange (A1) 21.6 km
D72 Slavonski Brod: D53 - Svačićeva - I. G. Kovačića - N. Zrinskog (D423) 2.7 km
D74 Đurmanec (D207) - Krapina - Bednja - Lepoglava (D35) 22.0 km
D75 D200 - Savudrija - Umag - Novigrad - Poreč - Vrsar - Vrh Lima - Bale - Pula (D400) 101.7 km

D100 - D128

D200 - D229

D300 - D315

D400 - D427

D500 - D535

Toll

A toll is charged on most Croatian motorways, the only notable exception being the Zagreb bypass. Payment in kuna, all major credit cards and euros are accepted at all toll gates.

There are two toll collection systems in Croatia: the open and the closed system. Open system is used on some bridges and tunnels and short stretches of tolled highway. In this system, there is only one toll plaza and drivers immediately pay the toll upon arriving.

In the closed system, every driver passes through two toll plazas. As the driver enters the system, they are given a receipt on the first toll plaza. This receipt states the point of entry. The receipt is presented upon leaving the highway through the second toll plaza. It is needed to calculate the toll. If the driver loses the receipt, they are charged with the maximum possible toll. If the receipt is more than 24 hours old, the driver must present the toll attendant with a reasonable explanation.

Steps are taken to reduce evasion of toll by adding enclosed separate service areas in each direction and prohibiting U-turns. Additionally, every vehicle is being monitored by video cameras at the toll gates.

Shunpiking is a widely accepted practice for commuters driving what would otherwise be a short stretch of tolled highway. Because of the price of monthly and yearly smart cards, many commuters from outer exurbs use state routes.

There are also reduced rates for transport companies, which should prevent heavy traffic along regional roads. Hrvatske ceste, the Croatian state road authority, imposes additional fees for trucking companies that frequently use a route.

Non-cash toll payment

Not counting cash and credit cards, there are several ways to pay toll on Croatian motorways:[23]

  • Smart card, a nonrefundable and unexpiring prepaid toll card showed to the toll attendant. As of 2013, a HAC smart card costs 30 kn. Additional toll may be prepaid at owner's will. The smart card enacts a 10% discount on toll when used. It is not recommended to use the smart card for paying less than 200 kn in toll. 200 kn equals to a round-trip in relation Zagreb - Zadar. Smart card must be purchased pre-paying at least 100 kn of toll. Additional money can be added to the toll account at any time. The HAC smart card has recently been refitted to allow use by flashing the card in front of a magnetic card reader.
  • seasonal smart card offers a significantly higher discount rate of 23.5% usable during specified five months. Unused amount upon expiry of these five months will be used with the standard, 10% discount. As of August 2007, a class I vehicle seasonal smart card costs 1200 kn. The full amount is submitted to the toll account.[24]
  • ENC (Elektronička naplata cestarine) is an electronic toll collection system. As of August 2007, the transponder costs 122 kn and a 10% discount on tolls is available. The user must pre-pay at least 90 kn of toll at purchase. Additional money can be added to the toll account at any time. ENC is usually recommended only for at least 10 longer journeys across Croatia. In the tourist season, ENC can drastically shorten wait times on large toll plazas with dedicated ENC lanes (especially toll plaza Lučko in Zagreb).[25] ENC has been criticized for incompatibility among motorway concessioners and often malfunctions.[26]

See also

Maps

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References

  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j
  3. ^ a b
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  7. ^ a b c d e
  8. ^ a b
  9. ^ a b
  10. ^ a b c d e f g
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  12. ^ a b
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  17. ^ a b
  18. ^
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  20. ^
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  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^

External links

  • HUKA - Croatian Association of Toll Motorways Concessionaires
  • Exit lists of autoceste
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