World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


呼和浩特市 · ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Prefecture-level city
Clockwise from top: monument of Genghis Khan, Governor of Suiyuan General, Temple of the Five Pagodas, Zhaojun Tomb.
Clockwise from top: monument of Genghis Khan, Governor of Suiyuan General, Temple of the Five Pagodas, Zhaojun Tomb.
Hohhot (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Hohhot (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Hohhot is located in Inner Mongolia
Location of the city centre in Inner Mongolia
Country People's Republic of China
Region Inner Mongolia
County-level divisions 10
Township divisions 116
Established 1580
 • CPC Committee Secretary Nasanmunkh (那顺孟和)
 • Mayor Qin Yi (秦义)
 • Prefecture-level city 17,224 km2 (6,650 sq mi)
 • Urban 2,158 km2 (833 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,158 km2 (833 sq mi)
Elevation 1,065 m (3,494 ft)
Population (2010 Census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city 2,866,615
 • Density 170/km2 (430/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,980,774
 • Urban density 920/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,980,774
 • Metro density 920/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
 • Major nationalities Han - 87.16%
Mongolian - 9.98%
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 010000
Area code(s) 471
License plate prefixes A
GDP (2010) CNY 186.6 billion
(US $30.04 billion)
GDP per capita CNY 65,518
(US $10,540)
Local Dialect Jin: Zhangjiakou-Hohhot dialect
Administrative division code 150100
ISO 3166-2 CN-15-01
Hohhot as written in Chinese
Hohhot as written in Mongolian
Chinese name
Chinese 呼和浩特
Literal meaning blue city or calling for peace, abundant, & unique
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Хөх хот
Mongolian script ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Russian name
Russian Хух-Хото
Romanization Chuch-Choto

Hohhot (Chinese: 呼和浩特; pinyin: Hūhéhàotè; Mongolian: ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ Kökeqota; Khalkha: Хөх хот Khökh khot; also romanized as Huhehot or Huhhot), abbreviated Hushi(Chinese: 呼市; pinyin: Hūshì), formerly known as Kweisui (simplified Chinese: 归绥; traditional Chinese: 歸綏; pinyin: Gūisūi), is the capital of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region in North China,[2] serving as the region's administrative, economic, and cultural centre.[3]

The name of the city in Mongolian means "Blue City"—Kuku-Khoto in Mongolian—although it is also wrongly referred to as the "Green City."[4] The color blue in Mongol culture is associated with the sky, eternity and purity; in Chinese, the name can be translated as Qīng Chéng (Chinese: 青城), literally, "Blue/Green City."[5]


  • History 1
    • Early History 1.1
    • Republican Era 1.2
    • Post World War II 1.3
  • Geography 2
    • Climate 2.1
  • Administrative divisions 3
  • Demographics 4
  • Economy 5
    • Major Development Zones 5.1
  • Culture 6
    • Dialect 6.1
    • Cuisine 6.2
  • Transport 7
    • Airport 7.1
    • Railway 7.2
    • Expressways 7.3
    • Public transport 7.4
  • Education 8
  • Sports 9
  • Notable landmarks 10
  • See also 11
  • Footnotes 12
  • References 13
  • External links 14


Early History

The old town, now converted into an artifact shopping street

In 1557, the Tümed Mongol leader Altan Khan began building the Da Zhao Temple in the Tümed plain in order to convince the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) government of his leadership of the southern Mongol tribes. The town that grew up around this temple was called the "Blue Town" (Kokegota in Mongolian).[6]:11 The Ming had been blockading the Mongols' access to Chinese iron, cotton, and crop seeds, in order to dissuade them from attacking the northern China plain. But in 1570, Altan Khan successfully negotiated the end of the blockade by the establishment of a vassal-tributary relationship with the Ming, for which the Ming renamed Kokegota to Guīhuā (归花, "Return to Civilization") in 1575. The population of Guihua grew to over 150,000 in the early 1630s as local Mongol princes encouraged the settlement of Han Chinese merchants. Sometimes Mongol armies attacked Guisui, such as the total razing of the city by Ligdan Khan in 1631.[6]:12 Altan Khan and his successors constructed temples and fortress in 1579, 1602 and 1727. The Tümed Mongols had long been semiagricultural there. Hui merchants gathered north of the gate of the city's fortress, building a mosque in 1693.[7] Their descendants forms the nucleus of the modern Hui people's district.

After the Manchus founded the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the Kangxi emperor (reigned 1661–1722) sent troops to control the region,[4] which was interesting to the Qing as a center of study of Tibetan Buddhism. The Qing dynasty built a strong garrison town near Hohhot's southeast called Suiyuan (綏遠), supervising southwestern Inner Mongolia in 1735–39 against Mongol attacks from the north.[6]:13[8] Guisui and Suiyuan became Guihua District (歸化縣) of Qing China. French missionaries established a Catholic church in Guisui in 1874, but the Christians were forced to flee to Beijing during the antiforeign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901.[6]:14

Republican Era

In 1913, the government of the new Republic of China united the garrison town of Suiyuan and the old town of Guihua as Guisui (Chinese: 歸綏; pinyin: Guīsuī; Wade–Giles: Kweisui). Guisui town was the center of Guisui County (歸綏縣) and the capital of Suiyuan Province in northern China. A bubonic plague outbreak in 1917 and the connection of Guisui to railway links in Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Hebei helped renew the economy of Guisui town, by forming links between eastern China and western China's Xinjiang province.[6]:15 In 1918, the American specialist of Inner Asia Owen Lattimore noted Guisui's ethnic composition as "A town purely [Han] Chinese except for the Lama monasteries ... the Tümeds are now practically nonexistent and the nearest Mongolians are to be sought at 50 or 60 miles distance on the plateau."[6]:15 During the progressive Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s, the Japanese created the puppet state of Mengjiang headed by Prince De Wang, who renamed Guisui to "Blue City" ("Hohhot" or Huheshi). After the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China renamed the city back to its original name, Guisui.[6]:16 The Communist Party of China's forces drove out the Republic's General Fu Zuoyi in Suiyuan during the Chinese Civil War. After the Chinese Revolution in 1949, Suiyuan was renamed Guisui.[6]:16

Post World War II

During the Civil War, in order to gain the support of separatist Mongols, the Communists established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in Mongol-minority areas from the Republic's provinces of Suiyuan, Xing'an, Chahar, and Rehe. Guisui was chosen as the region's administrative centre in 1952, replacing Zhangjiakou. In 1954, the new People's Republic of China renamed Guisui to Hohhot, though with a different Chinese pronunciation of Huhehaote.[6]:16

The city has seen significant development since China's reform and opening began. The city's far east side began development around 2000 and is now home to an artificial lake called Ruyi He, a large number of condominiums mostly built by the biggest local real estate company Gold Horse International Inc.,[9] the municipal government, and most of the Autonomous Region's government buildings.[10] The Hohhot City Stadium was built on the city's north side, finished in 2007.[11]

A city with a rich cultural background, Hohhot is known for its historical sites and temples and is one of the major tourist destinations of Inner Mongolia. It is also nationally known as the home of China's dairy giants Mengniu and Yili, and was declared "Dairy Capital of China" by the China Dairy Industry Association and the Dairy Association of China in 2005.


Huhhot and vicinities, LandSat-5 satellite image, 2005-07-12

Located in the south central part of Inner Mongolia, Hohhot is encircled by the Daqing Shan (大青山, lit. Great blue Mountains) to the north and the Hetao Plateau to the south.[12]


Hohhot features a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), marked by long, cold and very dry winters, hot, somewhat humid summers, strong winds (especially in spring) and monsoonal influence. The coldest month is January, with a daily mean of −11.6 °C (11.1 °F), while the July, the hottest month, averages 22.6 °C (72.7 °F). The annual mean temperature is 6.73 °C (44.1 °F), and the annual precipitation is 398 millimetres (15.7 in), with more than half of it falling in July and August alone. Variability can be very high, however: in 1965 Hohhot recorded as little as 155.1 mm (6.11 in) but six years before than, as much as 929.2 mm (36.58 in), including 338.6 mm (13.33 in) in July of that year.[13] Hohhot is a popular destination for tourists during the summer months because of the nearby Zhaohe grasslands. More recently, due to desertification, the city sees sandstorms on almost an annual basis. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 58 percent in July to 71 percent in October, sunshine is abundant year-round, the city receives 2,862 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −32.8 °C (−27 °F) to 38.9 °C (102 °F).[14]

Climate data for Hohhot (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −5
Average low °C (°F) −16.8
Precipitation mm (inches) 2.6
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.5 2.8 3.4 3.7 6.0 8.9 12.9 12.7 8.3 4.5 2.4 1.8 69.9
% humidity 58 52 46 37 39 47 61 66 62 59 59 59 53.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 180.7 198.3 245.5 268.6 294.5 291.3 264.9 255.2 252.1 244.8 195.3 171.0 2,862.2
Percent possible sunshine 61 66 67 68 66 65 58 60 68 71 66 60 64.7
Source: China Meteorological Administration[15]

Administrative divisions

The city is administratively at the prefecture-level, meaning that it administers both its urban area and the rural regions in its vicinity. The administrative area includes 4 counties, 4 districts, and a county-level banner; they are further divided into 20 urban sub-districts, and 96 townships. The data here represented is in km² and uses data from 2010 Census.

Map # English Name Mongolian Simplified Chinese Pinyin Area Population Density
City Proper
1 Huimin District ᠬᠣᠳᠣᠩ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Qotoŋ Arad-un toɣoriɣ)
回民区 Huímín Qū 175 394,555 2,255
2 Xincheng District ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Sin-e Qota toɣoriɣ)
新城区 Xīnchéng Qū 700 567,255 810
3 Yuquan District ᠢᠤᠢ ᠴᠢᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Iui čiuvan toɣoriɣ)
玉泉区 Yùquán Qū 270 383,365 1,420
4 Saihan District ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Sayiqan toɣoriɣ)
赛罕区 Sàihǎn Qū 1,013 635,599 627
5 Togtoh County ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Toɣtaqu siyan)
托克托县 Tuōkètuō Xiàn 1,417 200,840 142
6 Wuchuan County ᠦᠴᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Üčuvan siyan)
武川县 Wǔchuān Xiàn 4,885 108,726 22
7 Horinger County ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Qorin Ger siyan)
和林格尔县 Hélíngé'ěr Xiàn 3,401 169,856 50
8 Qingshuihe County ᠴᠢᠩ ᠱᠦᠢ ᠾᠧ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Čiŋ šüi hė siyan)
清水河县 Qīngshuǐhé Xiàn 2,859 93,887 33
9 Tumed Left Banner ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠳ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Tümed Jegün qosiɣu)
土默特左旗 Tǔmòtè Zuǒ Qí 2,712 312,532 115


According to the 2010 Census, the population of Hohhot reached 2,866,615, counting 428,717 inhabitants more than in 2000 (the average annual demographic growth for the period 2000–2010 was of 1.63 percent).[16] Its built up area is home to 1,980,774 inhabitants (4 urban districts). The urban population of Huhhot is increasing rapidly in recent 20 years.

The majority of the population of Hohhot are Han Chinese, representing 87.16 percent of the total population in 2010. Most Han in Hohhot, if their ancestry is traced several decades back, have ancestors from Shanxi, northeast China, or Hebei. Most Mongols in the city speak Standard Chinese. A survey from 1993 of the Inner Mongolia University found that only 8 percent of Tümed Mongols (the majority tribe in Hohhot) could speak the Mongolian language.[6]:15 A significant portion of the population is of mixed ethnic origin. According to the anthropologist William Jankowiak, who wrote the book Sex, Death, and Hierarchy in a Chinese City (1933) about Huhehot, there is "relatively little different between minority culture and Han culture" in the city. with differences concentrating around minor attributes like food and art choices, and similarities abounding over fundamental issues in ethics, status, life goals, and worldview.[6]:5

Ethnic groups in Hohhot, according to the 2000 census, were:
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Han Chinese 2,115,888 88.42%
Mongol 204,846 8.56%
Hui Chinese 38,417 1.61%
Manchu 26,439 1.10%
Daur 2,663 0.11%
Korean 1,246 0.05%
Miao 443 0.02%


Hailiang Plaza, tallest building in Hohhot

Hohhot is a major industrial center within Inner Mongolia. Hohhot, together with Baotou and Ordos, account for more than 60 percent of the total industrial output of Inner Mongolia.[17] After Baotou and Ordos, Hohhot is the third-largest economy of the province, with GDP of RMB 247.56 billion in 2012, up 11.0 percent year on year, and accounting for approximately 15.5 percent of the province's total.[18] Hohhot is also the largest consumer center in the region, recording ¥102.2 billion retail sales of consumer goods in 2012, an increase of 14.9 percent from 2011. Huhhot has been a central developmental target for the China Western Development project that the Central Government is pursuing. There are many famous enterprises located in Hohhot, including China's biggest dairy producer by sales revenue Inner Mongolia Yili Industrial Group and China Mengniu Dairy Co.

As the economic center in Inner Mongolia, Huhhot has expanded its urban area since the 1990s. The CBDs in the city increased rapidly all around the major districts. The completion of the new office tower for Huhhot Municipal Government in Eastern Huhhot region marked a shift of the city center to the east. Hailiang Plaza (海亮广场), a 41-floor tower constructed in the city center, became one of the few notable department stores for luxury merchandise in the city.

Major Development Zones

  • Hohhot Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Hohhot Export Processing Zone


Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot

Due to its relatively diverse cultural make-up, and despite its characteristics as a mid-sized Chinese industrial city, the Hohhot street scene has no shortage of ethnic minority elements. Tongdao Road, a major street in the old town area, is decorated with Islamic and Mongol exterior designs on all its buildings. A series of government initiatives in recent years have emphasized Hohhot's identity with ethnic minority groups, especially in increasing Mongol-themed architecture around the city. All street signs as well as public transportation announcements are regulated to be in both Chinese and Mongolian.


Older Hohhot residents mostly tend to converse in raw Hohhot dialect, a branch of the Jin language from neighbouring Shanxi province. This spoken form can be difficult to understand for speakers of other Mandarin Chinese dialects. The newer residents, mostly concentrated in Xincheng and Saihan Districts, speak Hohhot-based Mandarin, the majority also with a noticeable accent and some unique vocabulary. (See Hohhot dialect for further details)


Milk Tea provided in Huhhot's Bayandelehai Mongolian restaurant

Food specialty in the area is mostly focused on Mongol cuisine and dairy products. Commercially, Hohhot is known for being the base of nationally renowned dairy giants Yili and Mengniu. The Mongol drink suutei tsai ("naicha" 奶茶 in Chinese, "milk tea" in English), which has become a typical breakfast selection for anyone living or visiting the city.[19] The city also has rich traditions in the making of hot pot and shaomai, a type of traditional Chinese dumpling served as dim sum.[20]



Hohhot's Baita International Airport (IATA:HET) is about 14.3 km (8.9 mi) eastwards from the city centre by car. It has direct flights to Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Chengdu, Wuhan, Hong Kong etc., and to Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.


The Hohhot Railway Station, c. 2008

Hohhot lies on the Jingbao Railway from Beijing to Baotou, and is served by two railway stations: Hohhot Station and Hohhot East Station.[21] Trains to Beijing link to destinations to the south and the northeast. The most prominent rail link with Beijing is the overnight K90 train, which has served the Hohhot-Beijing line since the 1980s and is referred to colloquially as the "9-0". Westbound trains go through Baotou and Lanzhou. There are also rail links to most major Inner Mongolian cities and to Ulan Bator. Because the quickest trip from Beijing takes around eight and a half hours despite the close distance of the cities, plans for high-speed rail has been discussed for years, and construction of the new high-speed railway station began in 2008. The station was completed in 2011 and services 4 slow speed lines. Hohhot has its first CRH (China Railway High-speed) under test by the end of 2014, and the bullet train will be in operation between Jining and Baotou in 2015.[22] This line will have a maximum speed of 200 km/h between Hohhot and Baotou.[23] Another high-speed rail linking Hohhot to Zhangjiakou and the planned Beijing-Zhangjiakou 200km/h railway is planned to be finished in 2017, and designed to operate at 250km/h.[24]


Genghis Khan Drive, on the North side of the city

An expressway built in 1997 links Hohhot with Baotou, then known as the Hubao Expressway. In recent years this expressway has been expanded eastwards to Jining and Zhangjiakou, and onto Beijing as part of the Jingzang Expressway. The city is en route of China National Highway 110, which runs from Yinchuan to Beijing. China National Highway 209 begins in Hohhot and is southbound towards southern China, with its southern terminus in Guangxi. Hohhot is connected to its northern counties through the Huwu Highway, which was completed in 2006. Previously travel to the northern counties consisted of lengthy navigation through mountainous terrain.

Long distance buses connect Hohhot to outlying counties, the cities of Baotou, Wuhai, Ordos, and other areas in Inner Mongolia.

Public transport

Hohhot's major north–south thoroughfares are called "Lu" and its east–west thoroughfares are called "Jie". This is roughly equivalent to dividing roads into "street" and "avenue" designation according to direction, a practice used in some North American cities. The largest elevated interchange is near the site of the city's Drum Tower, after which it is named. Several major streets are named after Inner Mongolian leagues and cities; among these, Hulun Buir, Jurim(now Tongliao), Juud(Now Chifeng), Xilin Gol, and Xing'an run north–south, while Bayannaoer, Hailar, Ulanqab and Erdos runs east–west.

The city's public transit system is composed of nearly one hundred bus routes and a large fleet of taxicabs, which are normally green or blue. The bus fare is 1 yuan. The taxi fare begins at 6 yuan.


Affiliated Middle School to Inner Mongolia Normal University

Universities located in Hohhot include:

High Schools located in Hohhot include:


Shenyang Dongjin F.C. relocated in Hohhot and changed their name to Hohhot Dongjin in 2012[25] They played at Hohhot City Stadium, which was newly built in 2007.[26] The club finished in the bottom of the league this season and relegated to League Two. After playing half a season at Hohhot in 2013, the team chose Benxi City Stadium as their new home court.

Notable landmarks

There are over 50 sets of murals in southeastern Hohhot, including a "Horse-tending Image" (牧馬圖). Over 50 pre-modern Buddhist temples and towers.

  • Zhaojun Tomb, located about nine kilometers south of the city center. It is said to be the resting place of Wang Zhaojun, a woman from the Han Empire who married a Xiongnu Chanyu (king).
  • Temple of the Five Pagodas: Completed in 1732 with architecture very similar to that of Indian temples.[19] In its walls there are more than 1,500 figures of Buddha.
  • Da Zhao Temple: A Buddhist monastery constructed in 1579, the oldest in the city.[27]
  • Inner Mongolia Museum: Main exhibits include dinosaur fossils, historical artifacts of nomadic peoples, and the cultural life of modern nomadic peoples.
  • Qingcheng Park, formerly People's Park, in the city center

See also


  1. ^ "呼和浩特市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据(Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China)". 内蒙古新闻网. Retrieved 2012-08-30. 
  2. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  3. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th Edition (1977), Vol. I, p. 275.
  4. ^ a b Perkins (1999), p. 212.
  5. ^ Chinese "qing" has traditionally been a color between "blue" and "green" in English, leading some modern sources to translate Qing Cheng into English as "Green City" instead of "Blue City," including, for example, the official website of Hohhot.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jankowiak, William R (1993). Sex, Death, and Hierarchy in a Chinese City: An Anthropological Account. Columbia University Press. pp. 5, 11–16. 
  7. ^ Zhang, Guanglin (2005). Islam in China. 五洲传播出版社. p. 75.  
  8. ^ Traditional dwellings and settlements review: journal of the International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments. International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments. 1998. p. 12. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  9. ^
  10. ^,+Inc.+Updates+Status+of+Key+Real+Estate...-a0184422032
  11. ^ 内蒙古新建呼和浩特市体育场落成 可容纳近6万人 - 新农村商网
  12. ^ Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Incorporated. April 2001. p. 510.  
  13. ^ Huhehaote rainfall
  14. ^ 中国气象科学数据共享服务网
  15. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese).  
  16. ^ (Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  17. ^ "鄂尔多斯人均GDP超北京 房产业面临何种机遇" (in 中文). 
  18. ^ " – Profiles of China Provinces, Cities and Industrial Parks". Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  19. ^ a b Lonely Planet. Níngxià and Inner Mongolia – Guidebook Chapter. Lonely Planet. p. 25.  
  20. ^ Hsiung, Deh-Ta. Simonds, Nina. Lowe, Jason. [2005] (2005). The food of China: a journey for food lovers. Bay Books. ISBN 978-0-681-02584-4. p 38.
  21. ^ Zhongguo dui wai jing ji mao yi nian jian bian ji wei yuan hui (1993). Almanac of China's foreign economic relations and trade. Hua run mao yi zi xun you xian gong si. p. 945. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  22. ^ "Inner Mongolia to open its first bullet train". Retrieved 12 November 2014. 
  23. ^ 大伟, 杨. 内蒙古首列动车正在调试 明年初在呼包集三城间开行 (in Chinese) (呼和浩特日报). Retrieved 12 November 2014. 
  24. ^ 呼张客专开土动工,方便进京之路 (in Chinese). 中华铁道网. Retrieved 12 November 2014. 
  25. ^ 东进更名主场落户呼和浩特 老总:只是换了个名字
  26. ^ 内蒙古新建呼和浩特市体育场落成 可容纳近6万人 - 新农村商网
  27. ^ 大召寺(Chinese)


  • Perkins (1999). Encyclopedia of China: The Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture. Dorothy Perkins. 1st paperback edition: 2000. A Roundtable Press Book, New York, N.Y. ISBN 0-8160-4374-4 (pbk).

External links

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

  • Hohhot government website (simplified Chinese)
  • Official website
  • Hohhot travel guide from Wikivoyage
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.