Year

Name

Rationale

Notes

1902

Thomson, Joseph JohnJoseph John Thomson

"for his numerous contributions to electric science, especially in reference to the phenomena of electric discharge in gases"

^{[3]}

1903

Hittorf, Johann WilhelmJohann Wilhelm Hittorf

"for his long continued experimental researches on the electric discharge in liquids and gases"

^{[4]}

1904

Swan, JosephJoseph Swan

"for his invention of the incandescent lamp, and his other inventions and improvements in the practical applications of electricity"

^{[5]}

1905

Righi, AugustoAugusto Righi

"for his experimental researches in electrical science, including electric vibrations"

^{[6]}

1906

Ayrton, HerthaHertha Ayrton

"for her experimental investigations on the electric arc, and also on sand ripples"

^{[7]}

1907

Griffiths, Ernest HowardErnest Howard Griffiths

"for his contributions to exact physical measurement"

^{[8]}

1908

Goldstein, EugenEugen Goldstein

"for his discoveries on the nature of electric discharge in rarefied gasses"

^{[9]}

1909

Glazebrook, RichardRichard Glazebrook

"for his researches on electrical standards"

^{[10]}^{[11]}

1910

Fleming, John AmbroseJohn Ambrose Fleming

"for his researches in electricity and electrical measurements"

^{[12]}

1911

Wilson, CharlesCharles Wilson

"for his work on nuclei in dustfree air, and his work on ions in gases and atmospheric electricity"

^{[13]}

1912

Duddell, WilliamWilliam Duddell

"for his investigations in technical electricity"

^{[14]}

1913

Bell, Alexander GrahamAlexander Graham Bell

"for his share in the invention of the telephone, and more especially the construction of the telephone receiver"

^{[15]}

1914

Townsend, John SealyJohn Sealy Townsend

"for his researches on electric induction in gases"

^{[16]}

1915

Langevin, PaulPaul Langevin

"for his important contributions to, and preeminent position in, electrical science"

^{[17]}

1916

Thomson, ElihuElihu Thomson

"for his researches in experimental electricity"

^{[18]}

1917

Barkla, CharlesCharles Barkla

"for his researches in connexion with Xray radiation"

^{[19]}

1918

Langmuir, IrvingIrving Langmuir

"for his researches in molecular physics"

^{[20]}

1919

Chree, CharlesCharles Chree

"for his researches in terrestrial magnetism"

^{[21]}

1920

Richardson, OwenOwen Richardson

"for his work in experimental physics, and especially thermionics"

^{[22]}

1921

Bohr, NielsNiels Bohr

"for his research in theoretical physics"

^{[23]}

1922

, Francis William AstonFrancis William Aston

"for his discovery of isotopes of a large number of the elements by the method of positive rays"

^{[24]}

1923

Millikan, RobertRobert Millikan

"for his determination of the electronic charge and of other physical constants"

^{[25]}

1924

zzzzNot awarded

—

—

1925

Smith, Frank EdwardFrank Edward Smith

"for his determination of fundamental electrical units and for researches in technical electricity"

^{[26]}

1926

Jackson, HenryHenry Jackson

"for his pioneer work in the scientific investigations of radiotelegraphy and its application to navigation"

^{[27]}

1927

Coolidge, WilliamWilliam Coolidge

"for his work on the Xrays and the development of highly efficient apparatus for their production"

^{[28]}

1928

Broglie, Maurice deMaurice de Broglie

"for his work on Xray spectra"

^{[29]}

1929

Geiger, HansHans Geiger

"for his invention and development of methods of counting alpha and beta particles"

^{[30]}

1930

Raman, Chandrasekhara VenkataChandrasekhara Venkata Raman

"for his studies on the abnormal scattering of light"

^{[31]}

1931

Bragg, William LawrenceWilliam Lawrence Bragg

"for his pioneer work on the elucidation of crystal structure by Xray analysis"

^{[32]}

1932

Chadwick, JamesJames Chadwick

"for his researches on radioactivity"

^{[33]}

1933

Appleton, Edward VictorEdward Victor Appleton

"for his researches into the effect of the Heaviside layer upon the transmission of wireless signals"

^{[34]}

1934

Siegbahn, ManneManne Siegbahn

"for his work as a physicist and technician on longwave Xrays"

^{[35]}

1935

Davisson, ClintonClinton Davisson

"for his research that resulted in the discovery of the physical existence of electron waves through longcontinued investigations on the reflection of electrons from the crystal planes of nickel and other metals"

^{[36]}

1936

Schottky, Walter H.Walter H. Schottky

"for his discovery of the Schrot Effect in thermionic emission and his invention of the screengrid tetrode and a superheterodyne method of receiving wireless signals"

^{[37]}

1937

Lawrence, ErnestErnest Lawrence

"for his work on the development of the cyclotron and its application to investigations of nuclear disintegration"

^{[38]}

1938

Cockcroft, JohnJohn Cockcroft and Walton, ErnestErnest Walton

"for their discovery that nuclei could be disintegrated by artificially produced bombarding particles"

^{[39]}

1939

Thomson, George PagetGeorge Paget Thomson

"for his important discoveries in connexion with the diffraction of electrons by matter"

^{[40]}

1940

Compton, ArthurArthur Compton

"for his discovery of the Compton Effect; and for his work on cosmic rays"

^{[41]}

1941

Mott, NevillNevill Mott

"for his fertile application of the principles of quantum theory to many branches of physics, especially in the fields of nuclear and collision theory, in the theory of metals and in the theory of photographic emulsions"

^{[42]}

1942

Fermi, EnricoEnrico Fermi

"for his outstanding contributions to the knowledge of the electrical structure of matter, his work in quantum theory, and his experimental studies of the neutron"

—

1943

Oliphant, MarcusMarcus Oliphant

"for his distinguished work in nuclear physics and mastery of methods of generating and applying high potentials"

^{[43]}

1944

Finch, GeorgeGeorge Finch

"for his fundamental contributions to the study of the structure and properties of surfaces, and for his important work on the electrical ignition of gases"

^{[44]}

1945

Schonland, BasilBasil Schonland

"for his work on atmospheric electricity and of other physical researches"

^{[45]}

1946

Randall, JohnJohn Randall

"for his distinguished researches into fluorescent materials and into the production of high frequency electromagnetic radiation"

—

1947

JoliotCurie, FrédéricFrédéric JoliotCurie

"for his distinguished contributions to nuclear physics, particularly the discovery of artificial radioactivity and of neutron emission in the fission process"

^{[46]}

1948

WatsonWatt, RobertRobert WatsonWatt

"for his distinguished contributions to atmospheric physics and to the development of radar"

1949

Powell, CecilCecil Powell

"for his distinguished work on the photography of particle tracks, and in connexion with the discovery of mesons and their transformation"

^{[47]}

1950

Born, MaxMax Born

"for his contributions to theoretical physics in general and to the development of quantum mechanics in particular"

^{[48]}

1951

Kramers, HendrikHendrik Kramers

"for his distinguished work on the quantum theory, particularly its application to the optical and magnetic properties of matter"

—

1952

Dee, PhilipPhilip Dee

"particularly for his distinguished studies on the disintegration of atomic nuclei, particularly those using the Wilson cloud chamber technique"

—

1953

Bullard, EdwardEdward Bullard

"for his important contributions to the development, both theoretical and experimental, of the physics of the Earth"

^{[49]}

1954

Ryle, MartinMartin Ryle

"for his distinguished and original experimental researches in radio astronomy"

^{[50]}

1955

Massey, HarrieHarrie Massey

"for his distinguished contributions to atomic and molecular physics, particularly in regard to collisions involving the production and recombination of ions"

—

1956

Lindemann, FrederickFrederick Lindemann

"for his distinguished work in many fields: the melting point formula and theory of specific heats; ionisation of stars; meteors and temperature inversion in the stratosphere"

^{[51]}

1957

Proudman, JosephJoseph Proudman

"for his distinguished work on dynamical oceanography"

^{[52]}

1958

da Costa Andrade, EdwardEdward da Costa Andrade

"for his distinguished contributions to many branches of classical physics"

—

1959

Pippard, BrianBrian Pippard

"for his distinguished contributions in the field of low temperature physics"

—

1960

Pawsey, JosephJoseph Pawsey

"for his distinguished contributions to radio astronomy both in the study of solar and of cosmic ray emission"

—

1961

Cottrell, AlanAlan Cottrell

"for his distinguished work on the physical properties of metals, particularly in relation to mechanical deformation and to the effects of irradiation"

^{[53]}

1962

Bleaney, BrebisBrebis Bleaney

"for his distinguished studies of electrical and magnetic phenomena and their correlation with atomic and molecular properties"

^{[54]}

1963

Williams, FredericFrederic Williams

"for distinguished work on early computers"

—

1964

Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam

"for his distinguished contributions to quantum mechanics and the theory of fundamental particles"

^{[55]}

1965

Wilkinson, DenysDenys Wilkinson

"for his distinguished experimental and theoretical investigation in nuclear structure and high energy physics"

—

1966

Kemmer, NicholasNicholas Kemmer

"for his numerous discoveries of major importance in theoretical nuclear physics which he has made"

^{[56]}

1967

Mendelssohn, KurtKurt Mendelssohn

"for his distinguished contributions to cryophysics, especially his discoveries in superconductivity and superfluidity"

^{[57]}

1968

Dyson, FreemanFreeman Dyson

"for his distinguished fundamental work in theoretical physics, and especially on quantum electrodynamics"

^{[58]}

1969

Kurti, NicholasNicholas Kurti

"for his distinguished work in lowtemperature physics and in thermodynamics"

^{[59]}

1970

Bates, DavidDavid Bates

"for his distinguished contributions to theoretical atomic and molecular physics and its applications to atmospheric physics, plasma physics and astrophysics"

^{[60]}

1971

Brown, Robert HanburyRobert Hanbury Brown

"Robert Hanbury Brown, for his distinguished work in developing a new form of stellar interfrometer [sic], culminating in his observations of alpha virginis"

^{[61]}

1972

Josephson, Brian DavidBrian David Josephson

"particularly for his discovery of the remarkable properties of junctions between superconducting materials"

^{[62]}

1973

Hirsch, PeterPeter Hirsch

"for his distinguished contributions to the development of the electron microscope thin film technique for the study of crystal defects and its application to a very wide range of problems in materials science and metallurgy"

^{[63]}

1974

Fowler, PeterPeter Fowler

"for his outstanding contributions to cosmic ray and elementary particle physics"

^{[64]}

1975

Dalitz, RichardRichard Dalitz

"for his distinguished contributions to the theory of the basic particles of matter"

^{[65]}

1976

Hawking, StephenStephen Hawking

"for his distinguished contributions to the application of general relativity to astrophysics, especially to the behaviour of highly condensed matter"

^{[66]}

1977

Hewish, AntonyAntony Hewish

"for his outstanding contributions to radioastronomy, including the discovery and identification of pulsars"

^{[67]}

1978

Cochran, WilliamWilliam Cochran

"for his pioneering contributions to the science of Xray crystallography, in which his work has made a profound impact on its development and application, and for his original contributions to lattice dynamics and its relation to phase transitions, which stimulated a new and fruitful field of results"

^{[68]}

1979

Williams, Robert Joseph PatonRobert Joseph Paton Williams

"for his distinguished studies of the conformations of computer molecules in solution by the use of nuclear magnetic resonance"

^{[69]}

1980

Farley, FrancisFrancis Farley

"for his ultraprecise measurements of the muon magnetic moment, a severe test of quantum electrodynamics and of the nature of the muon"

—

1981

Higgs, PeterPeter Higgs and Kibble, TomTom Kibble

"for their international contributions about the spontaneous breaking of fundamental symmetries in elementaryparticle theory"

^{[70]}

1982

Matthews, DrummondDrummond Matthews and Vine, FrederickFrederick Vine

"for their elucidation of the magnetic properties of the ocean floors which subsequently led to the plate tectonic hypothesis"

^{[71]}

1983

Ward, JohnJohn Ward

"for his highly influential and original contributions to quantum field theory, particularly the Ward identity and the SalamWard theory of weak interactions"

^{[72]}

1984

Kerr, RoyRoy Kerr

"for his distinguished work on relativity, especially for his discovery of the socalled Kerr Black Hole, which has been very influential"

^{[73]}

1985

Skyrme, TonyTony Skyrme

"for his contributions to theoretical particle and nuclear physics, and his discovery that particlelike entities simulating the properties of baryons can occur in nonlinear meson field theories"

—

1986

Woolfson, MichaelMichael Woolfson

"for the creation of algorithms including MULTAN and SAYTAN which are used worldwide to solve the majority of reported crystal structures"

—

1987

Pepper, MichaelMichael Pepper

"for his many important experimental investigations into the fundamental properties of semiconductors especially lowdimensional systems, where he has elucidated some of their unusual properties like electron localization and the Quantum Hall effects"

—

1988

Howie, ArchibaldArchibald Howie and Whelan, M.J.M.J. Whelan

"for their contributions to the theory of electron diffraction and microscopy, and its application to the study of lattice defects in crystals"

—

1989

Bell, John StewartJohn Stewart Bell

"for his outstanding contributions to our understanding of the structure and interpretation of quantum theory, in particular demonstrating the unique nature of its predictions"

^{[74]}

1990

Cowling, Thomas GeorgeThomas George Cowling

"for his fundamental contributions to theoretical astrophysics including seminal theoretical studies of the role of electromagnetic induction in cosmic systems"

^{[75]}

1991

Moon, PhilipPhilip Moon

"for his contributions in three main areas of science — nuclear physics, the discovery of gammaray resonances, and the use of colliding molecular beams to study chemical reactions"

^{[76]}

1992

Seaton, MichaelMichael Seaton

"for his theoretical research in atomic physics and leadership of the Opacity Project"

^{[72]}

1993

Isaak, GeorgeGeorge Isaak

"for his pioneering use of resonant scattering techniques to make extremely precise measures of Doppler velocity shifts in the solar photosphere"

^{[77]}

1994

Chambers, Robert G.Robert G. Chambers

"for his many contributions to solidstate physics, in particular his ingenious and technically demanding experiment which verified the AhoronovBohm effect concerning the behaviour of charged particles in magnetic fields"

—

1995

Shoenberg, DavidDavid Shoenberg

"for his work on the electronic structure of solids, in particular by exploiting low temperature techniques, particularly the De Haas Van Alphen effect, defining the Fermi surface of many metals"

—

1996

Buckingham, AmyandAmyand Buckingham

"for his contributions to chemical physics, in particular to longrange intermolecular forces, nonlinear optics, problems related to the polarizability of the helium atom, the interpretation of NMR spectra, and the applications of ab initio computations"

^{[78]}

1997

Lang, AndrewAndrew Lang

"for his fundamental work on Xray diffraction physics and for his developments of the techniques of Xray topography, in particular in studying defects in crystal structures"

^{[79]}

1998

Hide, RaymondRaymond Hide

"for his distinguished experimental and theoretical investigations of the hydrodynamics of rotating fluids and the application of such basic studies to the understanding of motions in the atmosphere and interiors of the major planets"

^{[80]}

1999

Boksenberg, AlexanderAlexander Boksenberg

"for his landmark discoveries concerning the nature of active galactic nuclei, the physics of the intergalactic medium and of the interstellar gas in primordial galaxies. He is noted also for his exceptional contributions to the development of astronomical instrumentation including the Image Photon Counting System, a revolutionary electronic area detector for the detection of faint sources, which gave a major impetus to optical astronomy in the United Kingdom"

^{[81]}

2000

Rao, ChintamaniChintamani Rao

"for his contributions to the field of materials chemistry, in particular, in relation to studies of the electronic and magnetic properties of transition metal oxides and high temperature superconductors. His work has been an inspiration to a generation of Indian scientists"

^{[82]}

2001

Pethica, JohnJohn Pethica

"for his contributions to the field of nanometre and atomic scale mechanics. He invented and developed the technique of nanoindentation thereby revolutionising the mechanical characterisation of ultrasmall volumes of materials. This has had a major influence on those industries concerned with thin film and coating technologies"

^{[83]}

2002

Dalgarno, AlexanderAlexander Dalgarno

"for his contributions to the theory of atomic and molecular process, and in particular its application to astrophysics. His studies of energy depositions provide the key to understanding emissions from terrestrial aurorae, planetary atmospheres and comets"

—

2003

Edwards, PeterPeter Edwards

"for his distinguished work as a solid state chemist. He has made seminal contributions to fields including superconductivity and the behaviour of metal nanoparticles, and has greatly advanced our understanding of the phenomenology of the metalinsulator transition"

^{[84]}

2004

Clarke, JohnJohn Clarke

"for his outstanding research, leading the world in the invention, building and development of innovative new Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUID), in their theory and in their application to a plethora of fundamental problems and their investigative tools"

—

2005

Moffatt, KeithKeith Moffatt

"for his contributions to the understanding of magnetohydrodynamics, especially to the mechanisms determining how magnetic fields can develop from a low background level to substantial amplitude"

^{[85]}

2006

Kelly, MichaelMichael Kelly

"for his work in the fundamental physics of electron transport and the creation of practical electronic devices which can be deployed in advanced systems"

—

2007

Ekert, ArturArtur Ekert

"for his pioneering work on quantum cryptography and his many important contributions to the theory of quantum computation and other branches of quantum physics"

^{[86]}

2008

Dougherty, MicheleMichele Dougherty

"for innovative use of magnetic field data that led to discovery of an atmosphere around one of Saturn's moons and the way it revolutionised our view of the role of planetary moons in the Solar System"

—

2010

Geim, AndreAndre Geim

"for his revolutionary discovery of graphene, and elucidation of its remarkable properties"

^{[87]}

2011

Rosseinsky, MatthewMatthew Rosseinsky

"for his influential discoveries in the synthetic chemistry of solid state electronic materials and novel microporous structures"

^{[88]}

2013

Sirringhaus, HenningHenning Sirringhaus

"for his pioneering development of inkjet printing processes for organic semiconductor devices, and dramatic improvement of their functioning and efficiency"

^{[89]}
