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Hulunbuir

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Hulunbuir

Hulunbuir
呼伦贝尔市 · ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠨᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Prefecture-level city
Hulunbuir (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Hulunbuir (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Hulunbuir is located in Inner Mongolia
Hulunbuir
Location of the city centre in Inner Mongolia
Coordinates:
Country People's Republic of China
Region Inner Mongolia
Municipal seat Hailar District
Area
 • Total 263,953 km2 (101,913 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Total 2,549,278
 • Density 9.7/km2 (25/sq mi)
 • Major nationalities Han - 81.85%
Mongols - 8.6%
Manchu - 4.13%
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 021000
Area code(s) 0470
Website .cn.govhlbe
Hulunbuir
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 呼伦贝尔
Traditional Chinese 呼倫貝爾
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Хөлөнбуйр хот
Mongolian script ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ

Hulunbuir or Hūlúnbèi'ěr (Mongolian: ᠬᠥᠯᠥᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ Kölön Buyir qota; Chinese: 呼伦贝尔市, Hūlúnbèiěr) is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city in northeastern Inner Mongolia, in the People's Republic of China. Its administrative center is located at Hailar District, its largest urban area. Major scenic features are the high steppes of the Hulun Buir grasslands, the Hulun and Buir lakes (the latter partially in Mongolia), and the Khingan range. Hulun Buir borders Russia to the north and west, Mongolia to the south and west, Heilongjiang province to the east and Hinggan League to the direct south. Hulunbuir is a linguistically diverse area: next to Mandarin Chinese, Mongolian dialects such as Khorchin and Buryat, the Mongolic language Dagur and some Tungusic languages are spoken there.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Names 2
  • Administrative subdivisions 3
  • Geography and climate 4
  • Demographics 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8

History

During the Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), Hulunbuir was part of the Liaodong Commandery.[1] During the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912), Hulunbuir was part of Heilongjiang province. The 1858 Treaty of Aigun established today's approximate Sino-Russian border, at a great loss to Heilongjiang's territory. In 1901, the Chinese Eastern Railway linked Hulunbuir to the rest of northeast China and to Russian Far East. From 1912-1949, during the Republic of China (ROC) period, Hulunbuir was part of Xing'an and Heilongjiang provinces. A treaty between the Russian Empire and the ROC on November 7/October 24, 1915 designated Hulunbuir a "special" region under Chinese sovereignty, but in practice Russia had partial control over day-to-day administration. In 1929, the Soviet Union broke this agreement and invaded Hulunbuir.[2] After the Japanese occupation of China, Hulunbuir became part of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo, which was not recognized by the Chinese. In the Chinese Civil War, the Communist Party of China gained the support of Inner Mongol leaders like Ulanhu by promising the irredentist expansion of Inner Mongolia into areas that had majorities of Han and Manchu peoples.[3]

After the 1949 Communist revolution, Hulunbuir was annexed into Inner Mongolia, but the region kept economic ties to the rest of the northeast via the Chinese Eastern Railway.[4] During the Cultural Revolution, the parts of historical Manchuria inside Inner Mongolia were briefly restored to their original provinces; Hulunbuir was given back to Heilongjiang from 1969 to 1979.[4] Until October 10, 2001, Hulunbuir was administered as a League. The area is 263,953 km2 (101,913 sq mi) and had a population of 2.710 million in 2004, while the gross domestic product was RMB 21.326 billion. The jurisdiction area of the city is larger than all but 8 Chinese province-level divisions (and 42 U.S. states), although the actual urban agglomeration is just a very small part of the region, and the average population density of the area is very low.

Names

The city was once a league () of Inner Mongolia, until 10 October 2001. During the Qing Dynasty, it was known in Mandarin as Hūlúnbùyǔ'ěr (simplified Chinese: 呼伦布雨尔; traditional Chinese: 呼倫布雨爾).

Administrative subdivisions

Hulunbuir is divided into 13 different county-level jurisdictions: one district, five county-level cities, four banners and three autonomous banners.

Map
Name Mongolian Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
Hailar District ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Qayilar toɣoriɣ)
海拉尔区 Hǎilā'ěr Qū 344,947 1,440 181
Jalainur District ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠢᠳᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Jalainaɣur toɣoriɣ)
扎赉诺尔区 Zhālàinuò'ěr Qū 97,000 272 357
Manzhouli City ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤᠤᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Manjuur qota)
满洲里市 Mǎnzhōulǐ Shì 152,473 424 360
Zhalantun City ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Jalan Ayil qota)
扎兰屯市 Zhālántún Shì 366,326 16,800 26
Yakeshi City ᠶᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Yaɣsi qota)
牙克石市 Yákèshí Shì 352,177 27,590 14
Genhe City ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Gegen Ɣool qota)
根河市 Gēnhé Shì 110,441 19,659 9
Ergun City ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
(Ergün-e qota)
额尔古纳市 É'ěrgǔnà Shì 76,667 28,000 3
Arun Banner ᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Arun qosiɣu)
阿荣旗 Āróng Qí 278,744 12,063 27
New Barag Right Banner ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Sin-e Barɣu Baraɣun qosiɣu)
新巴尔虎右旗 Xīnbā'ěrhǔ Yòu Qí 36,356 25,102 1
New Barag Left Banner ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Sin-e Barɣu Jegün qosiɣu)
新巴尔虎左旗 Xīnbā'ěrhǔ Zuǒ Qí 40,258 22,000 2
Old Barag Banner ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Qaɣučin Barɣu qosiɣu)
陈巴尔虎旗 Chénbā'ěrhǔ Qí 58,244 21,192 3
Oroqen Autonomous Banner ᠣᠷᠴᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Orčon-u öbertegen jasaqu qosiɣu)
鄂伦春自治旗 Èlúnchūn Zìzhìqí 223,752 59,800 5
Evenk Autonomous Banner ᠡᠸᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Eveŋki öbertegen jasaqu qosiɣu)
鄂温克族自治旗 Èwēnkèzú Zìzhìqí 134,981 19,111 7
Morin Dawa Daur Autonomous Banner ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Morin Dabaɣ-a Daɣur öbertegen jasaqu qosiɣu)
莫力达瓦达斡尔族自治旗 Mòlìdáwǎ Dáwò'ěrzú Zìzhìqí 276,912 10,500 30
Part of Oroqin Autonomous Banner is subordinate to Daxing'anling Prefecture in Heilongjiang.

Hulunbuir is the largest city-named administrative division in the world based on land surface area. [5]However, the continuous central urban and metropolitan area is limited to only Hailar District, which is almost 200 times smaller than prefecture-city boundary. Hulun Bur is the grassland area between the lakes Ulun, and Bur

Geography and climate

The city proper of Hulunbuir itself (Hailar) has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dwb) bordering on a subarctic climate (Köppen Dwc), although the northern part of the prefecture-level city is solidly subarctic. Winters are long, very dry and severe, due to the semi−permanent Siberian High, while summers are short, though very warm, and rather wet, due to the East Asian monsoon. At Hailar, the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −25.1 °C (−13.2 °F) in January to 20.0 °C (68 °F) in July, while the annual mean is −0.96 °C (30.3 °F). With at least 55% of possible sunshine in all months and an annual total greater than 2,700 hours, sunny weather dominates year-round. Approximately 70% of the annual rainfall occurs during the three summer months.


Demographics

ethnic group population in 2000 share
Han 2,199,645 81.85%
Mongols 231,276 8.6%
Manchu 111,053 4.13%
Daur 70,287 2.62%
Hui 30,950 1.15%
Evenks 25,418 0.95%
Koreans 8,355 0.31%
Russians 4,741 0.18%
Oroqen 3,144 0.12%
Xibe 956 0.04%
Other 1,403 0.05%

References

  1. ^ Tang, P. S. H. (1959). Russian and Soviet policy in Manchuria and Outer Mongolia 1911-1931. Durham, N.C. p.81
  2. ^ Tang, Peter SH. "Sino-Soviet Territorial Disputes: Past and Present." Russian Review (1969). p. 406.
  3. ^ Bulag, Uradyn (2005). "Inner Mongolia". In Rossabi, Morris. Governing China's Multiethnic Frontiers. University of Washington Press. pp. 90–91. 
  4. ^ a b Shabad, Theodore (1972). China's Changing Map: National and Regional Development, 1949-71. Taylor & Francis. pp. 237–239. 
  5. ^ http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-worlds-largest-city.htm
  6. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971−2000年) (in Chinese).  

Further reading

  • Jinri Nei Menggu: Hulun Bei'er 今日内蒙古: 呼伦贝尔 (Inner Mongolia today: Hulun Buir). 内蒙古人民出版社 (Inner Mongolia People's Publishing House), 呼和浩特 Hohhot 1997, ISBN 7-204-03545-3, 9+129 pages

Hulunbeier minzu wenwu kaogu daxi. Elunchun Zizhiqi juan = Hulunbuir Ethnic Cultural Relics and Archaeology Series. Oroqen Autonomous Banner. Beijing : Wenwu chubanshe, 2014. 255 p., ill. (chiefly col.), maps, biblio. ISBN 9787501039517.

Hulunbeier minzu wenwu kaogu yanjiu. Beijing : Kexue chubanshe, 2013-2014. viii, 538, viii, 537 p., ill., maps, biblio. ISBN 9787030393463, -4033.

Bökecilagu. Kölün Boyir-un sonirqal-ud. Qayilar : Ȯbȯr Mongġol-un Soyol-un Keblel-u̇n Qoriy-a, 1988. 2, 8, 217 p. ISBN 9787805060231.

Möngkedalai. Hulunbeier samanjiao yu lamajiao shilüe = Kölün Boyir-un böge-yin śasin kiged lama-yin śasin-u tobci teüke. Beijing : Minzu chubanshe, 2014. 5, 4, 545 p., ill., biblio., index. ISBN 9787105130573.

External links

  • Hulunbuir government website (in Chinese)
  • Inner Mongolian postcodes (in English)
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