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Hymn to Liberty

Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν
English: Hymn to Liberty or Hymn to Freedom
Ýmnos is tin Eleftherían
Dionysios Solomos, the author of the anthem

National anthem of
 Greece
 Cyprus

Lyrics Dionýsios Solomós, 1823
Music Nikolaos Mantzaros
Adopted 1865 by Greece[1]
1966 by Cyprus [2]
Music sample

The Hymn to Liberty or Hymn to Freedom[1] (Greek: Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν, Ýmnos is tin Eleftherían pronounced ) is a poem written by Dionýsios Solomós in 1823 that consists of 158 stanzas, which is used as the national anthem of Greece and Cyprus. It was set to music by Nikolaos Mantzaros, and is the longest national anthem in the world by length of text.[3] In 1865, the first three stanzas (and later the first two) officially became the national anthem of Greece and, from 1966, also that of the Republic of Cyprus.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Lyrics 2
    • Greek original 2.1
    • English translations 2.2
  • Uses 3
  • References and notes 4
  • External links 5

History

Dionysios Solomos wrote the anthem in 1823 in Zakynthos and one year later was printed in Missolonghi. The hymn was set to music in 1865 by the Corfiot operatic composer Nikolaos Mantzaros, who composed two choral versions, a long one for the whole poem and a short one for the first two stanzas; the latter is the one adopted as the National Anthem of Greece. The Greek anthem was adopted as the anthem of the Republic of Cyprus by order of the Council of Ministers in 1966.[4]

Lyrics

Inspired by the Greek War of Independence, Solomos wrote the hymn to honour the struggle of Greeks for independence after centuries of Ottoman rule.

The poet mentions the misery of the Greeks under the Ottomans and their hope for freedom. He describes different events of the War, such as the execution of Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople, the reaction of the Great Powers, extensively the Siege of Tripolitsa and the Christian character of the struggle.

Greek original

Original
Σὲ γνωρίζω ἀπὸ τὴν κόψι
Τοῦ σπαθιοῦ τὴν τρομερή,
Σὲ γνωρίζω ἀπὸ τὴν ὄψι,
Ποὺ μὲ βιὰ μετράει τὴν γῆ.
Ἀπ’ τὰ κόκκαλα βγαλμένη
Τῶν Ἑλλήνων τὰ ἱερά,
Καὶ σὰν πρῶτα ἀνδρειωμένη,
Χαῖρε, ὢ χαῖρε, Ἐλευθεριά![5]
Transcription
Romanization of Greek
Se gnorízo apó tin kópsi
tou spathioú tin tromerí,
se gnorízo apó tin ópsi,
pou me via metrái tin gi.
Ap' ta kókkala vgalméni
ton Hellínon ta hierá,
ke san próta andrioméni,
Khére, o Khére, eleftheriá![5]

English translations

Literal
I recognize you by the fearsome sharpness,
of your sword,
I recognize you by your face
that violently defines the land(i.e. the land's borders).
From the sacred bones,
of the Hellenes arisen,
and valiant again as you once were,
hail, o hail, Liberty![5]
Poetic
I shall always recognize you
by the dreadful sword you hold
as the Earth with searching vision
you survey with spirit bold
From the Greeks of old whose dying
brought to life and spirit free
now with ancient valour rising
let us hail you, oh Liberty![5]
Rudyard Kipling (1918)
We knew thee of old,
O, divinely restored,
By the lights of thine eyes,
And the light of thy Sword.
From the graves of our slain,
Shall thy valour prevail,
As we greet thee again,
Hail, Liberty! Hail![5]

Uses

An adapted version was used during the short-lived Cretan State as the Cretan Anthem. The Hymn to Liberty has been the Greek Royal Anthem since 1864.

The Constitution of Cyprus (1960) does not proclaim a national anthem. The two communities later agreed, in official circumstances, that a piece of classical music should be played in lieu of the anthem. However, after rejecting the amended Constitution proposed by Makarios in 1963, the Turkish representation broke away from the government of the Republic of Cyprus; there followed a period of intercommunal violence. The Council of Ministers subsequently decided to adopt the Hymn to Liberty as the official anthem of Cyprus on 16 November 1966.[2]

This anthem has been performed at every closing ceremony of the Olympic Games, to pay tribute to Greece as the birthplace of the Olympic Games. The version commonly played by military bands was composed by Lieutenant Colonel Margaritis Kastellis (1907–1979), former director of the Greek Music Corps.[6]

References and notes

  1. ^ a b "The National Anthem". www.presidency.gr. Archived from the original on April 10, 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Presidency of the Republic of Cyprus - The National Anthem". Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  3. ^ "Greece - Hymn to Liberty". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  4. ^ "National Anthem". Retrieved 3 June 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Last two verses are repeated twice when singing the national anthem.
  6. ^ "National Anthem". Hellenic Army Academy. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 

External links

  • Full version of the Hymn at YouTube
  • The Greek Presidency - The website for the Presidency of the Hellenic Republic has a page about the National Anthem, including an instrumental file.
  • Michał Bzinkowski, Eleuthería ē Thánatos!: The idea of freedom in modern Greek poetry during the war of independence in 19th century. Dionysios Solomos’ “Hymn to Liberty”
  • Neugriechische Volksgesänge, Johann Matthias Firmenich
  • The Hymn with all 158 stanzas (in Greek)
  • The Hymn with all 158 stanzas (in English)
  • From the Official Website of the Greek Presidential Guard
  • The Greek national Anthem (in Greek)
  • The Greek national Anthem (in mp3)
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