World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi

Article Id: WHEBN0004146026
Reproduction Date:

Title: Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Indian Independence Movement, Urdu literature, Pakistan Movement, Congress Radio, 1907 Punjab unrest
Collection: 1888 Births, 1963 Deaths, 20Th-Century Philosophers, Alumni of Christ's College, Cambridge, Alumni of the University of Cambridge, Anti-Poverty Advocates, Forman Christian College Alumni, Indian Expatriates in the United Kingdom, Indian Humanitarians, Indian Independence Activists, Indian Logicians, Indian Philosophers, Indian Prisoners and Detainees, Indian Revolutionaries, Islamia College University Faculty, Islamic Studies Scholars, Muslim Reformers, Pakistan Movement, Pakistani Humanitarians, Pakistani Logicians, Pakistani Mathematicians, Pakistani Philosophers, Pakistani Politicians, Pakistani Scholars, Pakistani Sunni Muslims, People from Amritsar, People from Lahore, Punjabi People, University of the Punjab Alumni, Urdu Literature, Urdu-Language Writers, World War II Political Leaders
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi

Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi
Born (1888-08-25)25 August 1888
Amritsar, Punjab, British India
Died 27 August 1963(1963-08-27) (aged 75)
Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Other names Allama Mashriqi
Alma mater University of the Punjab
Christ's College, Cambridge
Organization Khaksar movement
Movement Indian independence movement
Pakistan Movement
Religion Islam

Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi, also known as Allama Mashriqi, (25 August 1888 – 27 August 1963) was a Pakistani mathematician, logician, political theorist, Islamic scholar and the founder of the Khaksar movement.

Mashriqi was a noted mathematical intellectual who became a college Principal at the age of 25, and then became an Under Secretary, at the age of 29, in the Education Department of the Government of India. He wrote an exegesis of the Qur'an which was nominated for the 1925 Nobel Prize. He was offered an ambassadorship to Afghanistan at age 32, but he declined all honours.

He subsequently resigned government service and in 1930 founded the Khaksar Movement, aiming to advance the condition of the masses irrespective of any faith, sect, or religion.[1] As its leader, he was imprisoned several times. Through his philosophical writings, he asserted that the science of religions was essentially the science of collective evolution of mankind.


  • Education 1
  • Career 2
    • Nobel nomination 2.1
    • Fellowships 2.2
  • Mashriqi's philosophy 3
  • Political life 4
  • Imprisonments and allegations 5
  • Death 6
  • Mashriqi's works 7
    • Edited works 7.1
  • See also 8
  • References 9


Mashriqi had a passion for mathematics from his childhood.[1] He completed his Master's degree in Mathematics from the University of the Punjab at the age of 19 and broke all previous records. In October 1907 he matriculated at Christ's College, Cambridge, England, to read for the mathematics tripos. He was awarded a college foundation scholarship in May 1908.[2] In June 1909 he was awarded first class honours in Mathematics Part I, being placed joint 27th out of 31 on the list of wranglers.[3] For the next two years, he read for the oriental languages tripos in parallel to the natural sciences tripos, gaining first class honours in the former and third class in the latter.[4][5]

After three years' residence at Cambridge he had qualified for his Bachelor of Arts degree, which he took in 1910. In 1912 he completed a fourth tripos in mechanical sciences, and was placed in the second class. Following the year, Mashriqi was conferred with DPhil in mathematics receiving a gold medal in his doctoral graduation ceremony.[6] He left Cambridge and returned to India in December 1912.[7] During his stay in Cambridge his religious and scientific conviction was inspired by the works and concepts of the professor Sir James Jeans.[8]


On his return to India, Mashriqi was offered the premiership of

  1. ^ a b c S. Shabbir Hussain, Al-Mashriqi: The Disowned Genius, Lahore, Jang Publishers, 1991
  2. ^ The Times, 23 June 1908, page 12.
  3. ^ The Times, 16 June 1909, page 9.
  4. ^ The Times,17 June 1911, page 6.
  5. ^ M. Aslam Malik,Allama Inayatullah Mashraqi, page 3.
  6. ^ The Times, 13 June 1912, page 7
  7. ^ M. Aslam Malik,Allama Inayatullah Mashraqi, page 4.
  8. ^ a b c d S. Shabbir Hussain (ed.), God, Man, and Universe, Akhuwat Publications, Rawalpindi, 1980
  9. ^ Hira Lal Seth, The Khaksar Movement Under Search Light And the Life Story of Its Leader Allama Mashriqi (Hero Publications, 1946), p 16
  10. ^ Shan Muhammed, Khaksar Movement in India, Pub. Meenakshi Prakashan, Meerut, 1973
  11. ^ M.Aslam Malik,Allama Inayatullah Mashraqi
  12. ^ Allama Mashriqi – a great genius, Pak Tribune, 11 July 2006. (accessed on 30 November 2006)
  13. ^ Markus Daeschel, Scientism and its discontents: The Indo-Muslim "Fascism" of Inayatullah Khan Al-Mashriqi, Modern Intellectual History, 3: pp. 443–472, Cambridge University Press. 2006
  14. ^ Khaksar Tehrik Ki Jiddo Juhad Volume 1. Author Khaksar Sher Zaman
  15. ^ Jinnah of Pakistan, Calendar of events, 1943. Accessed on 2 March 2007
  16. ^ Akbar A. Peerbhoy, Jinnah Faces An Assassin, Bombay: Thacker & Co., 1943
  17. ^ Obituary, The Times, 29 August 1963


See also

  • God, man, and universe: as conceived by a mathematician (works of Inayatullah Khan el-Mashriqi), Akhuwat Publications, Rawalpindi, 1980 (edited by Syed Shabbir Hussain).

Edited works

  • Armughan-i-Hakeem, a poetical work
  • Dahulbab, a poetical work
  • Isha’arat, the "Bible" of the Khaksar movement
  • Khitab-e-Misr (The Egypt Address), based on his 1925 speech in Cairo as a delegate to the Motmar-e-Khilafat
  • Maulvi Ka Ghalat Mazhab
  • Tazkirah Volume I, 1924, discussions on conflicts between religions, between religion and science, and the need to resolve these conflicts
  • Tazkirah Volume II. Posthumously published in 1964
  • Tazkirah Volume III.

Mashriqi's prominent works include:

Mashriqi's works

Mashriqi died on 27 August 1963.


[17] In 1957 Mashriqi allegedly led 300,000 of his followers to the borders of

In Pakistan, Mashriqi was imprisoned at least five times: in 1950 prior to election; in 1958 for alleged complicity in the murder of republican leader Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan; and, in 1962 for suspicion on attempt to overthrow President Ayub's government. However, none of the charges were proved, and he was acquitted in each case.[8]

On 20 July 1943, an assassination attempt was made on Muhammad Ali Jinnah by Rafiq Sabir who was assumed to be a Khaksar worker.[15] The attack was deplored by Mashriqi, who denied any involvement. Later, Justice Blagden of Bombay High Court, in his ruling on 4 November 1943 dismissed any association of Khaksars.[16]

Mashriqi was first imprisoned in 1939, by the Congress Government of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (now Uttar Pradesh) during his efforts in resolving the sectarian conflicts between Sunnis and Shias. In 1940, he was arrested during a clash between the police and the Khaksars. The newspapers reported it as the "battle of spades and guns". He was only freed from solitary confinement in 1942 after he fasted for 80 days.

Imprisonments and allegations

He founded Al-Islah in 1934.

Al-Islah (Khaksar Tehrik weekly)

After Mashriqi resigned from government service, he laid the foundation of the Khaksar Tehrik (also known as Khaksar Movement) in 1930.[14] Mashriqi was opposed to the partition of India which he believed played into the hands of the British.

Mashriqi is often portrayed as a controversial figure, a religious activist, a revolutionary, and an anarchist; while at the same time he is described as a visionary, a reformer, a leader, and a scientist-philosopher who was born ahead of his time.[1]

Political life

It was on this basis that he declared that the science of religions was essentially the science of collective evolution of mankind; all prophets came to unite mankind, not to disrupt it; the basic law of all faiths is the law of unification and consolidation of the entire humanity.[8] According to Markus Daeschel, the philosophical ruminations of Mashriqi offer an opportunity to re-evaluate the meaning of colonial modernity and notion of post-colonial nation-building in modern times.[13]

He delved into the religious scriptures and arrived at the conclusion that all the prophets had brought the same message to man. He analysed the fundamentals of the Message and established that the teachings of all the prophets were closely linked with the evolution of mankind as a single and united species in contrast to other ignorant and stagnant species of animals.

Mashriqi was interested in the conflict within various religions. Instead of getting disgusted with the conflict and discarding religion, he tried to fathom the fallacy. To him, messengers from the same Creator could not have brought different and conflicting messages to the same creation. He could not conceive of a contradictory and conflicting state of affairs in the Universe, nor could he accept the conflict within various religions as real. Either Religion was a fraud and the prophets were impostors who misguided and disrupted mankind, or they were misprojected by their followers and misunderstood by the mankind.

Mashriqi's philosophy

  • Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, 1923
  • Fellow of the Geographical Society (F.G.S), Paris
  • Fellow of Society of Arts (F.S.A), Paris
  • Member of the Board at Delhi University
  • President of the Mathematical Society, Islamia College, Peshawar
  • Member of the International Congress of Orientalists (Leiden), 1930
  • President of the All World's Faiths Conference, 1937

Mashriqi's fellowships included:[8]


In 1924, at the age of 36, Mashriqi completed the first volume of his book, Tazkirah. It is a commentary on the Qur'an in the light of science. It was nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1925,[11] subject to the condition it was translated into one of the European languages. Mashriqi, however, declined the suggestion of translation.[12]

Nobel nomination

In 1930 he was passed over for a promotion in the government service, following which he went on medical leave. In 1932 he resigned, taking his pension, and settled down in Ichhra, Lahore.[10]

Aged 32, he was offered an ambassadorship to Afghanistan, which he declined.

He became headmaster of the High School, Peshawar on 21 October 1919. [9]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.